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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Costume
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23 - Nov 1994
Volume 22 - May 1994
Selecting the target year
A Study on the concept of unconsciousness of Surrealism on the fabric of modern fashion
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 5~22
This study was intended to analyze the con-cept of unconsciousness of Surrealism on the fabric of modern fashion. Surrealism had been searching for a new way of confronting a social and artistic en-vironment that was stifling and repugnant to them. Especially the surrealistic methodology was changed into various methods of surreal-istic painters, They explored the world of subconsciousness of uncosciousness in the world of human being. The highly developed material civilization resulted in human alienations environmental disruption. By this fact human being of the 20th century was sought a philosophical and artistic value to overcome social disease. That is their search for spiritual world was interested in surrealist's psychoanalytical method. The fashion in the 20th century is changing rapidly for the new century to come. Under such circumstances as these modern fashion is attempted to pursue new innovative and in-dividual ideas. recently the mental images through Surrealism was represented in the for-mative feature of modern fashion. To study the concept of unconsciousness of Surrealism on the fabric of modern fashion I selected and examined artistic books and fashion magazines. As a result of this review I found that some fabrics used in modern fashion are printed in a free shapes without any meaning or form.
"The Changes In Cultural Characteristics of Dress and Adronments in Korea"(From 1920 to 1990)
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 23~44
The purpose of this study was to clarify the cultural characteristic of dress and adornments by examining articles on dress adornments and related items in Korean newspaper over periods historically and objectively by means of content analysis. This study attempted to at-tain a macro-cultural view by analysing to at-tain a macro-cultural view by analysing closely the cultural characteristics of dress and adornments as a micro-cultural system through culturally based model suggested by hamilton. The two-hundreds and eighty articles on dress and adornments were selected from newspapers(most by form Chosun Ilbo and partly from Maeil Shinbo) pulished between 1920 and 1990. The results were as follows: 1. The culture of dress and adornment received much attention during the 1930's and 1960's and little during 1950's. 2. Various cultural characteristics of dress and adornments appeared on and after 1960's: reporting more foreign news items showing foreign-oriented and future-oriented features showing cultural relativism. In the 1920's and 1970's the contents of news items on dress and adornments show the most common- mass- oriented character. Foreign-oriented cultural tendencies in cloth-ing were increasing during from 1960's to 1970's but the tendencies were turned to rather tradition-oriented features on and after 1980's compare with 1960's-1970's. Advisory critical articles on dress and adornments were small in number and insignificant but compare with other periods these received much atten-tion during the 1920's and 1980's. 3. Ideological components received much at-tention on and after 1920's to 1990. Techo-nological components received much attention during 1920's and little during 1960's. The social structural components received a little attention on and after 1920's-1940's and 1990. 4. News items on women's dress and adornments received much attention from the 1920's to 1960's and news items on both men's and women's dress and adorments were in-creasing and received much attention on and after the 1970's. 5. The pragmatic cultures were mostly re-lated to techonological components and evaluative-normative culture were mostly re-lated to ideological and social structural components. In the light of these results dress and adorments as a cultural sub-system comprise a dynamic inteacting system that articulated directly with the macro-cultural system.
A Study on the Activation of the Fur Fashion Industry in Korea(Focused on the opening domestic Fur Market after 1988)
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 45~60
Since 1988 the fur fashion industry in Korea has been difficult in exporting and competition with too many brands after opening the dom-estic fur market. However comparing with the interest of manufactures and consumers there are few of related references and books. So the purpose of this study is to put in order and summurize the manufacture in fur cloth-ing the informations of domestic and oversea fur markets and the other professional references. After all it is to help succeed in domestic and international fur markets and give the new ideas of designing and merchandising to the fur fashion industry. The results were as follows: 1. Contact with fur specialty stores in the international fashion cities and tourist cities directly. 2. Establish oversea factories in the low labor countries. 3. Exploit and invest in Russia china and the East European countries for suppliment of law materials and fur market. 4. Need the market research and promotion for encroachment in Japanese fur market. 5. Create the original brands with inter-national fashion sense. 6. Develop the manufacture line for diverse models in small lots matching with the modern life styles. 7. Need the fashion show exhibition pro-motion with reasonable prices and creative new designing with various color trimming texturizing and combination with the other materials. 8 Subdivide and distinguish labels into different types for avoiding with too much com-petition and comvenience of consumers. 9. Make an effort to weaken the black mar-ket the 30% of the domestic fur market.
