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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Costume
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41 - Nov 1998
Volume 40 - Sep 1998
Volume 39 - Jul 1998
Volume 38 - May 1998
Volume 37 - Mar 1998
Volume 36 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
On the Method of History of Korean Costume
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 17~29
The purpose of this paper is to explore a new methodology for the historiography of Korean cos-tumes. In particular, I focus on the possibility for systematic, historical methods appropriate for the history of Korean costumes. First, I characterize the general historiography of costumes as involving two aspects-one as the social science and the other as historical science(Geschichteswissenschaft). My contention is that any historical study of costume should be established on the intersection of social and historical studies, and their entangling relations with many a neighboring field of sciences. It requires in other words, an interdisciplinary approach that combines various methodologies of social sciences as well as those of history. Second, I present an overall review of the historical methodology with a special emphasis on the“Quellenkunde”of orthodox historiography. Building on the review, third, I pay attention to recent innovations in historical methodologies, such as“New History”that draws on history, sociology and social history, and their applicability to the history of Korean costmes. In this regards. I adress among others, the following theoretical perspectives : 1) comparioson and comparative history, 2) the formatived and paternal approaches toward the history of costume, 3) particulartiy and universality of Korean costume. I conclued that the history of Korean costumes should broaden its theoretical horizon in order to accomodate a wider range of research agenda, including costumes of neighboring cultures, while remaining sensitive to new theories and methods of the neighboring social historical sciences. For this purpose, it is emphasized that an international collaboration among researchers of the region, as well as that across the different disciplinnary boundaries, is indispensable for successful studies that can embrace diverse fields and areas.
A Study on the Spatial Property of Dress Modeling-I
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 31~49
This study is the primary basic study about the spatial feature of modeling of Fashion Design. Then, this researcher lays significance in establishing the basic system about the character of dress and its ornaments as modeling in spatial-formal, dimension, examining the feature of modeling closely through perception principle and offering the basic principle to plan and organize the modeling space for dress and its ornaments on the basis of it. To generalize the findings is as follows : First, the spatial system of modeling for dress and its ornaments is made with 3 elements such as space, human beings and dress and its ornaments. Second, the form of dress and its ornaments and the spatial organization start from the structural basis which is human body, and the sensible system of body is made through inter-action, but the aesthetic expression is complet-ed by the moment of body. Third, the characteristic principle of model-ing for dress and its ornaments which was suggested in Chapter IV is based on the visuo-per-ceptional modeling experience, and these thinking contents are inputted in cognition course as the invisible in formation in the new space plan and organization and activate the apperception course and aim at the action about aesthetic judgement.
The Comparison of formative Characteristics Clothing in Fashion and Art to Wear.-focused on Art to Wear of Futurism in 1910~1930
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 51~72
Futurists objected the existent style, that is the conventional fashion, and took part in these disciplines of fashion to make clothes the instruments being able to represent the individuality. Giacomo Balla and fortunato Depero, pain-ters who in 1915 were to work with Diaghilev's company, were the first to see clothing as a dynamic interfaced between th body and the atmosphere, between physical gestures and the urban context, which could be translated into encounters between forms and colours, volumes and architecture. For them, clothing began to exist as an object and an event, something to be removed from a mainly static conception and made mobile, active. The interaction between movement and clothing was based on the relativity of perception : the appearance and disappearance of the body produced points without dimension or duration which served, as Balla wrote in the Futurist Mnaifesto of Men's Clothing to“renew incessantly the enjoyment and impetuous movement of the body”. The historical achievement in the effort for the reformation of Futurist, Art to Wear. First, for Futurist, clothing is removed from a static conception and focused on dynamics. Second, Balla used asymmetry in men's clothing. Moreover he supposed dynamic men's clothes by using optical intersection. Third, the after image of Chronophotograph represented rapidity. This rhythmic expression is the fore-runner in Optical and Kinetic Art of Visual Art. Fourth, Futurist emphasized flexibility in fashion. They aimed to create‘Clothing Machines’whose parts would interact to aceelerate the real and virtual, inner and outer movement of the human being. Fifth, the variety and short life of cutting skills and colors are focused and‘Fast Substance’in fashion is admitted by Futurists. Futurist concern with clothing was not lim-ited its appearance in terms of cut and colour. What important was also the way it appeared and disappeared according to fashion. It was a“fast substance”, able to reflect rapid, sudden changes of social and aesthetic taste. To reach to the aim of internationalization, Gesamtkunstwerk in our Art to Wear, it is extremely meaningful to examine art fashion which is created under the conception of Gesamtkunstwerk production of avang garde artist in the early 20th century and look at formative conscious of truth, goodess and beauty synthetically which they faced on their works of art.
