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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 17, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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An Analysis of Visual Fatigue Caused From Distortions in 3D Video Production
Jang, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Yong-Goo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~16
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.1
In order to improve the workflow of 3D video production, this paper analyzes the visual fatigue caused from distortions in 3D video production stage through a set of subjective visual assessment tests. To establish a set of objective indicators for subjective visual tests, various distortions in production stage are investigated to be categorized into 7 representative visual-fatigue-producing factors, and to conduct visual assessment tests for each selected category, 4 test video clips are produced by combining the extent of camera movement as well as the object(s) movement in the scene. Each produced test video is distorted to reflect each of the selected 7 visual-fatigue-producing factors, and we set 7 levels of distortion for each factor, resulting in 196 5-second-long video clips for testing. Based on these test materials and the recommendation of ITU-R BT.1438, subjective visual assessment tests are conducted by 101 applicants. The test results provide a relative importance and the tolerance limit of each visual-fatigue-producing factor, which corresponds to various distortions in 3D video production field.
Generating a Stereoscopic Image from a Monoscopic Camera
Lee, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Kwan-Wook ; Kim, Man-Bae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 17~25
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.17
In this paper, we propose a method of producing a stereoscopic image from multiple images captured from a monoscopic camera. By translating a camera in the horizontal direction, left and right images are chosen among N captured images. For this, image edges are extracted and a rotational angle is estimated from edge orientation. Also, a translational vector is also estimated from the correlation of projected image data. Then, two optimal images are chosen and subsequently compensated using the rotational angle as well as the translational vector in order to make a satisfactory stereoscopic image. The proposed method was performed on thirty-two test image set. The subjective visual fatigue test was carried out to validate the 3D quality of stereoscopic images. In terms of visual fatigue, the 3D satisfaction ratio reached approximately 84%.
A Shape Based Image Retrieval Method using Phase of ART
Lee, Jong-Min ; Kim, Whoi-Yul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 26~36
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.26
Since shape of an object in an image carries important information in contents based image retrieval (CBIR), many shape description methods have been proposed to retrieve images using shape information. Among the existing shape based image retrieval methods, the method which employs invariant Zernike moment desciptor (IZMD) showed better performance compared to other methods which employ traditional Zernike moments descriptor in CBIR. In this paper, we propose a new image retrieval method which applies invariant angular radial transform descriptor (IARTD) to obtain higher performance than the method which employs IZMD in CBIR. IARTD is a rotationally invariant feature which consists of magnitudes and alligned phases of angular radial transform coefficients. To produce rotationally invariant phase coefficients, a phase correction scheme is performed while extracting the IARTD. The distance between two IARTDs is defined by combining the differences of the magnitudes and the aligned phases. Through the experiment using MPEG-7 shape dataset, the average bull's eye performance (BEP) of the proposed method is 0.5806 while the average BEPs of the exsiting methods which employ IZMD and traditional ART are 0.4234 and 0.3574, respectively.
Effective Utilization of DLNA Functions in Home Media Devices
Kang, Ki-Cheol ; Kim, Se-Young ; Kim, Dae-Jin ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 37~48
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.37
These days many DLNA home media network services start in home network area. DLNA networking softwares included in DLNA media devices contains all of server, renderer and controller functions. But a home media device in home media network environment not uses all of DLNA functions but uses only limited functions. Using all of integrated DLNA functions wastes networking and processing resources especially in home media network, because a home media device uses very limited functions. For example, a smart-TV has a main role of playback and a network attached storage has a main role of media content storage. In this paper, we analyze integrated DLNA networking softwares and design DLNA software models representing each home media device so as to utilize device resources efficiently. And we implement DLNA softwares for smart-TV and smart-phone and test resource efficiency.
Reliability and Validity Assessment in 3D Video Measurement
Chung, Dong-Hun ; Yang, Ho-Cheol ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 49~59
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.49
Although 3D stereoscopic movies had been paid attention to a few times since the 1900's, the interest had not been last. Most researchers pointed out the reason came from human factors because the early in the 3D technology growth had to develop technological possibility to realize 3D videos and ignore the importance viewers' perspective. In the 2D video research, many studies have explored the factors which make people got immersed or involved and felt visual fatigue, but they have not been the main issues in the 3D research until now. The present research believes human factor issue is one of the most important parts to accelerate 3D industry and thus, we try to make reliable and valid assessments to evaluate 3D video which are perceived characteristics, impression, and presence.