A Study on the textiles of the Age of Kojosun Booyeo and Kogooreo which were excabated in the East and Nort Area of China.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 61~70
the purpose of study is to grasp the actual state of the textiles of Kojosun, Booyeo and Kogooryeo, by examining and studying about the excavated article of the textile of the Booyeo Age which was being gamered in the Research Institute of Study of antiquities of Civilization of gilimsung without being analyzed and examined after being excavated at September in 1990 and 1993, the textile of Kojosun Age wich was excavated and examined at East and North Gilimsung in China and the textile excavated and examined at the Kogooryeo grave at jiban China. 1. The kinds of textiles of Booye Age are warp kum plin weave silk plain weave bang gong Sa, and drawn and dyed textile, It is deemed that the real state of keum, Jeung and Hwi in the old literature of Sam guk Ji was grasped. 2. It emerges that more detailed wool than the wool fabric of China area of the same age was manufactured as the textile of Kojosun Age. hemp cloth corresponds to 12 Seung, in converting into fabric width of 50cm. 3. Keum was examined and reported as the textile of Kogooryeo Age and the real state of Woonkeum of Kogooryeo Age was grasped through "Wang ja moon keum" of Keumjang of mural of South and North I room of the grave that the same keum was excavated. The real state of dyed textile of hemp was grasped as the red hemp cloth was examined. Moreover the real state of development of advanced technique to weave with machine appeared by the grasp of inclination of loom with reed of Kogooryeo.Kogooryeo.
현대 패션에 표현되는 유희성
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 71~84
A Study on the shaman's costume of the east siberia.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 85~96
The purpose of this research is to find out the role of shaman's costume in Yakut Yukachir Goldi. The results are as follows: 1. Yakut shaman's costumes are decorated by their worship symbols made from metals-wild ducks crucian carps diving beetles and fishes. They believe that these costumes help shamans to travel the heaven underwater or underground systems to collect wanted infor-mation transforming them into the shape of decorated animals. 2. Yukachir shaman's costumes are decorated by symbolized cross medals in the shape of birds and human designed backbone which give shamans much power and many different kinds of medals and tassels representing all sorts and conditions of shaman's power. They consider their cstumes as feather and believe they give them new power and make them to fly anywhere they want. 3. Goldi shaman's costumes have paintings of animal guradians-leopards tigers bears birds snakes lizards and so on. Birds represents freedom of the spirit and eternity. snakes represents rebirth and immorality and lizards represents the trees of underground the earth and the lifetrees of the heaven. Shamans ascend through th holy tree to th heaven and to the world of underground in a comatose condition. Shaman costume itself plays the role of the spiritual safeguard. Wearing their costume shaman get all animal's supernatural authority and power. This makes the shaman to contact with the spirit and to travel the heaven and the under-ground world.
A Study on the Costume of Balhae Dynasty(II) -Focused on the costume of a bronze state excavated in the Maritime Provinces of Russia-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 97~118
This stud is my second trial to examine the costume of Balhae Dyansty. The subject of this study is the costume of a bronze statue excavated in the Maritime Provinces of Russia. The bronze statue is in the custody of Vladivostok Museum E.V. Shavkunov a Russian archelogist reported it a statue of-ficial of balhae dynasty in the 7-8th century. Judged his report lack of basis I suggest new opinion on sex, age, married or unmarried. social position manufactured time of the statue by comparative study on the costume hair-style and appearance of the statue with around nations' antiquities. hair-style of the statue is basically included in Ssangge and complexed style of Sage Ssangsuhuange, and Guange, Generally, Ssangge is a hair style of children, unmarried women, court ladies, dancing girls, and instrument player (lady)s'. The statue wears round-necked blouse long skirt broad fabric belt at high waist broad sleeve and confront collar coat cloud shaped shawl and risen tip shoes. The figure of statue is de-scribed plump. The statue shows straight sil-houette and high waist typical style of Tang, Uddai, The most characteristic facto is cloud shaped shawl Cloud shaped shawl was originally one of the northern race's shoulder ornaments. From the view of Comparative study the antiquities of NamDang and JunChock are simi-lar to this statue. Besides Tsukanovka river where the statue was excavated is Kraskino ruins of a castle formed single cultural layer of Balhae Dynasty and are relics of the layer of Balhae Dynasty and are relics of the latter period of Balhae Dynasty. Therefore this statue is assumed to have been manufactured at the last years of Balhae Dynasty and to be a figure of unmarried woman not official.
