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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Costume
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41 - Nov 1998
Volume 40 - Sep 1998
Volume 39 - Jul 1998
Volume 38 - May 1998
Volume 37 - Mar 1998
Volume 36 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
남녀노년층의 의복태도, 의복행동, 쇼핑에 인구 통계적 특성이 미치는 영향 연구
Jin, Sook-Hwang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 5~15
A Study on the Relationship between Lifestyles and Clothing Purchasing Behavior
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 17~32
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between lifestyles and clothing purchasing behavior. The questionnaire was administered to 644 females aged 30∼40 in Taegu during April 21 to April 26 of 1997. Data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, reliability test, MANOVA, and ANDVA by suing SPss package. 1. The lifestyles of the respondents were classified into fived types such as consumption oriented, economics-oriented, achievement-oriented, family-oriented, and conservative-oriented type. And clothing purchasing behavior was classified into six categories such as individuality, convenience, economy, ostentation, decorums, and practicality. 2. The results of lifestyle and clothing purchasing behavior analysis were as follows ; 1) All of five positive groups of consumption·economics·achievement·family and conservative-oriented type had an inclination for economy and individuality. And some differences were found according to the consumers, interest even in the same lifestyle. 2) The positive groups of consumption oriented type thought much of individuality and ostentation but on the other hand the passive group thought much of practicality. 3) The positive groups of consumption oriented, and family-oriented types except economics oriented and conservative oriented types took up a strong attitude toward ostentation, and ostentation was found in passive group of the conservative-oriented type. 4) The positive group of economics-oriented, achievement-oriented and conservative-oriented types except consumption-oriented and family-oriented types had great concern for practicality in the case of clothing purchasing behavior. But also the passive group of conservative-oriented types had an inclination for practicality. 5) Generally five types of lifestyles and clothing purchasing behavior showed that all types had the greatest concern for economy and individuality, and common for practicality and ostentation. And all of five types had partial concern for convenience and showed no differences for decorums.
A Study on the Wearing and Purchasing Hanbok of Korean Urban Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 33~46
The purposes of present study were (1) to examine the actual condition of wearing and purchasing Hanbok, (2) to investigate the effect of demographic variables on the wearing and purchasing Hanbok and (3) to identify the dissatisfaction with Hanbok. Data were collected from 702 females, age 20 or older, residing in Seoul, Taejon, Pusan and were analysed. Results of this study were as follows : (1) Korean urban women possess from one to three Traditional Dress and wear Hanbok in one to three during one year for special days. (2) The demographic variables that affect on wearing and purchasing Traditional Hanbok were age, income, family make-up and growing region. (3) One among the four Korean urban women possesses a Deformed Hanbok. And Korean women wears Deformed Hanbok for both daily life and special days. (4) The store that most women purchase Hanbok was order-made store near the house. The income affected on the store that purchaser selects significantly. (5) Three factors consisting of dissatis-faction with Hanbok were dissatisfaction with 'wearing', 'purchasing' and 'diversity of Hanbok design'. (6)Significant levels of correlations existed between the degrees of wearing Hanbok and the dissatisfaction.
