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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 17, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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HTTP Adaptive Streaming Method for Service-compatible 3D Contents Based on MPEG DASH
Park, Gi-Jun ; Lee, Gil-Bok ; Lee, Jang-Won ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 207~222
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.207
Recently, many consumer electronics manufacturers have produced 3D devices such as 3DTVs and 3D monitors as interests in a stereoscopic video service are getting increased. However, most of 3D services are focused on local storage or bandwidth guaranteed service since 3D stereoscopic video service require bandwidth more stable and larger. This property causes difficulties in seamless stereoscopic video streaming services under IP based open network environment that cannot guarantee quality of services. In order to achieve a seamless video streaming service the international standard organization MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) has developed the adaptive HTTP streaming technology called as DASH (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP). However, the DASH doesn`t have obvious scheme which can express the two elementary video streams based service-compatible stereoscopic contents in one segment. Therefore, this paper proposes a scheme of efficient 3D adaptive streaming service based on the DASH, which covers not only frame-packing stereoscopic contents but also service-compatible ones. The 3D adaptive HTTP streaming scheme introduced in this paper is able to provide 3D contents with various qualities to user and also has benefit that single 3D content can be applied to a variety of devices.
Video Coding Method Using Visual Perception Model based on Motion Analysis
Oh, Hyung-Suk ; Kim, Won-Ha ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 223~236
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.223
We develop a video processing method that allows the more advanced human perception oriented video coding. The proposed method necessarily reflects all influences by the rate-distortion based optimization and the human visual perception that is affected by the visual saliency, the limited space-time resolution and the regional moving history. For reflecting the human perceptual effects, we devise an online moving pattern classifier using the Hedge algorithm. Then, we embed the existing visual saliency into the proposed moving patterns so as to establish a human visual perception model. In order to realize the proposed human visual perception model, we extend the conventional foveation filtering method. Compared to the conventional foveation filter only smoothing less stimulus video signals, the developed foveation filter can locally smooth and enhance signals according to the human visual perception without causing any artifacts. Due to signal enhancement, the developed foveation filter more efficiently transfers the bandwidth saved at smoothed signals to the enhanced signals. Performance evaluation verifies that the proposed video processing method satisfies the overall video quality, while improving the perceptual quality by 12%~44%.
A Study on 700MHz Spectrum Utilization for the Improvement of Terrestrial Signal Reception and Next Generation Broadcasting
Park, Sung-Kyu ; Lee, Chang-Hyung ; Park, Goo-Man ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 237~251
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.237
Recently, the direct terrestrial broadcasting reception has been reduced rapidly and not been improved even in digital broadcast environment. The distribution plan of 700MHz frequency band(Ch.52~69) will make the problem worse because the spectrum might be allocated to mobile communication use. In this paper, we investigated the efficient frequency usage for DTV signal reception improvement and next generation broadcasting. The frequency amount required for reception improvement and for next generation broadcasting service is presented. We estimated the beneficial effect when the spectrum(108MHz Frequency Width) is used for SFN transmission technology, UHDTV and Full-HD 3DTV.
Motion Vector Coding with Error Robustness Based on Contradiction Testing
Won, Kwang-Hyun ; Yang, Jung-Youp ; Jeon, Byeung-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 252~261
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.252
This papers proposes a motion vector coding method which selects the optimal predictive motion vector after excluding some candidate predictive motion vectors in the minimum rate-distortion sense, and prunes the candidate predictive motion vectors by a contradiction testing that operates under a predefined criterion at both encoder and decoder for reducing the signaling information. Experimental results show that the proposed method gains in BDBR by up to 1.8% compared to the H.264/AVC.
Outage Probability and Throughput Analysis of Hybrid-ARQ Based Opportunistic Relaying with Outdated CSI
Park, Jin-Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Hong ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 262~269
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.262
Hybrid-ARQ and opportunistic relaying are the widely used schemes for obtaining diversity gain in wireless communications. In opportunistic relaying, channel state information(CSI) between relays and destination is required to select the best relay. But if the destination moves very fast, the CSI becomes outdated. In this paper, performance of hybrid-ARQ based opportunistic relaying with outdated CSI is analyzed in outage probability and throughput perspective. The analysis is verified by computer simulations.
