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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Nov 2011
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Sep 2011
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 16, Issue 3 - May 2011
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Mar 2011
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
MPEG Audio New Standard: USAC Technology
Lee, Tae-Jin ; Kang, Kyeong-Ok ; Kim, Whan-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 693~704
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.693
As mobile devices become multi-functional, and converge into a single platform, there is a strong need for a codec that is able to provide consistent quality for speech and music contents. MPEG-D USAC standardization activities started at the 82nd MPEG meeting with a CfP and approved Study on DIS at the 96th MPEG meeting. MPEG-D USAC is converged technology of AMR-WB+ and HE-AAC V2. Specifically, USAC utilizes three core codecs (AAC, ACELP, and TCX) for low frequency regions, SBR for high frequency regions, the MPEG Surround for stereo information, and window transition technology for smoothing transition between various core coder. USAC can provide consistent sound quality for both speech and music contents and can be applied to various applications such as multi-media download to mobile devices, digital radio, mobile TV and audio books.
Performance Evaluation of the MPEG USAC According to the Spectral Band Replication Bandwidth
An, Kyung-Jun ; Jung, Yoo-Sun ; Beack, Seung-Kwon ; Kang, Kyeong-Ok ; Kim, Rin-Chul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 705~713
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.705
This paper deals with the effect of SBR bandwidth on the overall performance of the MPEG USAC. Here, the SBR bandwidth is termed the frequency region covered by the SBR codec, and is specified by the bs_stop_freq, which is one of the SBR bitstream components. The performance of the USACs with 5 different SBR bandwidths are compared in a subjective manner using the MUSHRA test. In the comparison, the bit rate is confined to 14~24kbps and only the LPD unit is selected for the core codec. From the comparison, it is observed that the SBR bandwidth that stretches up to 18KHz or above gives the better performance than the others.
Channel Expansion Technology in MPEG Audio
Pang, Hee-Suk ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 714~721
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.714
MPEG audio uses the masking effect, high frequency component synthesis based on spectral band replication, and channel expansion based on parametric stereo for efficient compression of audio signals. In this paper, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art channel expansion technology in MPEG audio. We also present technical overviews and application examples to broadcasting services for HE-AAC v.2, MPEG Surround, spatial audio object coding (SAOC), and unified speech and audio coding (USAC) which are MPEG audio codecs based on the channel expansion technology.
Estimation of De-jitter Buffering Time for MPEG-2 TS Based Progressive Streaming over IP Networks
Seo, Kwang-Deok ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Jung, Soon-Heung ; Yoo, Jeong-Ju ; Jeong, Young-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 722~737
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.722
In this paper, we propose an estimation of network jitter that occurs when transmitting TCP packets containing MPEG-2 TS in progressive streaming service over wired or wireless Internet networks. Based on the estimated network jitter size, we can calculate required de-jitter buffering time to absorb the network jitter at the receiver side. For this purpose, by exploiting the PCR timestamp existing in the TS packet header, we create a new timestamp information that is marked in the optional field of TCP packet header to estimate the network jitter. By using the proposed de-jitter buffering scheme, it is possible to employ the conventional T-STD buffer model without any modification in the progressive streaming service over IP networks. The proposed method can be applicable to the recently developed international standard, MPEG DASH (dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP) technology.
Research of QoS Control for Standardization on Real-time Multimedia Service Using MAC/PHY Feedback
Kim, Min-Geon ; Kim, Jun-Oh ; Suh, Doug-Young ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 738~749
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.738
In this paper, we study QoS(Quality of Service) control protocols and the effect using MAC/PHY parameters of client device in mobile network. We proposes the way of controling the bit-rate by estimating the channel condition of the client with measured MAC/PHY parameters which is sent from the client. With the proposed method, more accurate available bit-rate can be estimated compared to conventional protocol, RTCP(Real-time Transport Control Protocol). The accurate bit-rate estimation can decrease wasted bit-rate and transport delay. In the result of the advantages, the transported video quality can be enhanced. In this paper, we show the effects of enhancement using client's the field data measured in WiMAX.