Influence of 3D Characteristics Perception on Presence, and Presence on Visual Fatigue and Perceived Eye Movement
Yang, Ho-Cheol ; Chung, Dong-Hun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 60~72
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.60
After the movie "AVATAR" became a good model of cash-cow in 3D movie, the profit of 3D-movie significantly reduced. One of the reasons why it happens comes from rare understanding of human factors for instance how viewers get immersed, but sometimes tired. Although 3D images should be more considered human visual system including eye, unfortunately most communication research ignored human factors. For those reasons this study observed the effect of 3D video on viewers' psychological response, especially for perceived eye movement, perceived characteristics, visual fatigue, and presence. With 90 participants, the results show that viewers' perceived feature effects on their presence. In detail, first, materiality and tangibility are more important factors than clarity in 3D video, and it means that when making 3D content or devices, materiality and tangibility should be considers that any other factor. Second, this study examined whether we perceive our eyes as media, and the result shows that as viewers' presence level became higher we perceive eye movements more, and as viewers' presence level became higher perceived visual fatigue became lower. This result means that when we move eyes, we interact with surrounded environment, so 3D content needs to provide vivid features to be more interactive. On the other hand, since level of presence increase visual fatigue, it must be balanced when producing and playing.
Bone Segmentation Method based on Multi-Resolution using Iterative Segmentation and Registration in 3D Magnetic Resonance Image
Park, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Soo-Chan ; Yun, Il-Dong ; Lee, Sang-Uk ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.73
Recently, medical equipments are developed and used for diagnosis or studies. In addition, demand of techniques which automatically deal with three dimensional medical images obtained from the medical equipments is growing. One of the techniques is automatic bone segmentation which is expected to enhance the diagnosis efficiency of osteoporosis, fracture, and other bone diseases. Although various researches have been proposed to solve it, they are unable to be used in practice since a size of the medical data is large and there are many low contrast boundaries with other tissues. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate automatic framework for bone segmentation based on multi-resolutions. On a low resolution step, a position of the bone is roughly detected using constrained branch and mincut which find the optimal template from the training set. Then, the segmentation and the registration are iteratively conducted on the multiple resolutions. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we make an experiment with femur and tibia from 50 test knee magnetic resonance images using 100 training set. The proposed method outperformed the constrained branch and mincut in aspect of segmentation accuracy and implementation time.
A Rotation Angle Estimation Method Based on Phase of ART
Lee, Jong-Min ; Kim, Whoi-Yul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 81~94
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.81
Several methods which utilize the phase of Zernike moments (ZMs) to estimate the rotation angle have shown good performance in terms of accuracy. In this paper, we provides the performance comparison results of the existing rotation angle estimation methods based on ZMs and propose an extension of Revaud et al.'s method  which utilizes the phase of ZMs; the proposed method uses angular radial transform coefficients instead of ZMs and yields better performance than the ZMs based methods in terms of accuracy. A set of ART can describe angular variation of image more intensively than ZMs, it enables more accurate estimation of the rotation angle than ZMs. In the experiments, the proposed method outperforms ZMs based method. Comparisons were made in terms of the root mean square error vs. the coverage on MPEG-7 shape dataset.
Outage Analysis and Optimal Power allocation for Network-coding-based Hybrid AF and DF
Bek, Joo-Ha ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Lee, Jae-Young ; Heo, Jun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 95~107
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.95
Network coding was proposed to increase the achievable throughput of multicast in a network. Recently, combining network coding into user cooperation has attracted research attention. For cooperative transmission schemes with network coding, users combine their own and their partners messages by network coding. In previous works, it was shown that adaptive DF with network coding can achieve diversity gain and additional throughput gain. In this paper, to improve performance of conventional protocols and maximize advantage of using network coding, we propose a new network coding based user cooperation scheme which uses adaptively amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward according to interuser channel status. We derive outage probability bound of proposed scheme and prove that it has full diversity order in the high SNR regime. Moreover, based on the outage bound, we compute optimal power allocation for the proposed scheme.