A Study of the Color Image of Clothing -Selected the period of Art Deco-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 119~134
The study was proposed to establish the effective color image planning and to suggest the color combination data for clothing through historic costume. To test the suggested method The Color Image Scale developed in Japan was adapted, For the practical study 21 fashion illustrations of Art Deco period (1910-1930) were selec-ted. Color images analysed from these illustrations were seleted with the key words extracted from political economical social background and art of Art Deco period. Three of the image categories clear modern and dynamic were sutable to express the images of this period. The image categories representing color image of Art Deco costume were dynamic modern classic, casual, clear, nature and gorgeous.
A Study on the Fashion Information Activities of Clothing Manufactures
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 135~158
The fashion industry of today is closely re-lated with the information activity. This study investigates now they take advantage of the fashion information by analysing some related fields including fashion design. Furthormore this study identify the factor which makes the design activity distinctive and predict and fu-ture trend in design. The purposes of this study through analysis are : to help find the way to facilitate the fashion industry and to develop the fashion merchandising in order to activate the re-cession of manufacturers and to improve competitiveness in the world market and to contribute to the academic achievement in the study of fashion merchandising. In the experimental approach the tasks of research are as follows: Research 1: The application of fashion infor-mation is discussed in terms of process and level. Research 2: The differences of the fashion design activities are captured on the basis of the characteristics of manufactures and fashion specialists and fashion information ac-tivities. The factors are identified which pre-dict and discriminate the results of fashion de-sign activities. The questionaire and interview were conduc-ted among women's clothing manufactures in Seoul and their fashion specialists in charge of merchandise development. The methods of survey were designed on the basis of theories developed so far and on he advice from the social scientists and fashion specialists. the methods were corrected and complemented through the 1st and 2nd preliminary investigations before their application For data analysis cronbach's a coefficient fre-quency percentage average standard devi-ation pearson's correlation coefficient were calculated and t-test F-test(ANOVA) Duncan's multiple range test regression and Discriminant analysis were conducted. The results of analysis throughout the experimen-tal studies were as follows: 1. The analysis of fashion in formation (1) the present application of information a. The source of information : Both the foreign and the domestic information came mostly from fashion journals magazines newspapers and other periodicals, the main source of market information was collected from the survey of popular items in recent years the data about the life-style of customers and their tastes for wearing were widely used as the information about consumers. b. The applicaton of information : The most widely used information was about fabrics. The foreign information was prefered on the whole. The domestic problems pointed out in this investgation were that the domestic journals showed the lack of specialty and the special organizations for fashion informatino were in urgent need. (2) The research of fashion information a. The various processes and levels of in-formation activities: Among the process of collection analysis and distribution the collec-tion process showed a good acheivement whereas the distribution whereas the distribution didn't. In levels of the systematic activities the acceptance of support and the utility of supported instruments the first indicated a high degree whereas the second showed lowest. b. The correlationship among subvariables : There was a significant correlation between the collection and the analysis process. The systematic activities revealed close relation-ship with the analysis process and the accept-ance of support with the distribution process. The close correlation was found between the utility of supported instruments and the analy-sis process. 2. The analysis of the fashion design activities (1) No significant differences were found in the design activities when the characteristics of companies were compared only. (2) According to the characteristics of fashion specialists the one with age experi-ence and high income showed rather good achievement but no significant differences were captured among sex department in charge title academic background education in abroad and field experience (3) The fashion information activities were strongly correlated with the design achieve-ment : The analysis process and the system-atic activity level had a great influence on the design activities. (4) In order to examine which cha-racteristics in (1-3) made it possible to pre-dct and discriminate the achievement in de-sign activities the Discriminant analysis was carried out. The results were as follows: the fashion information activities showed the highest discriminant rate. Next came the in-come level experience and age in that order Those four variables discrimated 37 from 50 who showed great achievement in design area (74%) and 51 from 83 in low achievement group (81%) Thus the total discriminant rate was 77.5%.
