Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Broadcast Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Dec 1997
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Jun 1997
Selecting the target year
Hardware Architecture for PC-based MPEG-4 Video CODEC
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 86~93
Fast growth of multimedia applications requires new functions for video data processing. such as obj;cted-based video representation and manipulation. which are not supported by 11PEG-l and 11PEG-2. To support these requirements. 11PEG-4 video coding allows users to manipulate every video object easily by decomposing a scene into several video objects and coding each of them independently. However. the large amount of computations and flexible structure of 11PEG-4 video CODEC make it difficult to be implemented by either the general purpose DSP or a dedicated VLSI. In this paper, we propose a hardware architecture using a hybrid of a high performance programmable DSP and an application specific IC to implement a flexible 11PEG-4 video codec requiring the large amount of computations. The application specific IC has the functions of motion estimation and compensation.
Efficient Vertex-based Shape Coding using One-dimensional Vertex and Vertex Reordering
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 94~104
This paper presents a new vertex-based binary shape coding scheme using one-dimensional vertex selection/encoding and vertex reordering. In compared with the conventional object-adaptive vertex encoding(OA VEL the extracted vertices are, firstly, classified into one-dimensional(lD) vertices and two-dimensional (2D) vertices in the proposed method. For lD vertices, new coding method proposed in this paper is performed. For 2D vertices, the vertex reordering and OA VE are carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed vertex-based coding scheme red.uces coding bits up to 12 % compared with the conventional one and its coding gain depends on the characteristics of contour.
Improvement of the MPEG-4 Still Image Compression Using Visually Weighted Quantizers
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 104~113
In this paper, we investigate on the techniques for still image compression based on the wavelet transform, which will be adopted as a part of the MPEG-4 compression standards. Also we propose an effective still image compression technique, which is simpler than the MPEG-4 compression method and is improved by using a visually weighted quantizer based to HVS(Human Visual System), Simulations are carried out and compared with the algorithm proposed in MPEG-4. The simulation results show that the proposed method in this paper gives much better image quality than that of the method in MPEG-4. Also, except the case where the compression ratio is high, it shows that the proposed method has lower in complexity and provides a better subjective and objective image quality than EZW in most cases. Since wavelet transform well reflects HVS, the compressed image rarely causes blocking artifact compared with JPEG, and in most cases, it shows considerable quality improvement over JPEG.
Baseline based Binary Shape Coder
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 114~124
In object based coding, binary shape ccx:ling plays an important role by ccx:ling the outer shape of object. Here we propose a new shape ccx:ling tool, which enccx:les the outline of shape from a baseline. Different from 2-D (Vertex) shape ccx:ling algorithms. the proposed method encodeds the data that are extracted in a I-D fashion. The enccx:led data consist of the starting position, distance lists, and turning point lists. In the lossless ccx:ling mode, every contour pixel is input for ccx:ling, whereas variable sampling has been employed to enccx:le fewer contour pixels while preserving reasonable distortion. For interframe ccx:ling, a fast motion compensation was achieved by use of distance and turning point lists. Subjective viewing tests proved that the proposed method outperforms the current shape ccx:ling standard, CAE, in MPEG-4. In objective results for compression efficiency, the proposed method was significantly better in intraframe coding than CAE, whereas CAE was better in interframe ccx:ling.
Video Content Manipulation Using 3D Analysis for MPEG-4
Sull, Sanghoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 125~135
This paper is concerned with realistic mainpulation of content in video sequences. Manipulation of content in video sequences is one of the content-based functionalities for MPEG-4 Visual standard. We present an approach to synthesizing video sequences by using the intermediate outputs of three-dimensional (3D) motion and depth analysis. For concreteness, we focus on video showing 3D motion of an observer relative to a scene containing planar runways (or roads). We first present a simple runway (or road) model. Then, we describe a method of identifying the runway (or road) boundary in the image using the Point of Heading Direction (PHD) which is defined as the image of, the ray along which a camera moves. The 3D motion of the camera is obtained from one of the existing 3D analysis methods. Then, a video sequence containing a runway is manipulated by (i) coloring the scene part above a vanishing line, say blue, to show sky, (ii) filling in the occluded scene parts, and (iii) overlaying the identified runway edges and placing yellow disks in them, simulating lights. Experimental results for a real video sequence are presented.
3-dimensional Mesh Model Coding Using Predictive Residual Vector Quantization
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 136~145
As a 3D mesh model consists of a lot of vertices and polygons and each vertex position is represented by three 32 bit floating-point numbers in a 3D coordinate, the amount of data needed for representing the model is very excessive. Thus, in order to store and/or transmit the 3D model efficiently, a 3D model compression is necessarily required. In this paper, a 3D model compression method using PRVQ (predictive residual vector quantization) is proposed. Its underlying idea is based on the characteristics such as high correlation between the neighboring vertex positions and the vectorial property inherent to a vertex position. Experimental results show that the proposed method obtains higher compression ratio than that of the existing methods and has the advantage of being capable of transmitting the vertex position data progressively.
