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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 17, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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Influence of 3D Stereoscopic Video Running Time on Audience Perceptions
Lee, Min-Joo ; Chung, Dong-Hun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 551~564
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.551
The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about the influence of running time of 3D stereoscopic video on audience perceptions. This study compares the influence of running time between 20 minutes and 40 minutes of 3D stereoscopic music shows on audience perceptions such as perceived characteristics, impression, presence, entertainment, fatigue and unnatural looking images. After experiment with 40 samples, the present research found that when people watched shorter 3D stereoscopic music video, they perceived more 3D functionality, such as depth, image conveyance and message conveyance. The results also suggest that people who watched shorter 3D stereoscopic video felt more impression such as definiteness and freshness from the 3D images. Moreover, the result confirm that when watching shorter 3D images, people felt more a sense of presence. Findings of this study have important practical implications how running time is important to 3DTV viewers. Since the nature of this study is exploratory, more research about segmented running time and genre, etc. of 3D stereoscopic videos will be needed.
Depth Map Denoising Based on the Common Distance Transform
Kim, Sung-Yeol ; Kim, Man-Bae ; Ho, Yo-Sung ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 565~571
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.565
During depth data acquisition and transmission, the quality of depth maps is usually degraded by physical noise and coding error. In this paper, a new joint bilateral filter based on the common distance transform is presented to enhance the low-quality depth map. The proposed method determines the amount of exploitable color data according to distance transform values of depth and color pixels. Consequently, the proposed filter minimizes noise in the depth map while suppressing visual artifacts of joint bilateral filtering. Experimental results show that our method outperforms other conventional methods in terms of noise reduction and visual artifact suppression.
Glasses-free Interactive 3D Display: The Effects of Viewing Distance, Orientation and Manual Interaction on Visual Fatigue
Kim, Duk-Joong ; Li, Hyung-Chul O. ; Kim, Shin-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 572~583
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.572
In this study, we investigated visual fatigue in i3D system and basic factors that contribute to visual fatigue in the system. i3D is a type of glasses-free display which supports elementary manual interaction of users with the display. In Experiment 1, we performed open-ended survey of visual fatigue and collected responses from observers which then were used as survey questions for visual fatigue. The questions were validated by factor analysis from which we derived fatigue measurement scale. In Experiment 2, we measured visual fatigue in various conditions using survey questions obtained from Experiment 1. Using manual interaction (present/absent), viewing distance(1/2/4m), and viewing orientation(
) as three factors in within-subject design, we measured visual fatigue in each condition. The results indicated that visual fatigue deceases with farther viewing distance, but viewing orientation and manual interaction does not influence visual fatigue. Although fatigue unexpectedly decreased in an extreme viewing condition (e.g., distance 1m, orientation
), the results were obtained because of technical limitation of glasses-free 3D display. General discussion provides discussion on limits of the current study and suggestions for future research.
Design of 3D Video Delivery Format for HTTP Adaptive Streaming Service
Lee, Jang-Won ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 584~595
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.584
Recently, 3D stereoscopic video and HTTP adaptive streaming technologies have received a lot of attention from relevant industrial fields and markets in terms of multimedia contents and delivery services, respectively. It is expected that promising and marketable service models can be created by means of these noticeable two technologies. However, current standard specifications do not provide a method for organized connection between those two technologies. 3D stereoscopic video services are weighted in broadcasting and storage services that are only available under environments in which the network bandwidth is guaranteed or free. Also, HTTP adaptive streaming technologies only provide plain 3D service methods that are dependent on particular Codec. Therefore, this paper proposes 3D video delivery format for HTTP adaptive streaming service which enables stable and seamless display for various stereoscopic video sequences over internet networks. The proposed technology is designed on the basis of Stereoscopic Video Application Format which is a service-oriented standard specification for storing stereoscopic video sequences. Also, this delivery format is directly applicable over DASH that is the representative standard technology for HTTP adaptive streaming services. The delivery format proposed in this paper has been submitted to MPEG and it has been accepted as a working draft, thus it expected to pave the way for practical industrialization in relevant fields from now on.
Synchronization Method of Stereoscopic Video in 3D Mobile Broadcasting through Heterogeneous Network
Kwon, Ki-Deok ; Yoo, Young-Hwan ; Jeong, Hyeon-Jun ; Lee, Gwang-Soon ; Cheong, Won-Sik ; Hur, Nam-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 596~610
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.596
This paper proposes a method to provide the high quality 3D broadcasting service in a mobile broadcasting system. In this method, audio and video data are delivered through a heterogeneous network, consisting of a mobile network as well as a broadcasting network, due to the limited bandwidth of the broadcasting system. However, it is more difficult to synchronize the left and right video frames of a 3D stereoscopic service, which come through different types of networks. The proposed method suggests the use of the offset from the initial timestamp of RTP (Real Time Protocol) to determine the order of frames and to find the pair of a left and a right frame that must be played at the same time. Additionally, a new signaling method is introduced for a mobile device to request a 3D service and to get the initial RTP timestamp.