A comparative study of the Dunhuang Costume on the Folk Song's words in Dnag's period of the China.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 159~176
This study's purpose is to find the ancient costume of the folk song's words on Dunhuang manuscripts in the background wass-carvings sculptures and several art works. Dunhuang had played the part of major route between ancient China and Europe. It is located on kam-suksong the west of China. 1. In the aspect of costume arrangement hair Styling is represented by Naegagyo, Wangyesa, Kyongburak, Bonkwyun, Pogurak, Chonsonja, Namgaja, Tongson-ga, Ojesa, Chanboja in Dunhuang manuscripts. tugue is sim-ilar to Sabyokkwanja in Naegagyo as of that time these kinds of Kwan-ja was very popular. It was told that emperor's wife concubine and maid of honor would wear kwnaja favorably. And the kinds of Tugeu is PuyongKwyunkye, Aangunkye, Chunkye from Kyuwanjon except Sangunkye, Ounkye in Dunhuangsa. 2. Jangdaegy is guoted from Kyuw-anjon -A series of the chinese history book-tells us about women's make-up . The narmes of make-up are Hongjang Unjan--g, Yiljang chwejang, Tam-ajang Murgjang, Sanagjang, Light-make up are referred in Naegagyo is included as packjang Besides we can find other make-up skills Huphwaro and Rujang from the Kaewonch onbon-wisa which was Yangkwibi's episodes. We can find the a corpus of song's words about cosmetic custom in Kor-ea. Which is 'Haecho' folk song in the souther-en costal regions 'Jinggum' folk song in Kim-hae regions and so on.... It's words is similar to Dunhuangsa in China. 3. Bichun inherited to China with India Bud-dism art in the middle of Dunhuang wall-pain-tings is one of the important Buddist saint. Sometimes it is painted with Giakchun Its arms of fly-dnacing in heaven with colored belt on body has almost the form of play on the musical instrument, We can see seasily the form in the painting of Buddist ser-mon. It was progressed and changed with the background of chinese traditional culture. When Dang's period came the color was chan-ged lighting dark blue has rhythmical and viv-id power of life. 4. Among the corpus of song's words which express the singers' system and rites of their tradition or habits. Dunhuang manuscripts des-cribes on behalf of the folk song's words in tra-ditional costume. This is following: (1) Naegagyo o sabyokwanja o Chyrasam o Rashang (2) Wangyesa o Sokryugun o Costume for fisher man (3) Bungajang of the chanboja o Ajang (4) Pongkwyun o Chongui (5) Tongsongs o Junofore (6) Namgaja o thin-Rasam (7) Yuchungnang o Hongsam o Sokryugun : The color of red costume (8) Kyongburak o Hongrasam o Sokryugun : Costume for charming woman Therefore traditional costume could be extracted according to the Dunhuang folk song's words out of culture such as learning rit-es three-obedience four-virtues and in-struction. As the same time it reflects ancient China's characteristics directly. I would endeavor to development for the history of the costume furher creative design and participat-ed in research activity with concerns forward continuously.
A Study on the Movements of Children's Apparel manufacturing Companies.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 177~192
The purpose of this study lies in giving help to the rational life of clothing of costmer and presenting some measures for solving problems of the fashion merchandising policy of children's ready-made clothes and the searching of feasibility of the children's ready-made clothes market in the wave of market liberalization. data for this study were obtained from interviews with managers in children's apparel company. The results are as follows : the most important change of children's ready-made clothes market is the increase in national brand license brand direct import brand and the variety of the channel of distri-bution. The most children's apparel companies showed double-edged viewpoints for these tendencies in the wave of market libera-lization. In therms of positive aspect it would give stimulus to improve product quality of fashion merchandise which were the most dis-advantageous factors in competing with oversea's brand. In terms of negative aspect it would bring the oversupply and the foreign product's penetration in domestic market. In order to improve the present condition the companies should try to establish strat-government should try to support to the small and medium sized apparel firms.
