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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1999
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1999
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Augmented Reality Using Projective Information
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 87~102
We propose an algorithm for augmenting a real video sequence with views of graphics ojbects without metric calibration of the video camera by representing the motion of the video camera in projective space. We define a virtual camera, through which views of graphics objects are generated. attached to the real camera by specifying image locations of the world coordinate system of the virtual world. The virtual camera is decomposed into calibration and motion components in order to make full use of graphics tools. The projective motion of the real camera recovered from image matches has a function of transferring the virtual camera and makes the virtual camera move according to the motion of the real camera. The virtual camera also follows the change of the internal parameters of the real camera. This paper shows theoretical and experimental results of our application of non-metric vision to augmented reality.Index terms: augmented reality, Euclidean geometry, virtual camera, perspective projection, projective geometry, callbration-jree method
8VSB Equalization Techniques for the Performance Improvement of Indoor Reception
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 103~118
This paper analyzes the performance of symbol timing recovery and equalizer in 8VSB digital terrestrial TV receiver under various multipath signals and proposes equalization techniques which improve indoor reception performance. Data segment sync is used for symbol timing recovery and timing offset is measured for echoes of various delays and amplitudes by using symbol timing detection filter whose pattern is +1. +1. -1. and -1. Measured timing offsets were below 10% for long echoes with more than 5 symbol delay and above 30% for short echoes with around 1 symbol delay. Indoor reception is always more challenging than outdoor reception due to lower signal strength. large and short multipaths. and moving interfering objects. So it is considered to use FSE (Fractionally Spaced Equalizer) which is very robust to timing offset and blind equalizer which can update equalizer tap coefficients even by information data. We compare the performance of conventional DFE (Decision Feedback Equalizer) and FSE-DFE using LMS algorithm and Stop and Go algorithm for the indoor reception. Experiments reveals FSE has excellent performance for large timing offset and Stop and Go algorithm shows good performance for Doppler shift. so we propose to use FSE-DFE structure with Stop and Go algorithm for the reliable indoor reception.
Scene Change Detection Using MPEG Bitstream and Sectionally Decoded Video
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 119~126
We proposed an algorithm which detects scene changes in video with speediness and accuracy. It is a two-step approach. In the first step, we decide potential scene change segments using the compressed domain data extracted by temporal sampling of MPEG compressed video. In the second step, we determine the exact scene change positions using the pixel values of each frame in those segments by means of combining the intensity and edge changes. In addition we discuss the method to remove false detection generated from camera flash. Integrating the above methods, we introduce a structure that can detect scene changes speedily and accurately.
Wavelet-Based Variable Block Size Fractal Image Coding
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 127~133
The conventional fractal image compression based on discrete wavelet transform uses the fixed block size in fractal coding and reduces PSNR at low bit rate. This paper proposes a fractal image coding based on discrete wavelet transform which improves PSNR by using variable block size in fractal coding. In the proposed method. the absolute values of discrete wavelet transform coefficients are computed. and the discrete wavelet transform coefficients of different highpass subbands corresponding to the same spatial block are assembled. and the fractal code for the range block of each range block level is assigned. and then a decision tree C. the set of choices among fractal coding. "0" encoding. and scalar quantization is generated and a set of scalar quantizers q is chosen. And then the wavelet coefficients. fractal codes. and the choice items in the decision tree are entropy coded by using an adaptive arithmetic coder. This proposed method improved PSNR at low bit rate and could achieve a blockless reconstructed image. As the results of experiment. the proposed method obtained better PSNR and higher compression ratio than the conventional fractal coding method and wavelet transform coding.rm coding.
A VLSI Architecture for the Linear-Phase IDWT Filter
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 134~143
In this paper, in order to implement the IDWT(inverse discrete wavelet transform) with relatively low complexity, we propose a VLSI architecture for odd-tap linear-phase IDWT filters. By considering the symmetric property of the linear phase filter, the input is added to the one located at symmetrical position of the filter before filtering. Then. we rearrange the delay line of the filter in a U-shaped fashion. requiring no global interconnection between the components. The proposed architecture for the IDWT filter consists of delay units. operator units, adder units. and postprocessor unit. Since each units are configured regularly and interconnected locally. the proposed architecture can accommodate arbitrary linear phase IDWTs by simply adding/removing the corresponding units. The M -level IDWT can be implemented by interconnecting the proposed architecture in a cascaded or semi-recursive form. It is expected that the proposed architecture for the IDWT can be effectively employed in the related area including MPEG-4, since the proposed architecture is less complex than the conventional architectures.
