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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jul 2016
Volume 21, Issue 3 - May 2016
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Implementation of CoAP/6LoWPAN over BLE Networks for IoT Services
Kim, Cheol-Min ; Kang, Hyung-Woo ; Choi, Sang-Il ; Koh, Seok-Joo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 298~306
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.298
With the advent of Internet of Things (IoT) technology that allows the communications between things and devices over the Internet, a lot of researches on the IoT services, such as smart home or healthcare, have been progressed. In the existing machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, however, since the underlying link-layer technologies, such as Bluetooth or ZigBee, do not use the Internet Protocol (IP) communication, those technologies are not suitable to provide the IoT services. Accordingly, this paper discusses how to provide the Internet services in the M2M communication, and propose an implementation of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) over 6LoWPAN for providing IoT services in the BLE networks. Based on the implementation, we compared the performance between HTTP and CoAP for IoT communications. From the experimental results, we can see that the CoAP protocol gives better performance than the HTTP protocol with two times higher throughput, 21% faster transmission time, and 22% smaller amount of generated packets.
Comparison of Text Beginning Frame Detection Methods in News Video Sequences
Lee, Sanghee ; Ahn, Jungil ; Jo, Kanghyun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 307~318
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.307
비디오 프레임 내의 오버레이 텍스트는 음성과 시각적 내용에 부가적인 정보를 제공한다. 특히, 뉴스 비디오에서 이 텍스트는 비디오 영상 내용을 압축적이고 직접적인 설명을 한다. 그러므로 뉴스 비디오 색인 시스템을 만드는데 있어서 가장 신뢰할 수 있는 실마리이다. 텔레비전 뉴스 프로그램의 색인 시스템을 만들기 위해서는 텍스트를 검출하고 인식하는 것이 중요하다. 이 논문은 뉴스 비디오에서 오버레이 텍스트를 검출하고 인식하는데 도움이 되는 오버레이 텍스트 시작 프레임 식별을 제안한다. 비디오 시퀀스의 모든 프레임이 오버레이 텍스트를 포함하는 것이 아니기 때문에, 모든 프레임에서 오버레이 텍스트의 추출은 불필요하고 시간 낭비다. 그러므로 오버레이 텍스트를 포함하고 있는 프레임에만 초점을 맞춤으로써 오버레이 텍스트 검출의 정확도를 개선할 수 있다. 텍스트 시작 프레임 식별 방법에 대한 비교 실험을 뉴스 비디오에 대해서 실시하고, 적절한 처리 방법을 제안한다.
Coding Tools for Enhancing Coding Efficiency of MPEG Internet Video Coding (IVC)
Yang, Anna ; Lee, Jae-Yung ; Han, Jong-Ki ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 319~329
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.319
Internet Video Coding (IVC) is a royalty-free codec currently being developed in MPEG. Coding efficiency of IVC codec has been steadily enhanced and it was reported that the performance of Committee Draft (CD) version is comparable to H.264/AVC High Profile (HP) in terms of objective and subjective qualities. In this paper, we present some coding tools that have been proposed for enhancing the coding efficiency of IVC during the developing process in MPEG along with brief overview of IVC codec architecture and coding algorithms. The coding tools include both of normative tools and informative tools such as non-reference P frame coding, DC mode intra prediction, Lagrange multiplier selection, and extension of chroma intra prediction modes. Improvement obtained by each tool is presented in terms of algorithm and coding gain based on the experiments. As a result of the experiment, the coding tools give the average bit saving of 8.8%, 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.0%, respectively, in the low-delay coding mode.
A Study on Multiple Sensorial Media Application Format
Jung, Yup Oh ; Kim, Sang-Kyun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 330~340
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.330
This paper explains about the structure of multiple sensorial media application format (ISO/IEC 23000-17), which is newly standardized as a project of MPEG-A. This format facilitates effective storage, playing, and management of media with multiple sensorial effects. The ISO base media file format from MPEG-4 Part 12 and sensory effect metadata (SEM) from MPEG-V Part 3 are used to composed the multiple sensorial media application format. In this paper, a fragmentation method to break a SEM XML document into valid SEM samples is presented. Several binarization methods to compress the SEM samples are compared and evaluated as well. The compression ratio and processing time using the MPEG-V binary representation and the Binary MPEG format for XML (BiM) are superior to the gzip compression.