A study on Furs and Feltry from Ancient to Koryo Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 193~204
In this study the characteristics of Korean furs and peltry were discussed in the terms of usage and kinds from the literature survey of the relevant references, The following con-clusions were deduced. From Ancient to Koryo a kind of acient of Korea a lot of furs and peltry were produced and dressed. The leopad of Gochosun Korea was worthy of gold as an expensive goods to China. red dyed pelt of Silla Korea was traded with China and that pelt dyeing tech-nology of that pelt developed. The marten of Koryo was trade to Arabia and an otter skin to Kum Dynasty as loved goods. Korean furs and peltry made a reputation and were used for trading goods with China Japan and Arabia. Tratment technology in Korea became known to foreign country. There is another record that sheep and camels were offered to Koryo by around countries, And that Koryo employed men of Kum Dynasty as a shepherd. From ancient to Koryo Korea had had many kinds of furs of peltry as using goods such as leopard mart otter skin panther bear, manchurian wapili, fox, porpoise rat, mankey, horse, pig, wild bear, goat, cow, cat, dog, tiger, deer, raccoon dog and so on.
A Study on The Costume of The Kory Dynasty(2) -See through by the human being on the Buddist Panting of Koryo Dynasty hang on the wall(2)-1
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 205~224
It was aimed to study the costume of Koryo dynasty based upon the thirty pictures of Bud-dha to hang on the wall among the existing Buddist paintings. The costume to study were made about 64 years during the King Chung-yol(1286) to the King Chung-jong(1350) which style was mostly related in Won Dynasty. 가) Men's wear ; 1. Hair style and hair dress ; Man tied up a top knot and they put on the hat such as a Kuan Kun and Mo. The young boys binds his hair up one, two, and three knot-s, and tied up with a hair ribbon, A kinds of Kuan-mo were Mine-lu-kuan Yuan-yu-kuan, Nong-kuan, Hae-chi-kuan Pok-du Yun-wha-kuan Yip-mo- and Tu-ku(Helmeto) 2. clothes ; 1) Colour of Koryo King's Mien-ku Kuan costume was not agree with blue and reddish black colour which was used in Yo, Song, Kum and Won Dynasty, however black and greenhish blue colour was agreed with. 2) The king wore T'ung-t'ien-kuan(Yuan-yu-kuan) and the government officials wore Chin-hien-kuan Hae-chi-kuan and Nong-kuan as a court dress. In general the king and the Crown Prince wore a hats which was used in T'ung-t'ien system however sometimes they wore small hats which was cited in literature. 3) Gate guard and upper garment wore colourful costume figured gold colour pattern which was distin-gtive costume system of Koryo. 4) A monk wore big sleeve long skirt big sleeve long jacket long skirt and shoulder scar-f full shoulder scarf or right hand shoulder opened scarf. 5) The Soldiers wore helmet shoulder or scarf pee-back hung-kap, pok-kap, yang-dan-g-kap we-yu-kap kun-kap, and boots and they carried arms. 6) The young boys wore scarf, loin cloth, long skirt, belt neckless, wan-silk, boots and foots wear and wristless. 나) Women's wear ; 1. Hair style and hairs and tied up with a hair ribbon and wore precious ston decorated hair dress wheel shape hair dress pan shaped head dress handkerchif covered hair dress decorated precious stone hair pin silk chippon made of head dress muf-fler shaped hairdress. Boots mocasin hae lee, suk and sandle wored as a shoes depends on the classes. They wore neckless, earing wres-tless and wan-pu-sik. 2. Closthe 1) High rank lade's wore un-kyun attached jacket and jacket sleeves decorated pleats and pleats decorated long skirt apron back apron knot belt, scarf this type is the same with Dang Dynasty five dynasty of china Song, Kum Won, Myung Dynasty and our cos-tume of Poe-hae, and Shilla Dynasty,
실물제작을 통한 의상연구(II) -빅토리언 드레스의 설계 및 의장 분석-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 225~242
Recherche sur I'esthetique du Costume d'apres les peintures francaises du X IVe ex X Ve siecles
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 243~262
L'niteret majeur de cette etude reside dans I'interpretation des images vestimentaired au Moyen-Age en France sur le plan esthetique et religieux. Comme d'interessantes hypotheses de tra-vail les images religieuses temoignent de la transformation de I'esprit religieux, artistique mais aussistyle de vie, de la mode et du gout a l'epoque segeuriale. D'apres les icons de la ste. Vierge, on peut y noter de multiples sources d'influence. le style autochtone fancais-I'art courtois le style gothique intenational les types de repre'sentation siennoise le Realisme neerlandais le Naturalisme italien Comme le role du vetement d'apres les icons de la ste. Marie le Moye n d'identification de la ste. Marie L'Objet de connexion entre les figures et I'architecture L'Element decoratif dans la peinture L'Intermediaire expressif et approfondi du theme On peut aussi dresser I'iconographie et le symbolisme vestimentairedans le monde chretien.
