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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Utility-Based Video Adaptation in MPEG-21 for Universal Multimedia Access
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 325~338
Video adaptation in response to dynamic resource conditions and user preferences is required as a key technology to enable universal multimedia access (UMA) through heterogeneous networks by a multitude of devices In a seamless way. Although many adaptation techniques exist, selections of appropriate adaptations among multiple choices that would satisfy given constraints are often ad hoc. To provide a systematic solution, we present a general conceptual framework to model video entity, adaptation, resource, utility, and relations among them. It allows for formulation of various adaptation problems as resource-constrained utility maximization. We apply the framework to a practical case of dynamic bit rate adaptation of MPEG-4 video streams by employing combination of frame dropping and DCT coefficient dropping. Furthermore, we present a descriptor, which has been accepted as a part of MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA), for supporting terminal and network quality of service (QoS) in an interoperable manner. Experiments are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the presented framework using the descriptor.
Presentation Priority and Modality Conversion in MPEG-21 DIA
Thang, Truong Cong ; Ro, Yong Man ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 339~350
The Part 7 of MPEG-21, called Digital Item Adaptation, aims at an interoperable transparent access of multimedia contents in heterogeneous environments. This standard facilitates the development of Universal Multimedia Access (UMA) systems, which adapt the rich multimedia contents to provide user the best possible presentation under the constraints of various terminals and network connections. Content adaptation has two major aspects: one is modality conversion that converts content from one modality (e.g. video) to different modalities (e.g. image) the other is content scaling that changes the titrates (or qualities) of the contents without converting their modalities. At the output of adaptation process, the highly-subjective qualities of adapted contents nay vary widely with respect to point-of-views of different providers and different users. So, user should have some control on the adaptation process. In this paper, we describe two description tools of user characteristics, the presentation priority preference and the modality conversion preference, which allow user to have flexible choices on the qualities and modalities of output contents. We also present a systematic approach to integrate these user preferences into the adaptation process. These description tools are developed in the process of MPEG-21 standardization.
Visual Impairment Description for MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation
;Truong Cong Thang;;;;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 351~364
In this paper, we propose visual Impairment descriptions for MPEG-21 digital item adaptation. The proposed visual impairment descriptions include low vision impairment and color vision deficiency. It is symptom-based description so that the description is systematic enough to sufficiently describe user's any kind of visual impairment characteristics and easy enough to describe for any user with visual impairment. In this paper, we performed some experiments with the proposed description in MPEG-21 digital item adaptation. The experiments showed that the proposed description Is effective to adapt visual resources In digital item for users with visual impairment and to give enhanced visual accessibility to them.
Example of Broadcasting Application based on MPEG-21 IPMP and Reference Model
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 365~380
Since MPEG-21 IPMP has been working on International Standardization activity such as one of DRM systems from 1997, the standardization is recently re-started even though the activity was interrupted. According to the MPEG Brisbane meeting, the CfR of MPEG-21 IPMP will be determined on the next Hawaii meeting, therefore they will announce the CfP. However the CfP announced in MPEG Hawaii meeting but the CfR didn't announce because of unfinished requirement document job. Finally. the proposed techniques will be submitted till June 2004. In this paper, we explained the requirement of standardization based on a broadcasting circumstance and implemented the system of MPEG-21 including the architecture and IPMP systems, then we showed all functionality within the other MPEG-21 elements engines. In case of multimedia stream broadcasting system, it is a real-time processing system, the implemented MEPG-21 Architecture can be shown the use of Digital Item In the MPEG-21 terminal and additional MPEG-21 element engines.
A Design and Implementation of the Multilingual RDD Registry
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 381~391
This paper deals nth the Multilingual Registry for the Rights Data Dictionary (RDD), which will be used for the semantic representation of rights on digital contents in MPEG-21 framework. The translation of RDD terms owing to different language populations often lacks the desirable precision. The purpose of this paper Is to demonstrate the Multilingual RDD Registry concept to achieve a more precise and interoperable translation of RDD terms among different DRM systems.