Down Sampling for Fast Rough Mode Decision for a Hardware-based HEVC Intra-frame encoder
Jang, Ji Hun ; Rhee, Chae Eun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 341~348
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.341
HEVC is the next compression standard and is expected to be used widely replacing the conventional H.264/AVC standard. The compression ratio of the HEVC is twice times than H.264/AVC, whereas its computational complexity is increased by up to 40%. Many research efforts have been made to reduce the computational complexity and to speed up encoding. For intra coding, the rough mode decision (RMD) is commonly applied. The rate-distortion optimization (RDO) process to decide the best mode is too complex so that RMD chooses the candidate modes with a simple process and sends the candidates to RDO process. However, for large-size blocks, the RMD also requires considerable computations. In this paper, a down-sampling scheme is proposed for the RMD process. The reference pixel loading, predicted pixel generation are performed using the down-sampled pixel data. When the proposed scheme is applied to the RMD, the computational complexity is reduced by 70% with a marginal bitrate increase of 0.04%. In terms of area of hardware-based RMD, the gate count and the buffer size is reduced 33% and 66%, respectively.
Efficient QP-per-frame Assignment Method for Low-delay HEVC Encoder
Park, Sang-hyo ; Jang, Euee S. ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 349~356
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.349
In this paper, we propose an efficient assignment method that assigns quantization parameter (QP) in accordance with group of picture (GOP) structure given in HEVC encoder. Each video frames can have difference QP values based on given GOP configuration for HEVC encoding. Particularly, for important frames we can assign low QP values, and vice versa. However, there has not been thorough investigation on efficient QP assignment method by far. Even in HEVC reference software encoder, only monotonic QP assignment method is employed. Thus, the proposed method assign adaptive QP values to each GOP so that temporal dynamic activity between GOPs can be exploited. Through the experiment, the proposed method showed a 7.3% gain of compression performance in terms of BD-rate compared to HEVC test model (HM) in low-delay configuration, and outperformed the existing QP assignment study on average.
A Study on the Variable Transmission of xHE-AAC Audio Frame
Lee, Bongho ; Yang, Kyutae ; Lim, Hyoungsoo ; Hur, Namho ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 357~368
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.357
In DAB+, HE-AAC v2 codec is applied for the fixed rate transmission of audio stream. In case that xHE-AAC codec including USAC, a more efficiency is expected when the variable frame is used in a given same bandwidth compared to the fixed frame transmission. For this to be realized, audio streams need to be multiplexed in a sub-channel before transmission, then a method is required to identify the border of each audio frames. In this paper, the toggled sync byte and additional identification field being sequentially placed between AU borders are proposed in order to deal with the AU border identification. In addition, the Reed-Solomon based error correction code which is compliant to DAB+ is proposed.
An Audio Coding Technique Employing the Inter-channel Phase Difference Skip
Kim, Hyun-Hwi ; Kim, Rin-Chul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 369~379
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.369
This paper deals with an efficient method for skipping inter-channel phase differences (IPD) in the MPEG surround of the unified speech and audio coding (USAC). Based on the psycho-acoustic sensitivity on the IPD, we estimate a threshold on IPD, below which we can not notice degradation in spatial cue. We propose an IPD skip method, in which any IPDs within the threshold are set to zero and are not transmitted. The proposed IPD skip method gives about 38% savings in terms of bit amount for IPD. Nevertheless, in the MUSHRA test, the proposed method does not show any noticeable degradation in the decoded audio quality.
No-Reference Image Quality Assessment Using Complex Characteristics of Shearlet Transform
Mahmoudpour, Saeed ; Kim, Manbae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 380~390
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.380
The field of Image Quality Measure (IQM) is growing rapidly in recent years. In particular, there was a significant progress in No-Reference (NR) IQM methods. In this paper, a general-purpose NR IQM algorithm is proposed based on the statistical characteristics of natural images in shearlet domain. The method utilizes a set of distortion-sensitive features extracted from statistical properties of shearlet coefficients. A complex version of the shearlet transform is employed to take advantage of phase and amplitude features in quality estimation. Furthermore, since shearlet transform can analyze the images at multiple scales, the effect of distortion on across-scale dependencies of shearlet coefficients is explored for feature extraction. For quality prediction, the features are used to train image classification and quality prediction models using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental results show that the proposed NR IQM is highly correlated with human subjective assessment and outperforms several Full-Reference (FR) and state-of-art NR IQMs.