The Study on the Buttons (centering around 19th-20th Centuries)
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 263~276
The achievement of notable social reoforms attained during the period of 19th and 20th centuries needlessly speaking remodelded the social environmental into several different patterns such as :1) high industrialization 2) propensity to consume 3) up graded overall social stands. Accordingly the industrial world of the but-tons too established the mess production syhstem by breaking from convention of hand-craft work of 17th century. The raw materials used in the production line on buttons during the 20th century are almost all-kind of materials one can possibly named including cheap plastic which enabled production lines to produce cheaper but higher productivities of the buttons being produced, The design (incused design) used in the 19-20h centuries are : men landscape, sports features, birds, livestocks, bugs, or geomatric features, tec, 1, The classification o f the buttons by materials Techniques shapes colors marking (Incused design) used in the productionof buttons in the England United States of America Laska Italy france Denmark Japan and India are categolizzed as : natural raw materials and syntetical resines. 1) Of the natural raw materials used are : Matal Enamel Iodine Agate, Coral, Green jade(Jasper) Granite, Wood, Ivory, Horn and bone etc. 2) The sythetical resin used in the button in-dustries are : Artificial jewell glass Acrylic material Styroform Celluloid and Nylon etc. 2. The thecnique quoted in producing buttons are hand craft work inlay work precision casting press mosic dye etching, processing, engraving and embossed carving etc. 3. The major designs used in the buttons in -dustries are : Round shape however elliptical column angular and edge shape often used. 4. The colors used are : The multi-colors were highly used than mono-colored materials such as : Adjoining Color and Contrast Color. The highest consideration to be considered in choosing the colors for the buttons are harmonization and matching factor with the garment or dresses to be wore. 5. The major design(incused design) on the buttons are embodiment and the design were also used in order of abstractive-combination abstractive with has offers much surprising. The button industries during the 19th and 20th centuries were not only the determination factors those can judge the value of self-pride of Nation and which were far beyond the in-dustrial arts in those days but also highly refelected and influenced by cultural sense ideology and self-pride of the Nation of those period. The followings are details of the role of the buttons categolized in the order of functional ornamental and symbolical aspects : 1. The functional role : The functional role of the buttons were simply designed for dress how-ever the buttons beyond from this role of function now a days. 2. The ornamental role : The ornamental role of he button beyond from this role of the button were effectuated by : 1) shape materials colors 2) technique locations size and design (incused design) 3) The ramaterials used for buttons shall not be over looked because it is highly depends on the taste sense and combination of harmony with the garment to be wore. 4) The color of the buttons are made well contrasted with the color of garments just as in the case of other artistical area such as matchs with the color of garment of contrast with brigtness of colors contrasted as complementary color and so and so. 5) The technique being adoped are: precision casting press handcraft inlay work etching mosic etc,. Since the buttons are no longer a simple catching devise used to fasten together the different part of the dress but now it has formed own and occupied the independent role in the garment or dresses location can be de-termined and varying depending on the ideas of designers. The size of the buttons has no specific limits, However the variation has widely dependined on the entire circumperence rhythm contrast harmonization of the garments. 3. The symbolical role : Since the button is no longer a just a simple devise for catching and fastening device used fastening together the different part of the garments but now were built a independent area as major part of the Garment and well reflected all kinds of occupations political background cultural as-pect etc. on the buttons. The design of buttons in the western circles are more simplified but they are polished looks and their techniques of manufacturing are comination of both machanis and handcraft. The colors used in the buttons are pretty well harmonized with garment(dress). Almost all kind of materials can be used in the but-tons however materials used in the buttons are : Bone of livestocks ivory, turtle shell are no longer used because the prevention of cruely of animal. On the contraly the level of buttons indus-try of Korea is far to reach and catch up with the level of western circles. It is highly suggested therefore the but-tons industrial field of Republic of Korea shall place and encouragement in producing beter industrial environment of the buttons based on the traditional and cultural aspect of republic of Korea to produce both manufacturing of qulified and best designed and colored buttons.
