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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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Dehazing in HSI Color Space with Color Correction
Um, Taeha ; Kim, Wonha ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 140~148
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.140
The haze removal algorithm using median dark channel prior is an efficient and fast method with relatively accurate transmission estimation. However, conventional methods may produce color distortion since the method ignores the color mismatch between estimated airlight and actual airlight. In this paper, we propose a color correction with measuring color fidelity in the HSI color space. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm gives better color correction scheme.
A New System Implementation for Generating Holographic Video using Natural Color Scene
Seo, Youngho ; Lee, Yoon-Hyuk ; Koo, Ja-Myung ; Kim, Woo-Youl ; Kim, Bo-Ra ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 149~158
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.149
In this paper, we propose a new system which can generate digital holograms for natural color scene. The system consists of both a camera system for capturing images and softwares(SWs) for various image processings. The camera system uses a vertical rig with a depth and a RGB camera and a cold mirror which has the different transmittance according to wavelength for obtaining images with the same view point. The S/W is composed by the engines for processing and servicing the captured images and computer-generated hologram (CGH) for generating digital holograms using general-purpose computing on graphics processing unit (GPGPU). Each algorithm was implemented using C/C++ and CUDA languages, and all engines were integrated in LabView environment. The proposed system can generate 10 digital holographic frames per second using about 6K light sources.
Enhancement of Haze Removal using Transmission Rate Compensation
Ahn, Jinu ; Cha, Hyung-Tai ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 159~166
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.159
In this paper, we propose a transmission rate compensation method to remove a haze of an image by using edge information of a haze image and image segmentation. With a hazed image, it is difficult not only to recognize objects in the image but also to use an image processing method. One of the famous defogging algorithm named 'Dark Channel Prior'(DCP) is used to predict fog transmission rate using dark area of an image, and eliminates fog from the image. But there is a big possibility to calculate a wrong transmission rate if the area of high RGB values is larger than the area of the reference area. Therefore we eliminate color distortion area to calculate transmission rate by using the propose method, and obtain a natural clean image from a hazed image.
A Motion Adaptive Deinterlacing Algorithm Using Improved Motion Detection
Yun, Janghyeok ; Jeon, Gwanggil ; Jeong, Jechang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 167~177
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.167
In this paper, a motion adaptive deinterlacing algorithm is proposed. It consists of three parts: (1) modified edge-based line average, (2) pixel-based consequent five-field motion detection, and (3) block-based local characteristic for detecting true motion and calculating the motion intensity by using an improved method which is able to detect the inner part of moving objects precisely as well as to reduce the risk of false detection caused by intrinsic noises in the image. Depending on the detected motion activity level, it combines spatial and temporal methods with weighting factor. Simulations conducted on several video sequences indicate that the performance of the proposed method is superior to the conventional methods in terms of both subjective and objective video quality.
An Efficient Parallelization Implementation of PU-level ME for Fast HEVC Encoding
Park, Soobin ; Choi, Kiho ; Park, Sang-Hyo ; Jang, Euee Seon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 178~184
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.178
In this paper, we propose an efficient parallelization technique of PU-level motion estimation (ME) in the next generation video coding standard, high efficiency video coding (HEVC) to reduce the time complexity of video encoding. It is difficult to encode video in real-time because ME has significant complexity (i.e., 80 percent at the encoder). In order to solve this problem, various techniques have been studied, and among them is the parallelization, which is carefully concerned in algorithm-level ME design. In this regard, merge estimation method using merge estimation region (MER) that enables ME to be designed in parallel has been proposed; but, parallel ME based on MER has still unconsidered problems to be implemented ideally in HEVC test model (HM). Therefore, we propose two strategies to implement stable parallel ME using MER in HM. Through experimental results, the excellence of our proposed methods is shown; the encoding time using the proposed method is reduced by 25.64 percent on average of that of HM which uses sequential ME.