Automatic TV Program Recommendation using LDA based Latent Topic Inference
Kim, Eun-Hui ; Pyo, Shin-Jee ; Kim, Mun-Churl ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 270~283
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.270
With the advent of multi-channel TV, IPTV and smart TV services, excessive amounts of TV program contents become available at users` sides, which makes it very difficult for TV viewers to easily find and consume their preferred TV programs. Therefore, the service of automatic TV recommendation is an important issue for TV users for future intelligent TV services, which allows to improve access to their preferred TV contents. In this paper, we present a recommendation model based on statistical machine learning using a collaborative filtering concept by taking in account both public and personal preferences on TV program contents. For this, users` preference on TV programs is modeled as a latent topic variable using LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation) which is recently applied in various application domains. To apply LDA for TV recommendation appropriately, TV viewers`s interested topics is regarded as latent topics in LDA, and asymmetric Dirichlet distribution is applied on the LDA which can reveal the diversity of the TV viewers` interests on topics based on the analysis of the real TV usage history data. The experimental results show that the proposed LDA based TV recommendation method yields average 66.5% with top 5 ranked TV programs in weekly recommendation, average 77.9% precision in bimonthly recommendation with top 5 ranked TV programs for the TV usage history data of similar taste user groups.
Low Power Contrast Enhancement for OLED Displays
Kim, Jin-Hwan ; Lee, Chul ; Lee, Chul-Woo ; Kim, Chang-Su ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 284~294
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.284
A low power contrast enhancement algorithm for OLED displays is proposed in this work. The proposed algorithm increases the contrast of the image based on a linear transformation function, while reducing the power consumption of OLED displays. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm extends the global contrast enhancement to local contrast enhancement using the block-based transformation function. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces the power consumption, while enhancing the contrast of an input image.
The Method That Access Various Interaction Information of IPTV Contents with QR Code and SmartPhone
Sim, Kun-Ho ; Lim, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 295~304
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.295
IPTV current service change from a TV IPTV service providing digital broadcast, one- way VOD service, terrestrial broadcast to a web IPTV service,which is using wireless networks which is also used by interactive digital broadcasting However, IPTV, is being currently serviced, causes a lot of interaction with viewers because of inconvenience of using and has problems that users do not have enough content type to access. Additionally, there is also a problem that adding contents cover a large part of screen. To solve these problems, the thing that adding QR code to IPTV screen being recognized by Smartphone. In this way, we can provide the idea how to access to interaction information and also provide to clients an easy way creating and accessing to the contents by developing an editor that can insert QR code to video.
Method of Measuring Color Difference Between Images using Corresponding Points and Histograms
Hwang, Young-Bae ; Kim, Je-Woo ; Choi, Byeong-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 305~315
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.305
Color correction between two or multiple images is very crucial for the development of subsequent algorithms and stereoscopic 3D camera system. Even though various color correction methods are proposed recently, there are few methods for measuring the performance of these methods. In addition, when two images have view variation by camera positions, previous methods for the performance measurement may not be appropriate. In this paper, we propose a method of measuring color difference between corresponding images for color correction. This method finds matching points that have the same colors between two scenes to consider the view variation by correspondence searches. Then, we calculate statistics from neighbor regions of these matching points to measure color difference. From this approach, we can consider misalignment of corresponding points contrary to conventional geometric transformation by a single homography. To handle the case that matching points cannot cover the whole regions, we calculate statistics of color difference from the whole image regions. Finally, the color difference is computed by the weighted summation between correspondence based and the whole region based approaches. This weight is determined by calculating the ratio of occupying regions by correspondence based color comparison.
Halftone Noise Removal in Scanned Images using HOG based Adaptive Smoothing Filter
Hur, Kyu-Sung ; Baek, Yeul-Min ; Kim, Whoi-Yul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 316~324
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.316
In this paper, a novel descreening method using HOG(histogram of gradient)-based adaptive smoothing filter is proposed. Conventional edge-oriented smoothing methods does not provide enough smoothing to the halftone image due to the edge-like characteristic of the halftone noise. Moreover, clustered-dot halftoning method, which is commonly used in printing tends to create Moire pattern because of the intereference in color channels. Therefore, the proposed method uses HOG to distinguish edges and the amount of smoothing to be performed on the halftone image is then calculated according to the magnitude of the HOG in the edge and edge normal orientation. The proposed method was tested on various scanned halftone materials, and the results show that it effectively removes halftone noises as well as Moire pattern while preserving image details.