A study on the Style and Form of the Yoo(:유) i,Sang(:상)n Koryo Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 73~82
There are two styles of Yoo(; ) Sang(;裳) in Koryo Women. One they wore the Snag(;裳) over the Yoo(; ), the other wore the Yoo(; ) over the Sang(;裳). In the Yoo(; ), Double breast styly was used for the adjustments of these clothes, Neckline and hem line were substituted by rectangular collar (;목판깃). Knot-button, Coat-string(;Okgolum), White straight collar (DongJung), side slit were used. In the Sang(;裳), Chimaheri(;치마허리)was mades of another fabric and Chima-string was dropped.
A study on the communication of stage costume-Focusing on Peking Opera of China-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 83~100
The purpose of this study is to figure out how stage costume of Peking Opera communicates what the character wants to inform to spectator. The stage costume means the clothing, shoes, headdress, accessory that the cast is worn for communicating personality of character. Stage costume not only reveals the character of new spirit who the director and the work is like to create, but also makes the style of play harmonizing with the atmosphere of the work. So, the stage costume in the play is a sort of symbol system that forms the depth of play. The stage costume of Peking Opera was formed on the basis of the Chinese traditional stage costume in the Qing period, however the style of stage costume was beautified the costume of Ming period and here contained the factors of successive costumes. But the stage costume of Peking Opera don't have the same rank system with real history costume and don't have demarcation according to period and history. Only it is that transformed and created the real history costume with Chinese fine view and made how they wear Chinese fine view and made how they wear the costume according to position, age, personality of character in the play. In the stage costume of Peking Opera, the color is cultural language that director can communicate to spectators and can inform spectator of sex, age, personality, position of the character. The color of the stage costume of Peking Opera reflects the principles of Yin and Yang and the five elements of the Chinese cosmogony. The pattern of decoration also makes the personality and characteristic of the character. The dragon pattern symbols the authority and majesty, so only the character of high position can use it. The pattern of tiger and leopard symbols bravery, so the military officer can use it. Civil officer decorates with the pattern of Japanese apricot, orchid, chrysanthmum, bamboo that symbols integrity and honor. The stage costume of Peking Opera communicates the identity of character with the special form of costume. Kanjien is a costume of the young priestess, Houyi is the Sunwukong'costume. Chayi is a costume of boatman. Lingzi, Sweixiu, Kaoqi is the props for the foramtive effect of stage costume, also they play an important part in expressing the emotion situation. In the result of study, we could know that the form, color, pattern of the stage costume and props of Peking Opera play important parts in communicating informations that let spectator can understand the play. So, the stage costume of Peking Opera is an‘picturizing costume’that the form, color, pattern of the stage costume is a sort of symbol system. It makes spectator feels actually the viewing Peking Opera.
A Study on the Semiotic Application about the Image Vestmental
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 101~122
The purpose of this study is to define the fundamentals of one symbolic concept, so calles vestment-sign, based on the logical relationship of sign system about the trichotomy by charles S. Peice's sign concept for the communication system of meaning in the non-linguistic image domain. To prove the argument of vestment-sign, I selected 3 type of vestment language by styliste, Elsa Schiaparel-li. The third image vestmental chosen here, titled“Larme-Illusion(1938)”,printed by Salvad-or Dali will produce one symbolic proposition as a logical result which is generated and developed through the interpretation of other images. First of all the text, which is manifested by Elsa Schiaparelli's first image vestmental, tit-led“Notation Musical(1937)”and is symbolized as one category in the representation of the form, is regarded symbolic and metaphorical from a standpoint that the title and the meaning is connected to the form. The second image vestment, titled“Ruches Noirs(1938)”represents externally splendid feminity man-ifested by the symbolic and metaphorical expression. And the purity of sensitivity aiming to humanity in the detail of the poetic feeling of naturalism makes us imagine the battle fild of furious sensitivity. Like as the result of the battle, the third image stimulated our eyesight with the“absence”of dressing function. The proposition of the text,《Death》which the third image delivers, constructs sign system to bring up a meaning with the disappearance of physical“signifier”. This establishment of the symbolic concept presents the etymological authority of symbol generation called“Design”.