Extension of MPEG-2 TS and MPEG-C Part 3 for Higher Quality Stereoscopic Video Broadcasting Service
Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Lee, Gil-Bok ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ; Cheong, Won-Sik ; Yun, Kug-Jin ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 750~761
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.750
Currently, 3DTV technologies are being developed as the future services of the HD digital broadcast environment. As one of the various research topics to apply 3DTV technologies to the conventional broadcasting network, methods to configure stereoscopic videos are being studied. In this paper, we proposed a method to broadcast high quality stereoscopic videos based on analysis of a method to add a stereoscopic descriptor to the PMT of MPEG-2 transport streams and a method to transmit stereoscopic videos by the expansion of MPEG-C part 3 which are from precedent studies. The proposed technique maintains compatibility with conventional MPEG-2 transport streams by showing only reference video for models that do not support 3D broadcasting. Therefore, the compatibility between conventional broadcasting and stereoscopic videos should make this method useful when activating 3D services in the communications and broadcasting area
LCU-Level Rate Control for HEVC Considering Hierarchical Coding Structure
Park, Dong-Il ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Lim, Sung-Chang ; Kim, Jong-Ho ; Kim, Hui-Yong ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 762~772
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.762
In this paper, a method of rate control for constant bitrate (CBR) coding of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is addressed. The existing rate control of H.264/AVC may not provide exact rate control in the case of hierarchical coding structure since it doesn't consider the characteristics of the hierarchical coding structure. It is expected that a rate control is added to the reference software called HM for CBR encoding in the near future. More accurate rate control may be required in a hierarchical structure of random access (RA) mode defined in the common test condition of HM. In this paper, we propose a method of rate control based on quadratic Rate-Distortion (R-D) model considering temporal layers and frame types in hierarchical coding structure for efficient rate control. In the consideration of the trade-off relationship between the bit fluctuation and the average PSNR, both of frame and coding unit (CU) are set as the basic unit of rate control. The performance of the proposed rate control method is verified by simulations along with the trade-off relationships for the both cases of basic unit.
Sensory Effect Authoring Tool for Sensible Media
Joo, Yong-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Kyun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 773~781
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.773
In this paper, a sensory effect authoring tool is introduced to effectively generate sensory effect metadata for sensible media. Sensible media manifests sensory effects in the media to real world by stimulating sensory organs of human. It is emerging as a new media to enhance the user's immersion towards media. For the successful deployment of the sensible media industry, an effective authoring tool is required to provide easy authoring of sensory effect metadata. The result of the authoring tool design and development based on MPEG-V(ISO/IEC 23005-3) International Standard is presented in this paper.
Fast Hybrid Transform: DCT-II/DFT/HWT
Xu, Dan-Ping ; Shin, Dae-Chol ; Duan, Wei ; Lee, Moon-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 782~792
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.782
In this paper, we address a new fast DCT-II/DFT/HWT hybrid transform architecture for digital video and fusion mobile handsets based on Jacket-like sparse matrix decomposition. This fast hybrid architecture is consist of source coding standard as MPEG-4, JPEG 2000 and digital filtering discrete Fourier transform, and has two operations: one is block-wise inverse Jacket matrix (BIJM) for DCT-II, and the other is element-wise inverse Jacket matrix (EIJM) for DFT/HWT. They have similar recursive computational fashion, which mean all of them can be decomposed to Kronecker products of an identity Hadamard matrix and a successively lower order sparse matrix. Based on this trait, we can develop a single chip of fast hybrid algorithm architecture for intelligent mobile handsets.
DC Offset Adjusted Inter Prediction Algorithm for Improving H.264/AVC Video Coding Efficiency
Yoon, Dae-Il ; Kim, Hae-Kwang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 793~796
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.793
H.264/AVC compresses video data by applying DCT transform, quantization and entropy coding processes to the residual signal obtained by inter/intra prediction. This paper proposes a method enhancing an existing DC offset adjustment technology which uses information of neighboring blocks to reduce residual information for improving coding efficiency. DC offset information is not sent over bitstreams, but calculated in the same way both in the decoder and in the encoder. Experimental results show that the proposed method enhances coding efficiency by 0.25% in average BD-Rate compared to H.264/AVC and gives better or worse coding efficiency compared to the existing DC offset method depending on video sequences with coding efficiency degradation by 0.09% in average BD-Rate. This experimental results also show that further coding efficiency improvement is possible by applying the proposed method adaptively to slice or macroblock coding units.