Image Processing Using Multiplierless Binomial QMF-Wavelet Filters
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 144~154
The binomial sequences are family of orthogonal sequences that can be generated with remarkable simplicity-no multiplications are necessary. This paper introduces a class of non-recursive multidimensional filters for frequency-selective image processing without multiplication operations. The magnitude responses are narrow-band. approximately gaussian-shaped with center frequencies which can be positioned to yield low-pass. band-pass. or high-pass filtering. Algorithms for the efficient implementation of these filters in software or in hardware are described. Also. we show that the binomial QMFs are the maximally flat magnitude square Perfect Reconstruction paraunitary filters with good compression capability and these are shown to be wavelet filters as well. In wavelet transform the original image is decomposed at different scales using a pyramidal algorithm architecture. The decomposition is along the vertical and horizontal direction and maintains constant the number of pixels required to describe the images. An efficient perfect reconstruction binomial QMF-Wavelet signal decomposition structure is proposed. The technique provides a set of filter solutions with very good amplitude responses and band split. The proposed binomial QMF-filter structure is efficient, simple to implement on VLSl. and suitable for multi-resolution signal decomposition and coding applications.
Scene Change Detection and Key Frame Selection Using Fast Feature Extraction in the MPEG-Compressed Domain
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 155~163
In this paper, we propose novel scene change detection and key frame selection techniques, which use two feature images, i.e., DC and edge images, extracted directly from MPEG compressed video. For fast edge image extraction. we suggest to utilize 5 lower AC coefficients of each DCT. Based on this scheme, we present another edge image extraction technique using AC prediction. Although the former is superior to the latter in terms of visual quality, both methods all can extract important edge features well. Simulation results indicate that scene changes such as cut. fades, and dissolves can be correctly detected by using the edge energy diagram obtained from edge images and histograms from DC images. In addition. we find that our edge images are comparable to those obtained in the spatial domain while keeping much lower computational cost. And based on HVS, a key frame of each scene can also be selected. In comparison with an existing method using optical flow. our scheme can select semantic key frames because we only use the above edge and DC images.
The Effect of Satellite Channel Impairments in DBS System Using Digital Modulation Technique
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 164~175
Based on the performance analyses for transmission channel and signal characteristics in digital satellite broadcasting system. the optimal design parameter values for system using QPSK modulation technique were proposed in this paper. The proper performance degradation were of 2.0dB for channel characteristics. O.4dB for transmission signal characteristics and 0.2dB for receiver characteristics. respectively. In this case. the design objectives for system parameters were within
for gain flatness in 27MHz bandwidth. and O.1nsec/MHz and
for linear and parabolic group delay. respectively. Also. the optimal parameter values that provide the maximum availability were of OdB OBO for satellite transponder TWTA. and the optimal bandwidth for PLL circuit was of 40kHz with 0.707 damping factor. These analyses and design values can be available for high data rate transmission system via satellite.
Camera Parameter Extraction Method for Virtual Studio Applications by Tracking the Location of TV Camera
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 176~186
In order to produce an image that lends realism to audience in the virtual studio system. it is important to synchronize precisely between foreground objects and background image provided by computer graphics. In this paper, we propose a method of camera parameter extraction for the synchronization by tracking the pose of TV camera. We derive an equation for extracting camera parameters from inverse perspective equations for tracking the pose of the camera and 3-D transformation between base coordinates and estimated coordinates. We show the validity of the proposed method in terms of the accuracy ratio between the parameters computed from the equation and the real parameters that applied to a TV camera.
Color and Motion Feature Extraction Algorithm for Content-Based Video Retrieval
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 4, issue 2, 1999, Pages 187~196
This paper presents an efficient and automatic color and motion feature extraction algorithm for content-based MPEG-l video retrieval. Based on the proposed method. a video retrieval system is implemented. For color feature. the proposed algorithm considers dynamic color iRformation in video data, and thereby can overcome the limits of the previous key-frame based method. For motion feature, we utilize the motion vector in MPEG-l video with color information. and extract the color-motion feature. The proposed algorithm can solve the weakness of the previous location based motion feature method. Finally. the proposed method is evaluated within the implemented video retrieval system.