Fast Mode Decision Algorithm for Scalable Video Coding (SVC) Using Directional Information of Neighboring Layer
Jung, Hyun-Ki ; Hong, Kwang-Soo ; Kim, Byung-Gyu ; Kim, Chang-Ki ; Yoo, Jeong-Ju ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 108~121
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.108
As Scalable Video Coding (SVC) is a video compression standard extended from H.264/AVC, it is a way to provide scalability in terms of temporal, spatial and quality. Although the compression efficiency of SVC is increased due to the scalability in many aspect, it is essential to reduce the complexity in order to efficiently use because the complexity is relatively increased. To reduce the complexity of SVC in the paper, we propose fast mode decision algorithm to reduce the complexity of encoding process using direction information of B-picture by efficiently performing inter-layer prediction. The proposed algorithm is a fast mode decision algorithm that makes different from detection mode number of forward and backward, bi-direction in the way using best mode of base-layer up-sampled after simply SKIP mode detection using the direction information of best mode of base-layer up-sampled. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm approach can achieve the maximum computational time saving about 53% with almost no loss of rate distortion (RD) performance in the enhancement layer.
Improvement of Feedback Delay for Practical Distributed Source Coding
Shin, Seung-Shik ; Shin, Sang-Yun ; Jang, Min ; Lim, Dae-Woon ; Kim, Sang-Hyo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 122~128
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.122
Because of the system delay caused by the number of feedback retransmission in Distributed Video Coding (DVC) scheme, it is difficult to realize practical DVC in many cases. In this paper low feedback retransmission Distributed Source Coding (DSC) scheme is proposed for practical DVC scheme based on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes because DVC system is an specific application of DSC system. This DSC scheme is achieved by using different LDPC codes optimized in each different compression rate and using source revealing scheme. Optimized LDPC codes provide us much better decoding performance which causes the 57% reduced number of iteration. Consequently, the number of feedback retransmission is decreased by 50%.
Broadcast Content Recommender System based on User's Viewing History
Oh, Soo-Young ; Oh, Yeon-Hee ; Han, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Hee-Jung ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 129~139
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.129
This paper introduces a recommender system that is to recommend broadcast content. Our recommender system uses user's viewing history for personalized recommendations. Broadcast contents has unique characteristics as compared with books, musics and movies. There are two types of broadcast content, a series program and an episode program. The series program is comprised of several programs that deal with the same topic or story. Meanwhile, the episode program covers a variety of topics. Each program of those has different topic in general. Therefore, our recommender system recommends TV programs to users according to the type of broadcast content. The recommendations in this system are based on user's viewing history that is used to calculate content similarity between contents. Content similarity is calculated by exploiting collaborative filtering algorithm. Our recommender system uses java sparse array structure and performs memory-based processing. And then the results of processing are stored as an index structure. Our recommender system provides recommendation items through OPEN APIs that utilize the HTTP Protocol. Finally, this paper introduces the implementation of our recommender system and our web demo.
Transform-domain Wyner-Ziv Residual Coding using Temporal Correlation
Cho, Hyon-Myong ; Eun, Hyun ; Shim, Hiuk-Jae ; Jeon, Byeung-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 140~151
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.140
In Wyner-Ziv coding, key picture is encoded by conventional H.264/AVC intra coding which has low complexity. Although inter coding is more efficient than intra coding, its complexity is much higher than intra coding due to its motion estimation. Since the main feature of Wyner-Ziv coding is low complexity of encoder, inter coding is not suitable to encode key picture in Wyner-Ziv coding. However, inter picture coding with zero motion vector can be usable for Wyner-Ziv key picture coding instead of intra coding. Moreover, while current transform-domain Wyner-Ziv residual coding only utilizes temporal correlation of WZ picture, if zero motion coding is jointly used to encode key picture in transform-domain Wyner-Ziv residual coding, there will be a significant improvement in R-D performance. Experimental results show that the complexity of Wyner-Ziv coding with the proposed zero motion key picture coding is higher than conventional Wyner-Ziv coding with intra key picture coding by about 9%, however, there are BDBR gains up to 54%. Additionally, if the proposed zero motion key coding is implemented on top of the transform-domain Wyner-Ziv residual coding, the result shows rate gains up to 70% in BDBR compared to conventional Wyner-Ziv coding with intra key picture coding.