Channel Estimation and Prediction in Cross-Layer Design Using Side-information
Cho, Yong-Ju ; Cha, Ji-Hun ; Kim, Wook-Joong ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 797~800
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.797
The objective of MPEG Media Transport (MMT), which is on going standard, is to develop efficient delivery of media over packet based networks in an adaptive, progressive, download/streaming fashion over various IP based networks, including terrestrial, satellite and cable broadcast networks. In this paper we introduce utilization of signal strength information based on Cross Layer Design(CLD) to efficient multimedia delivery over wireless network in which in practice the wireless conditions can vary significantly. Many recent studies have shown that a significant improvement in wireless video throughput can be achieved by utilizing signal strength information on CLD . Despite of its usefulness, however, it was difficult to employ signal strength information in rate adaptation applications due to different representation of signal strength information for each underlying wireless network. To that end, we proposed syntax and semantics of signal strength information in such a way that the information can be interpreted in the unified way. The proposed signal strength information was proposed for the MMT standardization.
High Performance Lossless Data Embedding Using a Moving Window
Kang, Ji-Hong ; Jin, Honglin ; Choe, Yoon-Sik ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 801~810
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.801
This paper proposes a new lossless data embedding algorithm on spatial domain of digital images. A single key parameter is required to embed and extract data in the algorithm instead of embedding any additional information such as the location map. A
window slides over the cover image by one pixel unit, and one bit can be embedded at each position of the window. So, the ideal embedding capacity equals to the number of pixels in an image. For further increase of embedding capacity, new weight parameters for the estimation of embedding target pixels have been used. As a result, significant increase in embedding capacity and better quality of the message-embedded image in high capacity embedding have been achieved. This algorithm is verified with simulations.
An Efficient Transmission Method of Panoramic Multimedia Contents in a Limited Bandwidth Environment
Kim, Byung-Chul ; Lee, Gun-Hee ; Lee, In-Jae ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 811~823
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.811
This paper proposes an efficient transmission method for the panoramic multimedia contents. The panoramic video provides wide sight and various view-point to the user. The traditional methods of the panoramic multimedia content transmission has several limitations, as follow; A client suffers a long initial delay time to play a panoramic video when it is transmitted through a limited bandwidth network, because the panoramic video has larger data size than a general video. And if a client's display device has limited resolution, such as mobile phone, laptop PC monitor, etc. it can not display the entire panoramic video that has a wide view video sequence. So, in order to overcome the obstacles, this paper proposes an efficient transmission of panoramic multimedia contents. This method will increase the transmission efficiency throughout the technique of the scene description in MPEG-4 system. Also we demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method by comparison with existing methods.
A Consideration for Field Strength Analysis Based on Rec. ITU-R P.1546 Applicable to ATV to DTV Conversion
Suh, Kyoung-Whoan ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 824~833
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.824
In this paper, using the Rec. ITU-R P.1546 explaining a propagation prediction model in the VHF and UHF bands, we propose the analytical methodology for calculating the service distance and field strength for analogue and digital TV receivers. From the derived formulation of the receiver field strength, some computation results are presented and discussed in terms of the equivalent level of service caused by analogue to digital TV conversion. The suggested method is also applicable to the analysis of frequency coordination or compatibility from unwanted signal in VHF and UHF bands.
Transmission Method and Simulator Development with Channel bonding for a Mass Broadcasting Service in HFC Networks
Shin, Hyun-Chul ; Lee, Dong-Yul ; You, Woong-Shik ; Choi, Dong-Joon ; Lee, Chae-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 834~845
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.834
Massive broadcasting contents such as UHD(Ultra High Definition) TV which requires multi-channel capacity for transmission has been introduced in recent years. A transmission scheme with channel bonding has been considered for transmission of massive broadcasting contents. In HFC(Hybrid Fiber Coaxial) networks, DOCSIS 3.0(Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification 3.0) has already applied channel bonding schemes for up/downstream of data service. A method unlike DOCSIS 3.0 is required to introduce a channel bonding scheme in the broadcasting service having unidirectional transmission with a downstream. Since a massive broadcasting content requires several channels for transmission, VBR(Variable Bit Rate) transmission has been emerging for the bandwidth efficiency. In addition, research on channel allocation and resource scheduling is required to guarantee QoS(Quality of Service) for the broadcasting service based on VBR. In this paper, we propose a transmission method for mass broadcasting service in HFC network and show the UHD transmission simulator developed to evaluate the performance. In order to evaluate the performance, we define various scenarios. Using the simulator, we assess the possibility of channel bonding and VBR transmission for UHD broadcasting system to provide mass broadcasting service efficiently. The developed simulator is expected to contribute to the efficient transmission system development of mass broadcasting service.