Spatiotemporal Saliency-Based Video Summarization on a Smartphone
Lee, Won Beom ; Williem, Williem ; Park, In Kyu ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 185~195
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.185
In this paper, we propose a video summarization technique on a smartphone, based on spatiotemporal saliency. The proposed technique detects scene changes by computing the difference of the color histogram, which is robust to camera and object motion. Then the similarity between adjacent frames, face region, and frame saliency are computed to analyze the spatiotemporal saliency in a video clip. Over-segmented hierarchical tree is created using scene changes and is updated iteratively using mergence and maintenance energies computed during the analysis procedure. In the updated hierarchical tree, segmented frames are extracted by applying a greedy algorithm on the node with high saliency when it satisfies the reduction ratio and the minimum interval requested by the user. Experimental result shows that the proposed method summaries a 2 minute-length video in about 10 seconds on a commercial smartphone. The summarization quality is superior to the commercial video editing software, Muvee.
Technologies for Forensic Marking Certification
Oh, Weon-Geun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 196~203
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.196
The importance of Digital Rights Protection technologies, especially the forensic marking, is getting larger and larger as the demand for the digital contents is increased. But the technologies for the evaluation of forensic marking is not set up properly due to the conflicts between interested parties and technical difficulties. Therefore to evaluate the performance of forensic marking objectively, image and video modification items/levels and evaluation criteria are essential. This paper suggests the quantitative system for evaluating the performance of forensic marking objectively. By providing the opportunity to evaluate the Digital Rights Protection product in objective and quantitative manner, forensic marking industry can expedite its technology development and consumer can get objective and universally validated performance result. It is expected this technology could help revitalizing the related industries and help expediting the development of forensic mark technologies.
Implementation of FFT on Massively Parallel GPU for DVB-T Receiver
Lee, Kyu Hyung ; Heo, Seo Weon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 204~214
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.204
Recently various research have been conducted relating to the implementation of signal processing or communication system by software using the massively parallel processing capability of the GPU. In this work, we focus on reducing software simulation time of 2K/8K FFT in DVB-T by using GPU. we estimate the processing time of the DVB-T system, which is one of the standards for DTV transmission, by CPU. Then we implement the FFT processing by the software using the NVIDIA's massively parallel GPU processor. In this paper we apply stream process method to reduce the overhead for data transfer between CPU and GPU, coalescing method to reduce the global memory access time and data structure design method to maximize the shared memory usage. The results show that our proposed method is approximately 20~30 times as fast as the CPU based FFT processor, and approximately 1.8 times as fast as the CUFFT library (version 2.1) which is provided by the NVIDIA when applied to the DVB-T 2K/8K mode FFT.
Performance Analysis of MBMS and Wi-Fi Priority Policy in Heterogeneous Networks having a dispersed Single-cell MBMS
Jeong, Un Ho ; Lee, Jung Moon ; Kim, Gi Taek ; Nam, Boo Hee ; Kim, Dong Hoi ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 215~224
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.215
With the rising popularity of smart-phones, the supply of Internet protocol television is largely increased and it causes the wireless communication network load to be increased. To overcome such an overloading problem, 3GPP is now working on the standardization of MBMS since LTE Release 6 specification. MBMS has good performance in bandwidth efficiency by sharing the same bandwidth with the mulitple MBMS users having the same content. According to the proposed algorithm, in heterogeneous networks having a dispersed Single-cell MBMS where 3GPP network and Wi-Fi network are mixed, if the number of MBMS users, who are belonging to cells supporting a dispersed Single-cell MBMS, is more than a specified threshold, the MBMS priority policy is operated. Otherwise, the Wi-Fi priority policy is executed. As the simulation results show both the increase of total available bandwidth ratio and the decrease of network usage cost, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme allows the network efficiency to be maximized.
The Effects of Stimulus-background Contrast, Background Texture Density and Screen Disparity of Stimulus on Crosstalk Perception
Park, JongJin ; Li, Hyung-Chul O. ; Kim, ShinWoo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 225~236
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.225
3D contents could cause unique 3D visual fatigue. Screen disparity, image blurring, and crosstalk are known to be the three major factors responsible for the fatigue. Among these, screen disparity and image blurring are content factors, that is, one can directly manipulate contents themselves to handle visual fatigue caused by these two factors. On the other hand, because crosstalk is closely tied to physical characteristics of 3D display, it is difficult or even impossible to reduce crosstalk-driven visual fatigue unless one replaces 3D display itself (for example, from active to passive display). However, the effects of crosstalk on 3D visual fatigue depends on visual stimulus features (that is, contents), and thus it is possible to manipulate stimulus features in order to handle visual fatigue caused by crosstalk. Hence, this research tested the effects of visual stimulus features on crosstalk (which then causes 3D visual fatigue). Using relative depth discrimination task, we tested the effects of stimulus-background contrast, background texture density, and screen disparity on the degree of perceived crosstalk. The results showed that crosstalk decreases with presence of background texture and with less degree of screen disparity.