User Detection and Main Body Parts Estimation using Inaccurate Depth Information and 2D Motion Information
Lee, Jae-Won ; Hong, Sung-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 611~624
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.611
'Gesture' is the most intuitive means of communication except the voice. Therefore, there are many researches for method that controls computer using gesture input to replace the keyboard or mouse. In these researches, the method of user detection and main body parts estimation is one of the very important process. in this paper, we propose user objects detection and main body parts estimation method on inaccurate depth information for pose estimation. we present user detection method using 2D and 3D depth information, so this method robust to changes in lighting and noise and 2D signal processing 1D signals, so mainly suitable for real-time and using the previous object information, so more accurate and robust. Also, we present main body parts estimation method using 2D contour information, 3D depth information, and tracking. The result of an experiment, proposed user detection method is more robust than only using 2D information method and exactly detect object on inaccurate depth information. Also, proposed main body parts estimation method overcome the disadvantage that can't detect main body parts in occlusion area only using 2D contour information and sensitive to changes in illumination or environment using color information.
On the Study of Initializing Extended Depth of Focus Algorithm Parameters
Yoo, Kyung-Moo ; Joo, Hyo-Nam ; Kim, Joon-Seek ; Park, Duck-Chun ; Choi, In-Ho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 625~633
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.625
Extended Depth of Focus (EDF) algorithms for extracting three-dimensional (3D) information from a set of optical image slices are studied by many researches recently. Due to the limited depth of focus of the microscope, only a small portion of the image slices are in focus. Most of the EDF algorithms try to find the in-focus area to generate a single focused image and a 3D depth image. Inherent to most image processing algorithms, the EDF algorithms need parameters to be properly initialized to perform successfully. In this paper, we select three popular transform-based EDF algorithms which are each based on pyramid, wavelet transform, and complex wavelet transform, and study the performance of the algorithms according to the initialization of its parameters. The parameters we considered consist of the number of levels used in the transform, the selection of the lowest level image, the window size used in high frequency filter, the noise reduction method, etc. Through extended simulation, we find a good relationship between the initialization of the parameters and the properties of both the texture and 3D ground truth images. Typically, we find that a proper initialization of the parameters improve the algorithm performance 3dB ~ 19dB over a default initialization in recovering the 3D information.
Nonlinear Optimization Method for Multiple Image Registration
Ahn, Yang-Keun ; Hong, Ji-Man ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 634~639
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.634
In this paper, we propose nonlinear optimization method for feature matching from multiple view image. Typical solution of feature matching is by solving linear equation. However this solution has large error due to nonlinearity of image formation model. If typical nonlinear optimization method is used, complexity grows exponentially over the number of features. To make complexity lower, we use sparse Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear optimization for matching of features over multiple view image.
H.264/SVC Spatial Scalability Coding based Terrestrial Multi-channel Hybrid HD Broadcasting Service Framework and Performance Analysis on H.264/SVC
Kim, Dae-Eun ; Lee, Bum-Shik ; Kim, Mun-Churl ; Kim, Byung-Sun ; Hahm, Sang-Jin ; Lee, Keun-Sik ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 640~658
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.640
One of the existing terrestrial multi-channel DTV service frameworks, called KoreaView, provides four programs, composed of MPEG-2 based one HD video and H.264/AVC based three SD videos within one single 6MHz frequency bandwidth. However the additional 3 SD videos can not provide enough quality due to its reduced spatial resolution and low target bitrates. In this paper, we propose a framework, which is called a terrestrial multi-channel high quality hybrid DTV service, to overcome such a weakness of KoreaView services. In the proposed framework, the three additional SD videos are encoded based on an H.264/SVC Spatial Base layer, which is compliant with H.264/AVC, and are delivered via broadcasting networks. On the other hand, and the corresponding three additional HD videos are encoded based on an H.264/SVC Spatial Enhancement layer, which are transmitted over broadband networks such as Internet, thus allowing the three additional videos for users with better quality of experience. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework, various experimental results are provided for real video contents being used for DTV services. First, the experimental results show that, when the SD sequences are encoded by the H.264/SVC Spatial Base layer at a target bitrate of 1.5Mbps, the resulting PSNR values are ranged from 34.5dB to 42.9dB, which is a sufficient level of service quality. Also it is noted that 690kbps-8,200kbps are needed for the HD test sequences when they are encoded in the H.264/SVC Spatial Enhancement layer at similar PSNR values for the same HD sequences encoded by MPEG-2 at a target bitrate of 12 Mbps.