Multimedia File Format Based on MPEG-21
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 392~398
In this paper, we propose the structure of multimedia file format based on MPEG-21 standard and the method to address a media resource within the file. The proposed multimedia file format supports the backward compatibility with MPEG-4 and the efficient addressing a media resource from a Digital Item that is XML-based MPEG-21 content. Also, the proposed multimedia file format can provide the functionality to package various types of media contents structurally and efficiently in digital broadcasting, Internet, and wireless environment. In addition, it can be a base model for multimedia file format that can be used for many different purposes such as integration and usage of metadata and multimedia contents.
MPEG-21 Event Reporting Message Structure based on digital data broadcasting use case scenarios
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 399~409
In this paper, we present an Event Reporting which is one of the major items of MPEG-21 and exemplify two digital data broadcasting use case scenarios, and according1y we propose the Event Reporting message structure for MPEG-21 broadcasting contents that is based on these use case scenarios. Every interaction with a Digital Item in the multimedia framework can be called an Event. The need to standardize Event Reporting within the Multimedia Framework arise from the need to monitor and communicate amongst Peers and Users the Events relating to Digital Items and/or the programs and devices that operate on them at any given time. However, there are a number of difficulties in providing an accurate report about an Event. Different observers of the Event may have vastly different perspectives. In this paper, we describe a structure and vision of the Event Reporting. Besides we show the activities on MPEG-21 Event Reporting standardization.
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 410~426
MPEG-21 defines a digital item as an atomic unit lot creation, delivery and consumption in order to provide an integrated multimedia framework in networked environments. It is expected that MPEG-21 standardization makes it Possible for users to universally access user's preferred contents in their own way they want. In order to achieve this goal, MPEG-21 has standardized the specifications for the Digital Item Declaration (DID). Digital Identification (DII), Rights Expression Language (REL), Right Data Dictionary (RDD) and Digital Item Adaptation (DIA), and is standardizing the specifications for the Digital Item Processing (DIP), Persistent Association Technology (PAT) and Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) tot transparent and secured usage of multimedia. In this paper, we design an MPEG-21 terminal architecture based one the MPEG-21 standard with DID, DIA and DIP, and implement with the MPEG-21 terminal. We make a video summarization service scenario in order to validate ow proposed MPEG-21 terminal for the feasibility to of DID, DIA and DIP. Then we present a series of experimental results that digital items are processed as a specific form after adaptation fit for the characteristics of MPEG-21 terminal and are consumed with interoperability based on a PC and a PDA platform. It is believed that this paper has n important significance in the sense that we, for the first time, implement an MPEG-21 terminal which allows for a video summarization service application in an interoperable way for digital item adaptation and processing nth experimental results.
Networks and Protocols for MPEG-21 Digital Item Transmission
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 427~436
Many applications that are transport multimedia data through the networks should put existing network structure to practical use. Because the existing network structure and protocols are designed for static data transmission, multimedia applications with timing concept have limitations for using existence. In this paper, we present limitations of existing network structure for multimedia delivery, survey network element's characteristics in side view of multimedia application, present the streaming protocol for realtime multimedia traffic. Lastly, we consider a protocol stack for MPEG-21 Digital Item transmission using these existing protocols.
Enhancing Robustness of Information Hiding Through Low-Density Parity-Check Codes
Yi, Yu ; Lee, Moon-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Hwang, Gi-Yean ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 437~451
With the rapid growth of internet technologies and wide availability of multimedia computing facilities, the enforcement of multimedia copyright protection becomes an important issue. Digital watermarking is viewed as an effective way to deter content users from illegal distributions. In recent years, digital watermarking has been intensively studied to achieve this goal. However, when the watermarked media is transmitted over the channels modeled as the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, the watermark information is often interfered by the channel noise and produces a large number of errors. So many error-correcting codes have been applied in the digital watermarking system to protect the embedded message from the disturbance of the noise, such as BCH codes, Reef-Solomon (RS) codes and Turbo codes. Recently, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes were demonstrated as good error correcting codes achieving near Shannon limit performance and outperforming turbo codes nth low decoding complexity. In this paper, in order to mitigate the channel conditions and improve the quality of watermark, we proposed the application of LDPC codes on implementing a fairly robust digital image watermarking system. The implemented watermarking system operates in the spectrum domain where a subset of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients is modified by the watermark without using original image during watermark extraction. The quality of watermark is evaluated by taking Into account the trade-off between the chip-rate and the rate of LDPC codes. Many simulation results are presented in this paper, these results indicate that the quality of the watermark is improved greatly and the proposed system based on LDPC codes is very robust to attacks.