A Study on the European Symbolist Costume -Focusing on Gustav klimt's Art World-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 277~296
The progressive artists in Austria including Gustav Klimt organized the Viennes Se-cessionist in 1897 and they took an active part in the reformation of the reformation of the applied art by accepting the Jugendstil standing for the true art. The vocabularies which characterize this group are decoration literature and the power of symbol. Klimt especially expressed these characteristics and his strong person-ality. For he created his works with the sym-bolic and friendly splendor through his highly decorative talents by accepting the enwly changed artistic situation in those days and by getting out of the naturalistic trends he was regarded as an avant-garde artist as a major figure among the Symbolist artists who revived European culture which was destroyed through the World War I. The characteristics of klimt's works was to express the various human thoughts and minds through the decorativeness and the femininity and to use the decorative elements of old Greek and Egyptian culture and Japanese art as the motives of his works, His art is to be found between the naturalistic characteristics and formalization as well as between the in-dustrial arts and the fine arts. In his many portraits he preferred women by trying to express eroticism hidden behind the human inner world. For this he demonstrated the attractiveness and the characteristics of the models by designing the illusionary and unique clothes. In general his genius was to be seen through the costume which was decorated with metals and jewels and through the characteristics of the modern costume in which the previous solid silhouette was removed and the gentle and elegant me-dium color was used. by accepting the new artistic trends in the turn of the century by fully expressing those characteristics in his creative world and by taking his theme from the eroticism through the decorativeness and the expression of women Gustav Klimt's uniquely decorative ex-pression completely realized the aesthetics of Jugendstil symbol decoration and expression which displayed not only the external appear-ance but also the inner world. Especially he created a new appearance emphasizing the costume of the characters in his works. Also through the costume he expressed his artistic consciousness and psy-chology. He showed the characteristics of the reformed costume through the medium color the simple forms and gentle silhouette. Also he tried to symbolize the passionate inner pow-er by designing the small mosaics such as the geometrical patterns whirlpool patterns and the indecent meanings all over the costume. Klmt's this kinds of attemps shows a Stil Kostume as the external outcome of the inner spiritual activities like art and it establishes a basis for the theory of costume are which deals with the concepts of costume from the artistics points of view. This tradition playing an important role in the contemporary history of costume even has been still inherited up to today.
Semiotic Approach of Korean Ginyoe Clothing
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 297~312
Today though the word ginyoe(gisaeng) was remained as a historic relic but they were firmly existed about 40 years ago and ginyoe's number was about three million in Chosun it's almost near 0.5% of the total population of Chosun. To think that point the ginyoe's so-ciety was considered a special one in the his-tory of Korean woman. The ginyoe as a special social class were specialize in technical art such as dancing and prostitute. Although they were low class they were luxurious slaves whoses clothing was almost equal to that of royal family. They were the leaders of fashion in woman clothing that's because their role was entertainer, This study can be summarized as follows. First ginyoe and public woman's clothing codes were nearly same in koryo but tatally separated in chosun. I could find that was came from those day's moral sprit. Second ginyoe's clothing was not only have luxuriance like royal family but also have unique clothing codes for them. Though they are low class ginyoe could use upper class's clothing codes. But upper class women could'nt use ginyoe's clothing codes are vary various and have their own clothing codes. Third I analyzed ginyoe's clothing codes and then derived 6 ginyoe's clothing messages. They were symbol of wealth symbol of power symbol of occupational function symbol of sexual attraction symbol of social position symbol of freedom.