Scene Composition Technology Based on HTML5 in Hybrid Broadcasting Environment
Jo, Minwoo ; Park, Jungwook ; Kim, Kyuheon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 237~248
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.237
Hybrid broadcasting environment is convergence of broadcasting and communication environment. In hybrid broadcasting environment, a number of media can be delivered using both broadcasting channel and other network unlike traditional broadcast environment that is able to deliver a couple of media by the limited bandwidth. Now, starting with smart TV, hybrid broadcasting environment combining broadcasting channel and IP network is established, and a variety of services are appearing. Moreover, the services using hybrid broadcasting environment are expected to appear soon for the other smart terminals such as smart phone and tablet PC. Scene composition is one of the methods that can consume effectively a number of media delivered from hybrid broadcasting environment. Using scene composition, multiple media can be consumed through the specified presentation time and space. Therefore, in this paper, it proposes the scene composition technology that is suitable for hybrid broadcasting environment and smart terminals. However, the spatial composition and temporal composition of media using script language and style language of HTML5 might increase the complexity of processing, and cause limitation of avaliable terminals. Also, a document of HTML5 can describe only one scene. By these reason, the proposed scene composition technology extends HTML5 in order to provide the spatial and temporal composition of media and description of multiple scene through markup language. In addition, it includes the extension of HTML5 in terms of utilization in hybrid broadcasting environment. For this proposal, this paper describes the technology of HTML5 and proposed scene composition. Also, it verifies the scene composition with both implementations and experiments.
Scalable Video Coding Using Large Block and its Performance Analysis
Park, Un-Ki ; Choi, Haechul ; Kang, Jung Won ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 249~260
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.249
Recently, High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) has been developed as a new video coding standard mainly focusing on the coding of ultra high definition (UHD) videos as the high resolution and high quality videos are getting more popular. Furthermore, the scalable extension of HEVC is being standardized for more efficient provision of HD and UHD services in the communications-broadcasting convergence environment. In this paper, we propose an improved scalable video coding method of H.264/AVC to achieve high coding efficiency particularly for UHD and HD videos. The basic idea is to allow large block size in H.264/AVC SVC, which results in more efficient inter-layer prediction and syntax elements coding. The experimental results show that it achieves an average 4.53% reduction in BD-rate relative to H.264/AVC SVC.
Application of Adaptive Loop Filter for NRT-Based Stereoscopic Video Coding
Lee, Byung-Tak ; Lee, BongHo ; Choi, Haechul ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Yun, Kugjin ; Cheong, Won-Sik ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 261~270
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.261
A stereoscopic 3D video service is able to provide a 3D video service while keeping backward compatibility with the existing 2D video service. In the terrestrial digital television (DTV) system, a stereoscopic video codec is required to have high coding efficiency in order to provide a 3D video service in the same channel capacity. A hybrid codec consisting of MPEG-2 for base video and H.264/AVC or HEVC for 3D auxiliary video is considered. Furthermore, Non-Real-Time (NRT) delivery of stereoscopic video is also considered as a service scenario for 3DTV services to overcome the limited bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a stereoscopic video coding scheme using adaptive loop filter (ALF) which had been considered in HEVC as a pre-/post-filter for enhancing coding efficiency in NRT-based 3DTV services. In order to apply ALF as a post-filter to the reconstructed additional view coded by H.264/AVC, we devise a method in which ALF is adaptively applied based on a structure determined by using macroblock (MB) coding information such as MB mode type and reference index instead of coding unit (CU) structure on which ALF is applied in the HEVC. Experimental results shows that the proposed stereoscopic video coding scheme applying ALF obtains up to 24.9% gain of bit saving.