The Pursuit of Individual Freedom in Rudi Gernreich's Fashion Designs
Lee, So-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 123~142
An Experimental Study for Colorizing of I-Ging & Its Usage
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 143~157
This research is to aim at presenting arrangement of colors, visual and symbolic through combined coupling ofI-Ging and Sackdong. This combined couplings is attempted to be approached by the following 4 conceptual steps :ⅰ) Is it appropriate to even try to coupleI-Ging with Sackdong\ulcorner ⅱ) Is the basic structure of Kwai an object of stripe colorizing\ulcorner ⅲ) What are the fundamental colors for this purpose\ulcorner ⅳ)combined of Kwai and the fundamental colors. Theoretical background for this study is as follows.ⅰ) Color accord and arrangements of existing Sackdong. ⅱ) An attempt to coupleI-Ging with Sackdong The purpose of this research is to expand concrete concept of Sackdong, which is to be utilized not only in costume design, but in the whole realm of design, by presenting feasible application of stripe coloredI-Ging. The summary of conclusion of this research is as follows. A. Is this aforementioned attempt academic\ulcorner B. Standardization of stripe-coloring is essential. Furthurmore we can conclued that the under-standing ofI-Ging and its basic philosophical background and the fundamental mechanism of colors in traditional costumes is necessary condition for standardization of Kwai. Along this path, however, conditions to be satisfied and priorities to be given depend upon the decision of an individual or a group. In my view, sripe-colorizing of 64 Kwais ofI-Ging followed by intuitive matching of colors with the in-terpretation of Kwais seems to be the most appropriate solution.
A Study on Art Wear(I)-Focusing on Clothing-Sculpture-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 159~178
Genres of the modern arts are expanding the overlapping area between the arts ; ceramics and weaving considered as crafts are devel-oped to the ceramic art and the fiber art, re-spectively. This trend has been also applied to the clothing part, which produced several new terms such as‘art to wear’,‘unwearable art’,‘clothing sculpture’and so on. As following this tendency, the unwearable art is dwelling on the boundary of painting, fiber art and scul-pture, and the clothing sculpture comes from the combination of fiber art and sculpture. While Issey Miyake's dress made of bamboo and Foltuny's pleats dress associated with Greek stone-column introduce the sculpture to the functional fashion design, the works of clothing sculpture become the arts by applying the sculpture to the non-functional unwearable art. Although the clothing sculpture is an interesting subject to be studied continuously for its effect on the contemporary clothing part, it is valuable enough as an unwearable art and sculpture respresenting the artist's concept under the circumstance that the boundary between arts and design is no longer clear, i.e., the clothing and the sculpture come across their regions each other. Furthermore, the clothing sculpture has its own value as a metapor exposing idea, feeling and spirit of the artist in the genre of the unwearable art. With a view point of the abstract clothing concept, the clothing sculpture has been taking the role expanding the clothing to the world of fine art.
A study on deconstruction of costume based on Chaos Fractal Theory-Focused on analysis examples of costumes work-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 179~191
On this thesis, the focus is that studying costumes which have been affected by deconstructionism that is based on chaos and fractal the-ory. Chaos and fractal theory is accepted as a new paradigm for open world which is changing very vast and fast. And this theory is needed for artists and designers who should have spacetime conciousness and open mind and attitude towark open world. In the results, various costume typess of deconstructionism have been shown by fashion designers and artists' works. Thoes are as follows; 1. normal relationship of costume changes to abnormal relationship 2. three-dimentional structure of costume changes to two-dimentional structure. 3. open to materials and techniques. 4. separated costume parts reconstruct as ambiguous whole on function. 5. body absence and accessorizing.