A study on veil and head-dress of Bodhisattva in Dunhuang Mogaoku
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 47~69
The purpose of this study is to inquire the hair, head-dress and clothing(upper clothing: Veil, Samkaksika, Sash) of Bodhisattvas in Dunhuang Mogaoku of the period from Northern Liang Dynasty(421∼439) to Tang Dynasty(618∼907). The method of this figure and the change of clothing form : 'Dunhuang Mogaoku'1st Volume-4th Volume. The Bodhisattvas' hair style are somehat various ; A part in her hair, Suibal, Gae, Sakbal. A part in Bodhisattvas's hair is observed from Northern Liang Dynasty to Sui Dynasty. But Suibal had been continuous succeeded. Meanwhile, in the periods of Sui and Tand Dynasty, there were the hair styles whose ends were curled up. It is called Eulle Meor-ee. Especially, in Tang Dynasty various styles of Gae were appeared. Doogun was observed from Northern Wei to Tang Dynasty. There were three kinds of head-dress; Samsikkwan(having 3 decoration), Bokwan and Jungmeunkwan(appeared in Tang Dynasty). Meanwhile, Sash let was become more and more decorative. The Upper clothing can be classify into Veil, Samkaksika, Sash, etc. Veil were observed in every period but X shaped one was form Northern Wei and U shaped one was from Northern Zhou Dynasty. After the period of Sui Dynasty U shaped Veil become prevalent. Samkaksika was observed for the first time in Northern Zhou Dynasty. Cutted sam-kaksika was appeared in Sui Dynasty and succeeded to Tang Dynasty. Poncho tyed Samkaksika was also observed in Tang Dynasty. In Westhern Wei Dynasty. daesupo was used into outter garment, which us that chinese influence was deep tell. Sash showed up in Tang Dynasty and it is used for Veil for the whole period of the Dynasty. But using sash for veil was formally hanged on going the lated period of Tang Dynasty. We can observe the sun-moon decoration and the wings of a bird decoration at the Bokwan, Veil, Samkaksika and Sash, etc. It is was the influendce of Sasan Per-sia and India. I will fill up the insufficency of this study wity continous research of ornament(Muktahara) and skirt of Bodhisattva and deeper inquiry of the relationship around the many countries.
The Aesthetic Qualities Featured in Vivienne Westwood's Works
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 71~88
This study will analyze the aesthetic qual-ities revealed in the work of Vivienne Wes-twood in order to gain an understanding of the development process and uniqueness of modern avant-garde fashion. Westwood gained worldwide recognition in the 1970s as the Punk movement emerged in London. Although her works have often been described as decadent and anti-establishment, her anarchic view of fashion has had a considerable influence on other designers, both in England and around the world. Vivienne Westwood's works can be divided into three periods. In the first period(1971∼78). Westwood design demonstrated elements which were variations of the subcultural Punk style. The noteworthy designs of this period included ripped T-shirts, bondage clothes, and fetishist accoutrements. In the second period(1979∼83), her designs expressed elements from ethnic and primitive tribal societies through the 'Pirate', 'Savages', 'Buffalo Girls', 'Witches' collections, which inspired New Romanticism movement. In the third period (1985∼ ), through works such as 'Mini-Crini'collection, her works identified elements from the old west and used materials such as crinoline and Harris tweed and contemporized them by rearranging the innovative technique. In the end the news synthesis helped formulate new ideas. The aesthetic qualities in Vivienne Wes-twood's works can bed identified with the following themes : Punkature, Erotic Intelligent-sia, Anarchic Collage. First, within Punkature, Westwood's ideas are at the forefront as her impact on the cut of clothes and creative detailing have been considerable. Also, while her ideas can be extreme, her clothes are wear-able, resulting in the synthesis of Punk and couture. Second, as Erotic Intelligentsia, Vivienne Westwood does not present sexuality as a straight forward attribute that fashion so often tends to do, but instead as a matter for inquiry, exploration and debate. She asserts that sexuality is always an interplay between the polarities of masculine and feminine, of dress and undress. Third, as Anarchic Collage, she has taken, juxtaposed, and transformed objects and symbols from dominant culture, like every modern subversive movement from Dada to Punk. She has continued this form of anarchic collage, mixing styles from various times and places, taking them out of their traditional context. From thiss viewpoint, Vivienne Westwood's works can be considered to be made up of past themes merged with is contemporary. The usage of contrasting elements such as Punk and couture to communicate her ideas visually or technically.
A Comparative Analysis of the Characteristics of Male Consumers Segmented by Fashion Leadership
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 89~102
This paper has main purpose of identifying the difference of the characteristicss of male consumers who have different levels of fashion leadership. 538 male consumers living in Seoul area was surveyed using questionnaire. Sam-ples were surveyed using questionnaire. Sam-ples were segmented as 3 groups by fashion leadership and named fashion leader, fashion follower and fashion retards. Various character-isticss in terms of personality, attitudes, life-estyle activities, magazined readership, use of fashion information sources, shopping behavior, risk perception and demographics analysis among 3 segments. 3 groups showed significant differences in many characteristics such as venturesomeness, cosmopoliteness, ex-tensity of travel, art/culture activity for offtime, reading of male-oriented magazines, in-formation search through fashion magazine, fashion knowledged, shopping preferrence, clot-hing expense. Based on major characteristics of each segment, some tips for marketing strategies were suggested.