Audio Fingerprint Based on Combining Binary Fingerprints
Jang, Dal-Won ; Lee, Seok-Pil ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 659~669
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.659
This paper proposes the method to extract a binary audio fingerprint by combining several base binary fingerprints. Based on majority voting of base fingerprints, which are designed by mimicking the fingerprint used in Philips fingerprinting system, the proposed fingerprint is determined. In the matching part, the base fingerprints are extracted from the query, and distance is computed using the sum of them. In the experiments, the proposed fingerprint outperforms the base binary fingerprints. The method can be used for enhancing the existing binary fingerprint or for designing a new fingerprint.
Picture Quality Control Method for Region of Interest by Using Depth Information
Kwon, Soon-Kak ; Park, Yoo-Hyun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 670~675
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.670
If the region of interest (ROI) is set within the picture of image and video and the high quality is provided in ROI compared to Non ROI, then overall subjective picture quality can be increased. ROI extracted by the color camera only increases the calculation complexity and reduces the extraction accuracy. In this paper, we use depth camera to set the ROI and calculate the object distance from camera, then propose a method that the different picture quality is controlled by depending on the distance of an object. That is, we apply a high quantization step size to the far object, but relatively a low quantization step size to the close object, so better picture quality can be provided. Simulation results show that applying the differential quantization step size to the distance of objects by the proposed method can improve the subjective picture quality.
Motion Estimation Method by Using Depth Camera
Kwon, Soon-Kak ; Kim, Seong-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 676~683
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.676
Motion estimation in video coding greatly affects implementation complexity. In this paper, a reducing method of the complexity in motion estimation is proposed by using both the depth and color cameras. We obtain object information with video sequence from distance information calculated by depth camera, then perform labeling for grouping pixels within similar distances as the same object. Three search regions (background, inside-object, boundary) are determined adaptively for each of motion estimation blocks within current and reference pictures. If a current block is the inside-object region, then motion is searched within the inside-object region of reference picture. Also if a current block is the background region, then motion is searched within the background region of reference picture. From simulation results, we can see that the proposed method compared to the full search method remains the almost same as the motion estimated difference signal and significantly reduces the searching complexity.
Visibility Enhancement of Underwater Stereo Images Using Depth Image
Shin, Hyoung-Chul ; Kim, Sang-Hoon ; Sohn, Kwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 684~694
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.684
In the underwater environment, light is absorbed and scattered by water and floating particles, which makes the underwater images suffer from color degradation and limited visibility. Physically, the amount of the scattered light transmitted to the image is proportional to the distance between the camera and the object. In this paper, the proposed visibility enhancement. method utilizes depth images to estimate the light transmission and the degradation factor by the scattered light. To recover the scatter-free images without unnatural artifacts, the proposed method normalizes the degradation factor based on the value of each pixel of the image. Finally, the scatter-free images are obtained by removing the scattered components on the image according to the estimated transmission. The proposed method also considers the color discrepancies of underwater stereo images so that the stereo images have the same color appearance after the visibility enhancement. The experimental results show that the proposed method improves the color contrast more than 5% to 14% depending on the experimental images.
A Prototype Architecture of an Interactive Service System for Digital Hologram Videos
Seo, Young-Ho ; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ; Kim, Man-Bae ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2012, Pages 695~706
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2012.17.4.695
The purpose of this paper is to propose a service system for a digital hologram video, which has not been published yet. This system assumes the existing service frame for 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional image/video, which includes data acquisition, processing, transmission, reception, and reconstruction. This system also includes the function to service the digital hologram at the viewer's view point by tracking the viewer's face. For this function, the image information at the virtual view point corresponding to the viewer's view point is generated to get the corresponding hologram. Here in this paper, only a prototype that includes major functions of it is implemented, which includes camera system for data acquisition, camera calibration and image rectification, depth/intensity image enhancement, intermediate view generation, digital hologram generation, and holographic image reconstruction by both simulation and optical apparatus. The proposed prototype system was implemented and the result showed that it takes about 352ms to generate one frame of digital hologram and reconstruct the image by simulation, or 183ms to reconstruct image by optical apparatus instead of simulation.