An Automatic Segmentation Method for Video Object Plane Generation
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 146~155
The new video coding standard Iv1PEG-4 is enabling content-based functionalities. It requires a prior decomposition of sequences into video object planes (VOP's) so that each VOP represents moving objets. This paper addresses an image segmentation method for separating moving objects from still background (non-moving area) in video sequences using a statistical hypothesis test. In the proposed method. three consecutive image frames are exploited and a hypothesis testing is performed by comparing two means from two consecutive difference images. which results in aT-test. This hypothesis test yields a change detection mask that indicates moving areas (foreground) and non-moving areas (background), Moreover. an effective method for extracting
Image Segmentation Using Morphological Operation and Region Merging
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 156~169
This paper proposes an image segmentation technique using watershed algorithm followed by region merging method. A gradient image is obtained by applying multiscale gradient algorithm to the image simplified by morphological filters. Since the watershed algorithm produces the oversegmented image. it is necessary to merge small segmented regions as wel]' as region having similar characteristics. For region merging. we utilize the merging criteria based on both the mean value of the pixels of each region and the edge intensities between regions obtained by the contour following process. Experimental results show that the proposed method produces meaningful image segmentation results.
Image Enhancement Techniques for MPEG-4
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 169~181
In this paper, we propose and discuss about image enhancement techniques for MPEG-4. which represents very low bit-rate, content-based. and object-based hierarchical audio-visual coding standard. The proposed enhancement technique removes undesired artifacts arising in the compression procedure and increase resolution in both spatial and temporal domains. In order to remove undesired artifacts. we divide the MPEG-4 video algorithm in two parts: MPEG-2 like part and the new part. For removing artifacts caused by the first part. we adopt the conventional blocking artifacts algorithm developed for MPEG-2. On the other hand for removing artifacts caused by the second part. we provide a new degradation model. and propose the corresponding image restoration method. For increasing resolution of the MPEG-4 images, we propose a general framework of multichannel image interpolation process. which includes both spatial and temporal interpolations. As the MPEG-4 standard is under development. various sophisticated techniques are considered. but research on image enhancement techniques is relatively underestimated. By this reason. additional image enhancement techniques will become very important issue in realization phase of MPEG-4.
Performance Experiment of Upstream Digital Signal Transmission over Cable TV Networks in Korea
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 182~193
In this paper, we propose technical and structural solutions for various problems in two-way digital communication services in CATV networks by actual field tests. The two-way digital communication services include VOD, video conferencing, distance learning, interactive game and internet service. We investigate the quality of T -1 level 0.544 Mbps) upstream digital signal while varying the number of subscribers in three different cells in accordance with ITU-T G.821. Based on this investigation, several ways to cope with the problems identified are suggested.
An Adaptive Rate Control Using Piecewise Linear Approximation Model
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 194~205
In video compression standards such as MPEG and H.263. rate control is one of the key components for good coding performance. This paper presents a simple adaptive rate control scheme using a piecewise linear approximation model. While conventional buffer control approach is performed by adjusting the quantization parameter linearly according to the buffer fullness. the proposed approach uses a piecewise linear approximation model derived from logarithmic relation between the quantization parameter and bitrate in data compression. In addition. a forward analyzer performed in the spatial domain is used to improve image quality. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method provides better performance than the conventional one and reduces the fluctuation of the PSNR per frame while maintaining the quality of the reconstructed frames at a relatively stable level.
Bitrate Scalable Video Coder
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 206~215
We pror.a;e a H.263-based video ceder with two-layer ocalability. The bare layer is ceded by using the default H.263 axling algorithms to achieve high compresred video data and the enhanced layer is axied by enhanced axling such as HVS-based quantization updating. The enhanced layer contains only arled refinement data for the OCT coefficients of the bare layer. Bitstream syntax and semantics for enhancement layer are designed and quantizer design using the HVS is pror.ooed. Data from the two layers are combined after inverse quantization and inverse OCT prcx:esses in the deaxier. We show with e~rirrental results that the pror.a;ed layered arlee achieves comparable picture quality with non-layered arlee at bitrates of 30 kbr;s or less. Overhead information for the bitstream layer can 00 limited to less than 0.5 kbits/frame.
Multi-Resolution MBS Technique for Intermediate Image Synthesis
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 2, issue 2, 1997, Pages 216~224
In this paper, we propose a depth information extraction method for intermediate image synthesis. As stereo matching method, MBS(Multiple-Baseline Stereo) method has been proposed, in which the matching accuracy increases by using the multiple camera, but there are some inherent problems such as computational complexity, boundary overreach(BO) in depth map, and occlusion. So, we propose the modified version of MBS so called Multi-Resolution MBS(MR-MBS). Moreover, we also propose an adaptive occlusion area processing technique to improve the accuracy of the depth information in occlusion area.