A Study on Modernism and Postmodernism depicted on the 20th Century of Fashion(I) -Focused on Anti-Aesthetics and Open Fashion-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 103~118
The purpose of this study is to describe the central argument of postmodern theory ; pro-vide a central concept about postmodernism for fashion ; identify the signficance of open fashion in the 20th century. Postmodern is used to refer to a body of social theory, a style of aesthetic expression, and to various social practics and economic conditions. In this paper, postmodern theory is interpreted as an anti-aesthetics propesed by Derrida, Lyotard, Baudrillard, and Foster. The key principles and consepts of postmodern the-ory reflect and restate assumptions of nihilism influenced by the works of Nietzsche, being synonymous with the phrase philosophy of difference. The death of art, the end of progress, the will to the sublime, and the principle of pure difference support postmodern ideas, which could be the framework to interprete fashion phenomenon in postmodern condition.
Effect of Clothing cues and Perceiver variables on Impression Formation of Female dressed in Korean Dress(PartII) -Focus on Perceiver Variables-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 119~132
Niveteen stimulus photographs varied in hue and color scheme of one clothing style of Korean dress worn by a female were used to explore the differences in perceptive effect of clothing cues(color, color scheme, structure) on impression formation and graduate students. The data were analyzed by factor analysis, factor score, ANOVA and Scheffe-test. Results indicate perceptive effects of clothing cues on impression formation are influenced by gender-differences and major-difference of perceivers. Significant gender differences were found in perception of clothing cues on impression effect. Interaction effects were found between clothing cues and gender. Significant major differences were found in perception of clothing cues on impression effect. Interaction effects were found between clothing cues and perceiver's major. Female perceivers and perceivers of major-ing in Liberal Arts reacted to clothing cues on impression formation with greater sensitivity than male perceivers and perceivers of majoring in Natural Sciences. Frequent interaction effects between gender and color of China (cool-warm color), between major difference and color scheme(related color harmony-contrasting color harmony) appeared on factors of impression effect. The influence of perceiver variables on their perception of clothing cues for impression effcet has important implications for gender difference and perceiver's maforing backgroung in a social situation.
Study on the aspect of costume in "Maeil Shinmun" - Focused on Men's wear, Women's wear and Children's wear-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 133~148
This study presents the aspects and changing process of the habiliment from the National Liberation up to now by analyzing the articles of costume found in
from Jan. 1. 1946 to Dec. 31. 1996. In the period of 1946~1959, the political and economic conditions through the National Liberation and Korean war deteriorated and the interest in costumes were weakened. But the economic recovery and social stability in the middle of the 50's made the lost interest in costumes increase. From 1960 to 1969, the high economic growth was achieved by“Five year plans for Economic Development”and the progress of mass media, transportation, communication and education brought western culture to our society. It spread rapidly and changed the way of life and the sence of value. These phenomenon led to a great transition on the Korean costume culture in the 60's In 1970~1979, the articless of costume made a change from the 60's, which focused on women's wear, and tuned to one including general costumes not only women's wear but also men's wear due to the women's social roles, the unisexmode and diverse costume. In 1980~1989, the growth of the consumption, the banning of the school uniform, Asian Games(1986) and Olympic games(1988) caused the high qualification, personalization and diversification in the fashion industry. Further more, the traditional-oriented trend with korean culture was emphasized. It pursued the modernization of the traditional Korean Costume, Hanbok, to introduce the unique Korean Beauty. From 1990 to 1996, in the era of international-ization and open door policy, the competition of nations became intense and the comprehention about environmental destruction highlingted the concerns on ecology. The recognition of environmental protection and recycling were reflected in the fashion. It prevailed that the pursuit of personalization,. diverse style, practicality and the fashion leader called generation appeared.