A Study of Iterative Channel Estimation and Equalization Scheme of FBMC/OQAM in a Frequency Oversampling Domain
Won, YongJu ; Oh, JongGyu ; Lee, JinSeop ; Kim, JoonTae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 391~403
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.391
FBMC/OQAM(Filterbank multicarrier on offset-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) system is a multicarrier modulation which is not need to use cyclic prefix(CP). The CP of OFDM/QAM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing on Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) system decreases data transmission rate. However, SER(symbol error rate) performance of FBMC/OQAM system is worse than OFDM/QAM system with frequency 1-tap equalization scheme in the frequency selective channel. In this paper, an iterative channel estimation and equalization scheme is performed in a frequency oversampling domain about each sub-channel of FBMC/OQAM system and SER performance using computer simulation is shown. Using the proposed scheme, the SER performance approaches to that of OFDM/QAM system in a frequency selective channel.
Study and Adaptation of FM CP-Ring Antenna Radiation Pattern Transmission Facility
Choi, Soocheol ; Cho, Kiryang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 404~411
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.404
In this paper, we investigate the radio wave radiation pattern to measure the actual field strength for the transmission antenna dipole antenna and the CP-ring antenna being used in our country as FM station, and the comparison was for field application. Compare results, If the transmitting station and the relay station which is located in the middle of a service area has been a useful CP-dipole antenna (four directions). CP-ring antenna having a directivity because the reflection effect of the tower was able to adjust the orientation to prevent the spread of menstrual another service area in the main direction was able to radiate high propagation 5~9dB. Especially, If the transmitting station and the relay station is located on one side of the service area for radiating radio waves in three directions by using the CP-ring antennas focus the orientation of the antenna in populated areas and road area can improve the broadcast reception environment.
A Transmission-Efficient Broadcast Encryption System Based on Secret Sharing Method
Lee, Jae Hwan ; Park, Jong Hwan ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 412~424
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.412
Broadcast encryption (BE) is a cryptographic primitive that enables a sender to broadcast a message to a set of receivers in a secure channel. The efficiency of BE is measured by three factors: ciphertext transmission cost, user storage cost, and computational cost for decryption. In general, BE is applied to the environments where a large number of receivers should be accommodated, so that the transmission cost is considered as being the most important factor. In this paper, we suggest a new BE system, using Shamir's secret sharing method, which considerable reduces the transmission cost. In comparison to the previous Subset Difference (SD) system, the transmission size of our BE is longer until
, but get shorter when
for number of revoked users and n number of total users. We show that the advantage can be achieved at the slight expense of both the storage and computational costs.
Automatic Classification Algorithm for Raw Materials using Mean Shift Clustering and Stepwise Region Merging in Color
Kim, SangJun ; Kwak, JoonYoung ; Ko, ByoungChul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 425~435
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.425
In this paper, we propose a classification model by analyzing raw material images recorded using a color CCD camera to automatically classify good and defective agricultural products such as rice, coffee, and green tea, and raw materials. The current classifying agricultural products mainly depends on visual selection by skilled laborers. However, classification ability may drop owing to repeated labor for a long period of time. To resolve the problems of existing human dependant commercial products, we propose a vision based automatic raw material classification combining mean shift clustering and stepwise region merging algorithm. In this paper, the image is divided into N cluster regions by applying the mean-shift clustering algorithm to the foreground map image. Second, the representative regions among the N cluster regions are selected and stepwise region-merging method is applied to integrate similar cluster regions by comparing both color and positional proximity to neighboring regions. The merged raw material objects thereby are expressed in a 2D color distribution of RG, GB, and BR. Third, a threshold is used to detect good and defective products based on color distribution ellipse for merged material objects. From the results of carrying out an experiment with diverse raw material images using the proposed method, less artificial manipulation by the user is required compared to existing clustering and commercial methods, and classification accuracy on raw materials is improved.
An Overhead Comparison of MMT and MPEG-2 TS in Broadcast Services
Park, MinKyu ; Kim, Yong Han ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 21, issue 3, 2016, Pages 436~449
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2016.21.3.436
This paper compares the transport overhead of MMT (MPEG Media Transport) with that of MPEG-2 TS (Transport Stream). MPEG-2 TS is globally used in multiplexing compressed audio and video data in digital broadcast industry, including areas of DTV (Digital Television), IPTV (Internet Protocol Television), and DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting). It was the early 1990s when MPEG-2 TS standard was established. After more than two decades of years since its first establishment, many parts of MPEG-2 TS turned out to be inappropriate to today's broadcast and communication environment. Given the situations, in 2014 MPEG (ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 29/WG 11) standardized MMT as the next-generation multimedia transport standard hopefully that can replace MPEG-2 TS. In this paper, with assumptions of broadcast service scenarios we applied both MMT and MPEG-2 TS to each scenario and we calculated their transport overheads. We used a software program that counts the transport overhead, which was developed in our laboratory for this paper. And we conducted a comparative analysis based on the calculated result of transport overhead.