Improving Encoder Complexity and Coding Method of the Split Information in HEVC
Lee, Han-Soo ; Kim, Kyung-Yong ; Kim, Tae-Ryong ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ; Kim, Hui-Yong ; Lim, Sung-Chang ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 325~343
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.325
This paper proposes the coding method to predict the split structure of LCU in the current frame on the basis of the reference frame or temporally-previous frame. HEVC encoder determines split structure according to image characteristics in LCU which is an basic element of CU. The split structure of the current LCU is very similar to the split structure of collocated LCU in the reference frame or temporally-previous frame. Thus, this paper proposes the method to reduce the encoder computational complexity by predicting split structure of the current LCU on the basis of that of collocated LCU in the reference frame or temporally-previous frame. And it also proposes the method to reduce the BD-Bitrate by coding after the prediction of the CU split information. The simulation results of changing only encoder showed that the mean of encoder computational complexity was lower by 21.3%, the decoder computational complexity was negligible change and the BD-Bitrate increase by the maximum of 0.6%. Also, the method changing encoder, bitstream, and decoder improves the mean of encoder computational complexity was lower by 22%, the decoder computational complexity was negligible change and the BD-Bitrate is improved to the maximum of 0.3%. When compared with the conventional method, indicating that the proposed method is superior.
Super-resolution Algorithm using Discrete Wavelet Transform for Single-image
Lim, Jong-Myeong ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 344~353
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.344
In this paper, we propose a super-resolution algorithm using discrete wavelet transform. In general super-resolution algorithms for single-image, probability based operations have been used for searching high-frequency components. Consequently, the complexity of the algorithm causes the increase of processing time. In the proposed algorithm, we use discrete wavelet transform to find high-frequency sub-bands. We perform inverse discrete wavelet transform using input image and high-frequency sub-bands of the same resolution as the input image which are obtained by performing discrete wavelet transform without down-sampling and then we obtain image with high-resolution. In the proposed algorithm, we use the down-sampled version of the original image (
) as a test image (
) to compare the performance of algorithms. Through experimental results, we confirm the improved efficiency of the proposed algorithm comparing with conventional interpolation algorithms and also decreased processing time comparing the probability based operations.
Conditional Probability Based Early Termination of Recursive Coding Unit Structures in HEVC
Han, Woo-Jin ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 354~362
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.354
Recently, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is under development jointly by MPEG and ITU-T for the next international video coding standard. Compared to the previous standards, HEVC supports variety of splitting units, such as coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU), and transform unit (TU). Among them, it has been known that the recursive quadtree structure of CU can improve the coding efficiency while the encoding complexity is increased significantly. In this paper, a simple conditional probability to predict the early termination condition of recursive unit structure is introduced. The proposed conditional probability is estimated based on Bayes` formula from local statistics of rate-distortion costs in encoder. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the total encoding time by about 32% according to the test configuration while the coding efficiency loss is 0.4%-0.5%. In addition, the encoding time can be reduced by 50% with 0.9% coding efficiency loss when the proposed method was used jointly with HM4.0 early CU termination algorithm.
Intermediate Depth Image Generation using Disparity Increment of Stereo Depth Images
Koo, Ja-Myung ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 363~373
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.363
This paper proposes a method to generate a depth image at an arbitrary intermediate view-point, which is targeting a video service for free-view, auto-stereoscopy, holography, etc. It assumes that the leftmost and the rightmost depth images are given and they both have been camera-calibrated and image-rectified. This method calculates and uses a disparity increment per depth value. In this paper, it is obtained by stereo matching for the given two depth image by considering more general cases. The disparity increment is used to find the location in the intermediate view-point depth image (IVPD) for each depth in the given images. Thus, this paper finds two IVPDs, from left image and from right image. Noises are removed and holes are filled in each IVPDs and the two results are combined to get the final IVPD. The proposed method was implemented and applied to several test sequences. The results revealed that the quality of the generated IVPD corresponds to 33.84dB of PSNR in average and it takes about 1 second to generate a HD IVPD. We evaluate that this image quality is quite good by considering the low correspondency among the left images, intermediate images, and the right images in the test sequences. If the execution speed is improved, the proposed method can be a very useful method to generate an IVPD at an arbitrary view-point, we believe.