Enhancement of the 3D Sound's Performance using Perceptual Characteristics and Loudness
Koo, Kyo-Sik ; Cha, Hyung-Tai ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 846~860
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.846
The binaural auditory system of human has ability to differentiate the direction and the distance of the sound sources by using the information which are inter-aural intensity difference(IID), inter-aural time difference(ITD) and/or the spectral shape difference(SSD). These information is generated from the acoustical transfer of a sound source to pinna, the outer ears. We can create a virtual sound system using the information which is called Head related transfer function(HRTF). However the performance of 3D sound is not always satisfactory because of non-individual characteristics of the HRTF. In this paper, we propose the algorithm that uses human's auditory characteristics for accurate perception. To achieve this, excitation energy of HRTF, global masking threshold and loudness are applied to the proposed algorithm. Informal listening test shows that the proposed method improves the sound localization characteristics much better than conventional methods.
Fast block matching algorithm for constrained one-bit transform-based motion estimation using binomial distribution
Park, Han-Jin ; Choi, Chang-Ryoul ; Jeong, Je-Chang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 861~872
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.861
Many fast block-matching algorithms (BMAs) in motion estimation field reduce computational complexity by screening the number of checking points. Although many fast BMAs reduce computations, sometimes they should endure matching errors in comparison with full-search algorithm (FSA). In this paper, a novel fast BMA for constrained one-bit transform (C1BT)-based motion estimation is proposed in order to decrease the calculations of the block distortion measure. Unlike the classical fast BMAs, the proposed algorithm shows a new approach to reduce computations. It utilizes the binomial distribution based on the characteristic of binary plane which is composed of only two elements: 0 and 1. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm keeps its peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) performance very close to the FSA-C1BT while the computation complexity is reduced considerably.
Saptio-temporal Deinterlacing Based on Edge Direction and Spatio-temporal Brightness Variations
Jung, Jee-Hoon ; Hong, Sung-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 873~882
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.873
In this paper, we propose an efficient deinterlacing algorithm which interpolates the missing scan lines by weighted summing of the intra and the inter interpolation pixels according to the spatio-temporal variation. In the spatial interpolation, we adopt a new edge based spatial interpolation method which includes edge directional refinement. The conventional edge dependent interpolation algorithms are very sensitive to noise due to the failure of estimating edge direction. In order to exactly detect edge direction, our method first finds the edge directions around the pixel to be interpolated and then refines edge direction of the pixel using weighted maximun frequent filter. Futhermore, we improve the accuracy of motion detection by reducing the possibility of motion detection error using 3 tab median filter. In the final interpolation step, we adopt weighted sum of intra and inter interpolation pixels according to spatio-temporal variation ratio, thereby improving the quality in slow moving area. Simulation results show the efficacy of the proposed method with significant improvement over the previous methods in terms of the objective PSNR quality as well as the subjective image quality.
Bandpass Filter Based Focus Measure for Extended Depth of Field
Cha, Su-Ram ; Kim, Jeong-Tae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 5, 2011, Pages 883~893
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.5.883
In this paper, we propose a novel focus measure that determines in-focus and out-of-focus region in an image. In addition, we achieved extended depth of field by blending the acquired image and Wiener filtered image using a decision map based on the designed focus measure. Since conventional focus measures are based on the amount of high frequency components in an acquired image, the measures may not be accurate if there exist high frequency components in out-of-focused region. To overcome the problem, we designed the novel focus measure based on effective band pass filtering. In simulations and experiments, the proposed method showed better performance than existing methods.