DMB Filecasting Service Technology
Choi, Ji-Hoon ; Yang, Kyu-Tae ; Cha, Ji-Hun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 152~164
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.152
DMB provides various kinds of data services such as BWS and TPEG service in addition to audio and video services. But recently the necessity of new business models creating profit has been on the rise due to the saturation of DMB receiver market and break-down of market barrier between mobile IPTV and DMB services. This paper introduces DMB filecasting service technology, which can be expected a new profit-creative business model. The purpose of DMB filecasting service is to transmit non-real time multimedia contents based on DMB AF format to the users through DMB channels. It makes possible to consume DMB contents with any DMB-installed device anytime, anywhere and share them with others. Also DMB filecasting service makes consumption and request of DMB contents possible to be extented to a variety of networks as well as DMB channels. The paper explains the standardization status of DMB filecasting service and various DMB filecasting service scenarios. And also it proposes a signalling methode, a transmission and reception protocol and a receiver structure using DMB broadcasting program guide information.
Motion Vector Coding Using Adaptive Motion Resolution
Jang, Myung-Hun ; Seo, Chan-Won ; Han, Jong-Ki ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 165~178
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.165
In most conventional video codecs, such as MPEG-2 and MPEG-4, inter coding is performed with the fixed motion vector resolution. When KTA software was developed, resolution for MVs can be selected in each slice. Although KTA codec uses a variety of resolutions for ME, the selected resolution is applied over the entire pixels in the slice and the statistical property of the local area is not considered. In this paper, we propose an adaptive decision scheme for motion vector resolution which depends on region, where MV search area is divided to multiple regions according to the distance from PMV. In each region, the assigned resolution is used to estimate MV. Each region supports different resolution for ME from other regions. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is affected from threshold values to divide the search area and the entropy coding method to encode the estimated MV. Simulation results with HM3.0 which is the reference software of HEVC show that the proposed scheme provides bit rate gains of 0.9%, 0.6%, and 2.9% in Random Access, Low Delay with B picture, and Low Delay with P picture structures, respectively.
Fast Side Information Generation Method using Adaptive Search Range
Park, Dae-Yun ; Shim, Hiuk-Jae ; Jeon, Byeung-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 179~190
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.179
In Distributed Video Coding(DVC), a low complexity encoder can be realized by shifting complex processes of encoder such as motion estimation to decoder. Since not only motion estimation/compensation processes but also channel decoding process needs to be performed at DVC decoder, the complexity of a decoder is significantly increased in consequence. Therefore, various fast channel decoding methods are proposed for the most computationally complex part, which is the channel decoding process in DVC decoding. As the channel decoding process becomes faster using various methods, however, the complexity of the other processes are relatively highlighted. For instance, the complexity of side information generation process in the DVC decoder is relatively increased. In this paper, therefore, a fast method for the DVC decoding is proposed by using adaptive search range method in side information generation process. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves time saving of about 63% in side information generation process, while its rate distortion performance is degraded only by about 0.17% in BDBR.
A Entropy Coding Method using Temporal and Spatial Correlation on HEVC
Kim, Tae-Ryong ; Kim, Kyung-Yong ; Lee, Han-Soo ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 191~194
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.191
The split flag and the skip flag in CU syntax have high correlation on spatial domain as well as temporal domain. This paper suggests a method for enhancing coding efficiency by using not only spatial correlation but also temporal correlation when coding CU information. In the CABAC case, temporal collocated CU information is used for selecting context model of the split flag and the skip flag. In the CAVLC case, current CU information is estimated from temporal collocated CU information then encoded. As a result, a coding efficiency was increased by 0.1%~0.6% in CABAC, 0.1%~0.4% in CAVLC compared with HM 3.0. This method shows better performance on lowdelay condition which uses reference frame close to current frame.
New N-dimensional Basis Functions for Modeling Surface Reflectance
Kwon, Oh-Seol ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 195~198
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.1.195
The N basis functions are typically chosen so that Surface reflectance functions(SRFs) and spectral power distributions (SPDs) can be accurately reconstructed from their N-dimensional vector codes. Typical rendering applications assume that the resulting mapping is an isomorphism where vector operations of addition, scalar multiplication, component-wise multiplication on the N-vectors can be used to model physical operations such as superposition of lights, light-surface interactions and inter-reflection. The vector operations do not mirror the physical. However, if the choice of basis functions is restricted to characteristic functions then the resulting map between SPDs/SRFs and N-vectors is anisomorphism that preserves the physical operations needed in rendering. This paper will show how to select optimal characteristic function bases of any dimension N (number of basis functions) and also evaluate how accurately a large set of Munsell color chips can approximated as basis functions of dimension N.