A Study on Western Women's Hair Style in Twenty century
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 313~332
The purpose of this study were as follows : 1) Investigate how to intluence Clothes with time background and trends of art-thought in the twenty century. 2) To understand chronologically how to change hair style Make-up and hair decor-ation. I. 1st and 2nd World War time(1920-1945) The women's social status and their sexual equality was promoted during in this time. 1) African Art Surrealism and Expression art were doninated. 2) The popalar trends were tutular silhoutte (Slim and long) boyish Style and military lookwere popular. 3) The popalar trends of were Eton Crop. short bob gaconne hair style cloche hat. page boy hair style were popular. 4) The trend of make-up which specially. emphasized eye make-up and imitated movie star make-up and make shining redish of lip and nails were popular. II. The stage of modernism(1945-1969) cold war time between communism and capi-talism and promotin of women's human rights were established in this time. 1) Pop art avantgrade art were catched up 2) The popular trends of were new look Kior's line silhoutte mini skirt and young fashion. 3) The popular trend of hair style was french twist. Pill Boxs hat curly bob style were prevalenced and they some what dwarfed hair style. 4) make-up natural make-up was popular. III. The stage of high economic development (1969-1990) Increased population economic development were tend to specialize with anti-social action such as Hippie and Punk groups. 1) Op art Androgynous post-modernism Punk and neo-modernism were catched up. 2) Clothes : classic style of reactionism layered look Punk-fashion avantgrade fashion and pantalon suits were prevalence. 3) Hair Style : Twiggy's short hair style the geometric hair cut natural long hair Spike hair unsex-hair style. 4) Make-up : diversified individuality were prevalence The result of this study indicated that the value's of recognize the importance of total fashion that is the harmonization of clothes hair style and make-up
A Study on the Gestalt IIIusion Effect of Clothing Design.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 333~344
In this study an experiment was made using the function of computer simulation os to whether the phenomenon of optical illusion takes place also in clothing on the human body three-dimensional space through the case study of the Gestalt illusion of planar con-traction and expension by amodal completion in perceptual organization. One woman of latter 30s was selected as the experimental subject. She was made to wear the experimental clothing and then the frontal picture was projected of in the experimental clothing which was scanned into the com-puter. For the sake of the contractive experiment 5 stages were divided by 5-15cm the thick-nes of the black vertical line in the center of the upper garmet as the variable and for the sake of the expansive experiment the skirt length was set as the variable. It length measured 50-90cm which was divided by 10cm into 5 stages and simulated using the CAD. The basic design and the experimental de-sign were made one pair and the pictures totalled 20 pictures such as ten pictures save the human body for the estimation of the up-per garmet alone and ten pictures for the ob-servation of the effect on the human body. The extimating panel consisting of 20 panellers estimated contraction/expansion in the estimation of the upper garmet and the tall effect/the slim effect in the estimation of optical illusion as the estimating factors on the 9-point scale. All the date from experiment were analyzed by ANOVA(analysis of variance) and DUNCAN'S multiple range. As a result the experimental designs all showed a significant optical illusion in comparision with the basic design.
A Study on the Shirts Blouse Pattern Making by Utilizing CAD System.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 22, 1994, Pages 345~356
The Shirts Blouse was produced through the process of shirts Blouse pattern making by utilizing CAD System developed by PAD Sys-tem Techologies Co. Ltd that is suitable to educational use or industrial use. The purpose of this study was to provide the basic data for the development of efficient and various design patterns by applying this pro-cess to the actual business of apparel making. The results were as follows: 1. The applicable range of CAD system 1) The repeated work can be avoided by thansforming and developing the basic pattern stored and the storage and remodification were easy. 2) The deletion duplication movement and copy of all points and lines in the pattern can be made freely and measurement of all lengths and angles the attachment of two patterns were possible. 3) The grading Library of the basic pattern was applied as it was and the time was curtailed by adding only several grading points with the change of design. 2. The problem in the use of the CAD System 1) Through the input of basic pattern by the digitizer the minute size difference was generated as each point on the curve came to be designated. 3) In grading the line of neck girth there was inconveniences to go to the plan view in order find out deviation.