An Early Termination Algorithm for Efficient CU Splitting in HEVC
Goswami, Kalyan ; Kim, Byung-Gyu ; Jun, DongSan ; Jung, SoonHeung ; Seok, JinWook ; Kim, YounHee ; Choi, Jin Soo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 271~282
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.271
Recently, ITU-T/VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG have started a new joint standardization activity on video coding, called High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). This new standard gives significant improvement in terms of picture quality for high resolution video. The main challenge in this upcoming standard is the time complexity. In this paper we have focused on CU splitting algorithm. We have proposed a novel algorithm which can terminate the CU splitting process early based on the RD cost of the parent and current level and the motion vector value of the current CU. Experimental result shows that our proposed algorithm gives on average more than about 10% decrement in time over ECU  with on average 1.78% of BD loss on the original.
Multimedia No-reference Video Quality Assessment Methods Using Bit Stream Information
Seo, Guiwon ; Ok, Jiheon ; Lee, Kwon ; Lee, Jae Ho ; Lee, Chulhee ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 283~296
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.283
Various video services with networks are increasingly available as smart phones, computers and IPTV are widely used. However, transmission over networks may experience transmission errors due to traffic increases and noise. As a result, video quality may suffer. Therefore, quality monitoring emerges as an important issue. In this paper, we propose a video quality assessment method using bit stream information. The video quality metric is calculated using header information and ES (elementary stream) information. To assess performance of the proposed algorithm, subjective quality assessment tests are conducted (VGA resolution). It is shown high correlation between subjective result and the proposed method.
Video Content-Based Bit Rate Estimation
Huang, Fei ; Lee, Jaeyong ; Oh, Seoung-Jun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 297~310
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.297
In this paper, we present a model-based video bit rate estimation scheme for reducing the bit rate while maintaining a subjective quality in many video streaming services limited by network bandwidth, such as IPTV services. First, we extract major parameters which serve as an indirect measurement of frame's bits. Using those parameters, the proposed bit rate estimation scheme can extract candidate frames. Finally, the bit rate of each segment is estimated by statistical analysis and a mathematical model based on a given target quality. In experimental results, we show that the proposed scheme can reduce the bit rate on average by 43% in low-complexity video while maintaining the subjective quality. To find the appropriate bit rate based on video contents, the proposed schemes can estimate the bit rate with neither the repeated full encoding nor subjective quality test. On average, the bit rate can be automatically estimated by encoding the candidate frames of 4%.
A Post-processing for Binary Mask Estimation Toward Improving Speech Intelligibility in Noise
Kim, Gibak ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 311~318
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.311
This paper deals with a noise reduction algorithm which uses the binary masking in the time-frequency domain. To improve speech intelligibility in noise, noise-masked speech is decomposed into time-frequency units and mask "0" is assigned to masker-dominant region removing time-frequency units where noise is dominant compared to speech. In the previous research, Gaussian mixture models were used to classify the speech-dominant region and noise-dominant region which correspond to mask "1" and mask "0", respectively. In each frequency band, data were collected and trained to build the Gaussian mixture models and detection procedure is performed to the test data where each time-frequency unit belongs to speech-dominant region or noise-dominant region. In this paper, we consider the correlation of masks in the frequency domain and propose a post-processing method which exploits the Viterbi algorithm.
Gradual Block-based Efficient Lossy Location Coding for Image Retrieval
Choi, Gyeongmin ; Jung, Hyunil ; Kim, Haekwang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 18, issue 2, 2013, Pages 319~322
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2013.18.2.319
Image retrieval research activity has moved its focus from global descriptors to local descriptors of feature point such as SIFT. MPEG is Currently working on standardization of effective coding of location and local descriptors of feature point in the context mobile based image search driven application in the name of MPEG-7 CDVS (Compact Descriptor for Visual Search). The extracted feature points consist of two parts, location information and Descriptor. For efficient image retrieval, we proposed a novel method that is gradual block-based efficient lossy location coding to compress location information according to distribution in images. From experimental result, the number of average bits per feature point reduce 5~6% and the accuracy rate keep compared to state of the art TM 3.0.