The Study on Technique and Design Appeared in Textile of Miaos in China
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 149~162
This study is thed Embroidery, Cross-stitchery, Weaving, Wax-Printing of technique and design appeared in textile of Miaos dwells in south-west among the minority people of china. The study is as follows. First, the technique of textile1) satin stitch, couching stitch, french-knot stitch, etc. using anther silk thread or cotton thread color 2) cross-stitchery 3) hand-weaving technique which is shaped other warp or weft using simple loom 4) the technique of dyeing of pattern using effect with wax. These methods are singly used mixing together, therefore doubled beauty. Second, these technuque of ornament have other independence, specially ornament apron, sling, sleeve borders, slack borderss, edge of upper garment, take off and put on easily, heighten effect of various ornament, can preserve many years. Third, Maker, female born in this country fashion by need of herself, used liberal method shown in unique creativity of life. This texture make standards capable female proud of intelligent and skill of herself. Fourth, Design appeared in textile like as pattern flying bird in the sky, strolling beast in the field, lion rolling gem, laughing dragon winding snake at gem, birks, flowers, fish, butterfly is used as the wish of long life, a lucky sign. They expressed creativity and unique conception using formation : the technique transform other shape using by omitting or adding or overestimating. Geometric pattern of tartan, revealing, Fifth, composition structure having balance and symmetry or contradiction towards center and circumstance of the center harmonized repeatedly method, expressed unique artful attraction by full composition.
A study on the interpretations of woman's body in western clothing
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 163~180
In western clothing, woman's body was port-rayed sexually as the distinction of sex was appeared, and the parts of body contain some kind of symbol of sex. Woman's body was diversly accentuated according to the divers ideal beauty concepts pursuits in the different periods. Today, in a Post-industrial Society whose social structure is very divers and complicated, the interpretation of woman's body reveals so various as the complex social structure. The purpose of this study is to comprehend the various interpretations of woman's body in the contemporary clothing. The concrete purposes of this study is as follows. First, this study is to define the concept of natural body and built body by differentiating the parts of body and searching for the sexual symbols accentuated in the western clothing. Second this study aims to review, the histori-cal process of prejudged distinction of sex in the western clothing, and to analyse the con-temporary sociocultural which forced to change this prejudged distinction of sex. Third, on the bases of this analses, this study also aims to present various interpretation on divers aspects of woman's body portrayed in the contemporary clothing. The interpretation of woman's body in the contemporary clothing were as follow. First, it is a body interpreted as a natural and neutral body which is based not so much on prejudged division of sex as on the expression of the body structure. And, it is a decomposed and recomposed body which is based on plastic principles. This body is portrayed by a layer-ing and wrapping which interrogated such traditional symbols of western clothing as collar, sleeve or trousers, skirt, etc. Second, it is a sexually symbolized body. This body is display-ed by exposure or sexual accentuation in the clothing. To conclude, a body interpreted in the contemporary clothing is no more a body accentuated by division of sex, but a body which per-mits indefinite hypotheses and interpretations under synthetic imagination.
The Study of Head type Analysis for Milinary
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 181~190
The purpose of this study was to provide basic information for women's women's head type for mil-inary. The subjects were 141 college women aged from 19∼23. Data were collected from the real anthropometric measurements and 4 index. Correlation coefficientss, factor analysis, cluster analysis and analysis of variance in SAS package. The results were as follows : 4 factors were extracted from 20 anthrometric measurements and in index data, which explain 60.0% of variance. The subjectss were classified into 4 clusters by 11 measurement and 4 index data. Each charicteristics of cluster by the measurements was flat, big, thick, small types in women's head. Each charicteristics of cluster by the index data was mostly flat in head thickness and wide, midium, narrow, very wide type in face.