Design of Video Processor for Multi-View 3D Display
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 452~464
In this paper, a multi-view 3D video processor was designed and implemented with several FPGAs for real-time applications. The 3D video processor receives 2D images from cameras (up to 16 cameras) and converts then to 3D video format for space-multiplexed 3D display. It can cope with various arrangements of 3D camera systems (or pixel arrays) and resolutions of 3D display. Tn order to verify the functions of 3D video Processor. some evaluation-board were made with five FPGAs.
The Development of Multimedia Player Platform for Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB)
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 465~472
In this paper we propose the structure of MPEG-4 multimedia player platform for Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) Service. Korea will launch DMB service at next 2004 you based on Eureka-147 Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) Service System. This new mobile multimedia broadcasting services provide not only high quality digital audio broadcasting services, but also various multimedia data broadcasting services including high quality video. For the sake of MPEG-4 Systems technologies, it will provide an interactive service to users in the near future. Therefore it terminal shall have various functionalities as well as playing audio-visual contents. However there is no precedence standard for such mobile interactive multimedia broadcasting system. Therefore it is very import to provide the multimedia player platform of DMB service for accelerating the development process of commercial terminal and providing a direction of next DMB terminal structure.
A differential image quantizer based on wavelet for low bit rate video coding
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 473~480
In this paper, we propose a new quadtree coding a1gorithm to improve the performance of the old one. The new algorithm can process any frame of size in standard and reduce encoding and decoding time by decreasing computational load. It also improves the image quality comparing with any old quantizer based on quadtree and zerotree structure. In order for the new algorithm to be applied for real video codec, we analyze the statistical characteristics of coefficients of differential image and add a function that makes It deal with an arbitrary size of image by using new technique while the old one process by block unit. We can also improve the image quality by scaling the coefficient's value from a differential image. By comparing the performance of the new algorithm with quadtree and SPIHT, it Is shown that PSNR is improved, that the computational load is not reduced in encoding and decoding.
Blind Decision Feedback Equalizer with a Modified Trellis Decoder for ATSC DTV Receivers
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 481~491
We present a near-optimal blind decision feedback equalizer (DFE) for Advanced Television Systems Committee digital television (DTV) receivers. By adopting a modified trellis decoder (MTD) with trace back depth of 1 for the decision device In the DFE, we obtain a hardware-efficient near-optimal blind DFE approaching to the optimal DFE which has no error propagation. The MTD uses absolute distance instead of Euclidean distance for computation of a path metric, resulting. In reduced computational complexity. Comparing to the conventional slicer, the MTD shows outstanding performance improvement of decision error probability and is comparable to the original trellis decoder using Euclidean distance. Reducing error propagation in the DFE leads to the improvement of convergence performance in terms of convergence speed and residual error. Simulation results show that the proposed blind DFE performs much better than the blind DFE with the slicer.
New Edge Dependent Deinterlacing Algorithm Based on Horizontal Edge Pattern
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 492~500
In this paper, we propose a new deinterlacing algorithm which is an edge dependent Interpolation (EDI) algorithm based on a horizontal edge pattern. Generally, a conventional EDI algorithm has a visually better performance than any other deinterlacing algorithm using one field. However, it produces unpleasant results due to the failure of estimating edge direction. In order to exactly detect edge direction, we use not only simple difference but also edge patterns. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional approaches with respect to both objective and subjective criteria. Index Terms I-to-P conversion, deinterlacing, edge dependent interpolation, edge pattern.
Video Watermarking Algorithm using the Frame-dependent Key
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 8, issue 4, 2003, Pages 501~504
In this out watermarking method, a key is determined by quantizing the maximum motion difference between frames. We have a problem the key value for embedding and detection are different in 1 to 3% frames of all frames. This problem can be easily solved by using a new key according to bit error rate of the extracted watermark. Since the watermark is embedded in each frame nth different keys and detected In all the frames, out method is resistant against attacks such as the frame averaging and frame drop.