Hardware Architecture of High Performance Cipher for Security of Digital Hologram
Seo, Young-Ho ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 374~387
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.374
In this paper, we implement a new hardware for finding the significant coefficients of a digital hologram and ciphering them using discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT). Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and packetization of subbands is used, and the adopted ciphering technique can encrypt the subbands with various robustness based on the level of the wavelet transform and the threshold of subband energy. The hologram encryption consists of two parts; the first is to process DWPT, and the second is to encrypt the coefficients. We propose a lifting based hardware architecture for fast DWPT and block ciphering system with multi-mode for the various types of encryption. The unit cell which calculates the repeated arithmetic with the same structure is proposed and then it is expanded to the lifting kernel hardware. The block ciphering system is configured with three block cipher, AES, SEED and 3DES and encrypt and decrypt data with minimal latency time(minimum 128 clocks, maximum 256 clock) in real time. The information of a digital hologram can be hided by encrypting 0.032% data of all. The implemented hardware used about 200K gates in
CMOS library and was stably operated with 165MHz clock frequency in timing simulation.
Modified Speeded Up Robust Features(SURF) for Performance Enhancement of Mobile Visual Search System
Seo, Jung-Jin ; Yoona, Kyoung-Ro ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 388~399
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.388
In the paper, we propose enhanced feature extraction and matching methods for a mobile environment based on modified SURF. We propose three methods to reduce the computational complexity in a mobile environment. The first is to reduce the dimensions of the SURF descriptor. We compare the performance of existing 64-dimensional SURF with several other dimensional SURFs. The second is to improve the performance using the sign of the trace of the Hessian matrix. In other words, feature points are considered as matched if they have the same sign for the trace of the Hessian matrix, otherwise considered not matched. The last one is to find the best distance-ratio which is used to determine the matching points. We find the best distance-ratio through experiments, and it gives the relatively high accuracy. Finally, existing system which is based on normal SURF method is compared with our proposed system which is based on these three proposed methods. We present that our proposed system shows reduced response time while preserving reasonably good matching accuracy.
3D Displays: Development and Validation of Prediction Function of Object Size Perception as a Function of Depth
Shin, Yoon-Ho ; Li, Hyung-Chul O. ; Kim, Shin-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 400~410
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.400
In recent years, 3D displays are used in many media including 3D movies, TV, mobile phones, and PC games. Although 3D displays provide realistic viewing experience as compared with 2D displays, they also carry issues such as visual fatigue or size distortion. Focusing on the latter, we developed prediction function of object size perception as a function of object depth in 3D display. In Experiment 1, subjects observed 3D square of a fixed size of varying depth, and manipulated 2D square to make it as large as the 3D square. Conversely, in Experiment 2, subjects observed 2D square of a fixed size, and manipulated 3D square of varying depth to make it as large as the 2D square. In both Experiments 1 and 2, we found that size perception of 3D square linearly changed depending on depth of the square, and the linear relationship between depth and size was identical in both experiments. The predictive regression function, which predicts object size perception based on object depth, obtained in this research will be very useful in the creation of 3D media contents.
Precise Rectification of Misaligned Stereo Images for 3D Image Generation
Kim, Jae-In ; Kim, Tae-Jung ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 411~421
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.411
The stagnant growth in 3D market due to 3D movie contents shortage is encouraging development of techniques for production cost reduction. Elimination of vertical disparity generated during image acquisition requires heaviest time and effort in the whole stereoscopic film-making process. This matter is directly related to competitiveness in the market and is being dealt with as a very important task. The removal of vertical disparity, i.e. image rectification has been treated for a long time in the photogrammetry field. While computer vision methods are focused on fast processing and automation, photogrammetry methods on accuracy and precision. However, photogrammetric approaches have not been tried for the 3D film-making. In this paper, proposed is a photogrammetry-based rectification algorithm that enable to eliminate the vertical disparity precisely by reconstruction of geometric relationship at the time of shooting. Evaluation of proposed algorithm was carried out by comparing the performance with two existing computer vision algorithms. The epipolar constraint satisfaction, epipolar line accuracy and vertical disparity of result images were tested. As a result, the proposed algorithm showed excellent performance than the other algorithms in term of accuracy and precision, and also revealed robustness about position error of tie-points.
CU-based Merge Candidate List Construction Method for HEVC
Kim, Kyung-Yong ; Kim, Sang-Min ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ; Kim, Hui-Yong ; Lim, Sung-Chang ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 422~425
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2012.17.2.422
This paper proposes the CU-based approach for merge candidate list construction for providing reduced complexity and improved parallelism compared to the PU-based one. In the proposed method, a CU can have only one merge candidate list. So, Only one common merge candidate list is used for all PUs in a CU regardless of the PU partition type. The simulation results of proposed method showed that the encoder computational complexity was decreased by 3% to 6% and the decoder computational complexity was negligible change with the penalty of roughly 0.2% - 0.5% coding loss. The proposed method has several advantages: it provides simpler design, reduced complexity, and improved parallelism.