Consumer's Attitudes Toward Jeans Wear Advertisements by Appeal Type
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 191~209
The present study was made to contribute to thed improvement of the quality of jeans wear advertising, and to the establishment of more effective advertising policy by which the jeans wear advertisements can go well with the unique charateristics of jeans wear. The study analyzed the consumer's attitude and dimention of affective responses toward jeans wear advertisements by type of appeal. The research was implemented through the survery with a representative sample of 344 consumers residing in Seoul. Means, Standard Deviation, ANOVA, Duncan Test, Facor Analysis and Regression were imployed to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study are as follows : (1) There are four dimentions of affective responses toward jeans wear advertisements ; upbeat-activation dimention, erotic-activation dimention, calm-emotional dimention, negative emotional demention. (2) According to consumer's sex, there are significant differences in each dimention of their affective responses. Toward sex-appeal advertisements, men show high degree of affective responses in upbeat-activation dimen-sion and calm-emotional dimension. (3) There is a probability that non-sex-appeal advertisement covers wider range of consumer than sex-appeal advertisements. (4) There is no significant different in affective responses towards both sex-appeal and non-sex-appeal advertisement of jeans wear between and among sex·age and involvement level of consumer. (5) Men prefer sex-appeal advertisement to non-sex-appeal advertisement, while there is no significant differences between the attitude of female consumers toward sex-appeal adver-tisement and non-sex-appeal advertisement. (6) In particular, age of 15∼18 and 30∼35 group of female consumer show very positive attitude toward sex-appeal advertisement. Therefore, there is a need to segment female jeans wear market by age groups. (7) According to the age and the involvement level of consumers, there is a significant differences in their attitudes toward advertise-ment. In case of male consumers, group of low level involvement prefer sex-appeal advertise-ment to non-sex-appeal advertisement. While high level involvement group did not show any significant differences between the attitude toward sex-appeal advertisement and the attitude toward non-sex-appeal advertisement. And the age of 15∼24, low level involvement group of female consumers also more positive attitude toward sex-appeal advertisement than toward non-sex-appeal advertisements.
A Study on the Ideologies of the Clothing Advertisements in Women's Monthly Magazines
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 211~230
Advertisements provide consumers with in-formation and knowledge about products and help a society to sustain homogeneity by actively reflecting important characteristics of mass culture. Yet this reflection is a selective and purposeful representation by the party of the fashion manufactures and carries the intention of stimulating and augmenting desire for commodities aiming to perpetuate capitalism. This study understood this selective reflection of mass culture by advertisements as a feature of hegemonic struggle between/fashion business and consumers and defined the values selected by advertisements as ideologies supporting the consumption ideology of capitalism. The purpose of this study was to examine the contents of the ideologies expressed in the clothing advertisements in women's magazines to persuade consumers into consumption. The method of study was mainly qualitative with subsidiary citations from the results of content analysis. The objects of analysis were clothing advertisements in 1996 issues of CeCi and Woman Sense, which were identified as the two most popular women's monthly magazines. The ideologies identified were ideologies concerning (1) Self Identity, (2) Sensibility, (3) Sex Role, (4) Globalism, (5) Youth, (6) Leas-ure and Pleasure. Repeated and insisted as natural and true, there values were proposed to be believed as common senses and studies re-port that values of advertisements are ac-cepted as more readily as they are more unreasonable, and the acts and behaviors expres-sed within advertisements are often imitated in real life situations. Therefore, it is highly probable that these values emphasized within advertisements are enacted in thoughts and behaviors of consumers' real life. Accordingly the author suggests that critical interpretation of advertisements is seriously required to fully understand the commodity ridden post industrial society of today and to lead a subjective life within it.
A Study on Formality and Symbolism in Black Dress
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 231~252
Since the costume directly express human mental and emotional status, colors of costume can be valuable data to grasp the spirit of the times. Black is noticeably used in modern fashion and the study for black costume is very useful to understand modern fashion. There-fore the study mainly approaches the black costume, finding its background of appearance and symbolism, reviews the symbolism and formality of black expressed in the field of paint-ing and design beyond the fashion, and compar-es to fashion. The study result of the thesis is as follows ; First, black as a color is a one to light other neighboring colors, while it is a static, con-tractible and outstandigly attractived color. Second, black color traditionally symbolizes death, earth, air, North and inferior level and in the painting, it symbolized death, despair, fantastic world and the expression of pent-up self, while cities have been symbolized in the black printing in modern times. In the design, black has appeared with the industrial society, which symbolizes functionality and modernity. Third, black in the fashion design was symbolized death, sternness simplicity, modernity, sex, resistance and so on. Death became conspicious by a religious factor since the old times, sternness was influenced by Spanish fashion in the 16th century, simplicity by Dutch fashion in the 17th century and modernity by Baudelaire dandyism and Chanel little black dress, while sex and resistance were urged to the modern times by teenage inferior culture and stickiness to sex. Fourth, the formative features of black costume prefer simplicity, tightness and bareness in form, and in material, usually used glancing materials changed by the effect of light, lace, see-through fabric and matte one with depth. As a result, the black color is summarized to symbol death, expression of self and modernity. It is not a color of emotion but of mentality and artificial one against nature. Black color in fashion gets a strong power to express self in the symbolic aspect and draws a higher attention on human body than the fashion itself. By these features, black costume will be continuously prefered in spite of changes of the fashion.
A study on naturalism style of fashion-concentrating on the 1990s-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 37, 1998, Pages 253~273
The culture reflects the ideology of a particular period in time and such values change according to the needs and requests of that time which eventually becomes an important factorin forming the exterior. The clothing is part of a way that composes and expresses the inherent substance of society and culture. Also, the clothing itself manifests the artistic values and behavior of mankind as an external structure maintaining its place as a big part in culture. The purpose of this study are to elucidat the concept of naturalism, which is discussed in many facets in the modern era; I studied the concept as well as the history of naturalism in order to manifest the meaning of clothing in the context of culture and I explained the concept in terms of the modern era. On such ground, I explained the naturalism expressed through clothing and characterized the exter-nal form of clothing. Also, in order to know the stream of naturalism in the modern context, I referred to the Vogue magazine of the 90s, using Delong's ABC method. Naturalism, in the context of modern fashion is a way to express the nostalgia of nature's vi-ability and purity of ecology apart from the artificial and structural appearance that resulted form scientific enhancement and hence, the ecological crisis. Naturalism pursues the soft- ness and comfort of the natural silhouette, color and material of the human body and it can be said that naturalism emphasizes the mix-ture of three substances : human, nature and clothing. The naturalism can be characterized by the factors expressed in clothing as follows. First, the naturalism shown in the form it-self draws the beauty of the bodyline without any reduction nor exaggeration. Without any distorttion of the human bodyline it shown the curve as one moves along, using the soft material. Second, the naturalism shown in color most-ly uses the natural tone with added white color and other color low in intensity and value like the receded colors of the earth that could be compared to the beauty of ecru. Third, the naturalism shown in the material is thin, light and soft in texture. In order to bring out the most natural curve of the human body, the natural fiber becomes the main material, sometimes, using crude materials. Due to the lindustrial improvement, softness and elasticity is added to the natural fibers giving them an important role as materials. Fourth, the naturalism shown in textile depicts the real natural objects in life. According to my study, the personality of naturalism in modern clothing was shown to be most strong in material and then in the order of form, texture and textile. The material com-posed of the natural silhouette and natural fibers were used to make soft color. In form, Paul Poiret made appearance expressing the natural beauty of the human body without the corset ; it continued with the inner lining making the clothing hard but in the 90s, lining-less, extremely exposed clothes and knit wear is used to emphasize the natural beauty of the body. In color and textile, the tendency spok-en above is not as strong but in color, instead of high intensity or value, the usage of neutral colors with added white color or ecru color, ear-th tone is increasing. In textile, the usage of flowers as natural material is seen frequently. As a whole, naturalistic trend in the 90s is increasing and the modern fashion is breaking out from the artificial and architectural form and conforming to a form that can realize the natural beauty of the human body. And the natural color and textile that conforms to such ideas are being used to pursue the human oriented trend that has appeared due to the increase in usage of soft natural fiber. Nowadays, the idea of returning to nature, defying the artificiality, desiring the leisure and psychological abundance that can be explained as naturalistic way of thinking is necessitated in this modern era as long as humans coexist with nature, this tendency will continue in clothing.