Womenswear Collections based on Italian Fashion Market Trends-utilizing 1990's demographics data-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 193~211
Without a solid marketing system in placed, the fashion industry cannot flourish on out-standing design or technology alone. Even though the significance of collecting and analyzing information, merchandising, and retail distribution is recognized, these functions are not firmly rooted or prevalent in our industry. In contrast, Italy which possesses similar demographic traits such as the lack of natural resources and other physical factors has succeed-ed in globalizing its fashion market by responding swiftly and exercising flexiblity to its constantly changing consumer demand. This in turn has earned Italy the competitive edge in the global fashion arena. Italy's unique management skills and operation know-how, along with successful market strategies come into play in bringing competitiveness to Italy's fashion market. Firstly, smaller companies with ability to adopt swiftly to the ever changing market. Secondly, fashion friendly social environment. Thirdly, niche marketing through highly specialized system and differentiation. Fourthly, timeless innovation through intense corporate competition. Lastly, establishment of foundations to support the industry through diverse networking. The alone building blocks have formed a basis for erecting an unparalleled market with a reputation for excellence in design and quality in the global fashion world. This study has examined how Italy's fashion industry has evolved from an underdeveloped textile business into a cutting edge fashion in-dustry. Italy's unique business processes and practices were studied to come up with a collection and merchandising ideas in a niche market. By selecting this venue we are able to continuously grow and develop in a market with diverse consumer needs. To analyze the Italian fashion market, data from 3 institutions were utilized, namely, CIT-ER which has provided consumer trends and sales analysis, SITA,a data service provided statistics from the textile and apparel businesses, and NBI has also furnished valuable data. Italian consumer preference, buying behavior, consumer profile, retail channels and other related data from the above institutions has formed a backbone for market segmentation and target markets, and as a result, we were able to zero in on the type of consumer, produce, pricing and retail channels for our womenswear. Going forward the direction is to elevate product image and pretige, and create syn-ergy between related industries, and at the same note, in order to develop internationally recognized brands such as Max Mara and Benetton. Certain elements such as the specialization of the fashion industry, alon-g with fashion-related data base and systems support, and most importantly experts with acute fashion sense and capacity to analyze pertinent data are in need. I firmly believe that we can achieve Italy's level in the fashion market with support from the government and unrelenting effort within the industry itself, and hope that this report can prove to be useful.
A Study on the Naturalism presented in Korean Fashion Design-Focused on the Design Since 1990-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 213~231
The purpose of this study is to find a root from naturalism to contribute the identity of Korean fashion design in the world which has universality and particularity. The beauty of nature has accumulated in our unconscious-ness, influenced to our unconsciousness, and contributed to make the formative sense. Our consciousness influenced by climate, for example, the sense of softness from soft curve which can feel from the sight of Korean mountain, land the sense of comfort and security from round rock formed by weathering, the sense of thick-ness from cotton to endure cold winter etc. has a tendency to thick and act by nature's law. This tendency made naturalism by Korean climate and linked to the sense of natural-istic beauty and became a important part forming the Korean fashion design. In this study, the researcher found Korean climate is a important factor acting in our consciousness, and influenced the formative sense. The concept of climate which is made our formative sense include topography, climate, soil, plant and so on. This influenced a lot to set up a foundation of Korean fashion design. And the naturalism by Korean climate newly created and developed shape, color, material and design. It is our duty to develope design based on naturalism to secure the competitive power against the world in this period of information and this design is getting important as a high value added method put into Korean culture. Therefore, developing Korean design which shapes the beauty of Korean nature and traditional culture will have a important competitive power in the world. Moreover, it will make a new tradition of Korean fashion culture stagnated by internationally universalized western fashion after the modernization. Also, it will be needed to develop a common design which can be agreed not only us but all the world for the request of these days of international. Therefore, this study contributed to find definite ours and found centripetal point to find the direction of Korean's philosophy and ideology. But this approach, we could secure the competitive power in this period of international and information and determine and develope the Korean fashion as a culture base, leading the world.
Research for Characteristics of Korean Fashion Design Showing at Paris Collection
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 233~244
This research wants to find the possibility for new paradigm of modern Korean dress by accepting and harmonizing the tradition and the modernization of Korean design when Korean designers enter into Paris collection and express identity of Korean fashion, and investigates the characteristics of Korean design with concentrating on the works of Young-hee Lee, Shin-woo Lee, Tae-ok Jin who have exhibited their works at Paris Collection. For one of the above characteristics Young-hee Lee, a designer of Korean clothes, emphasized to build up image of Korean fashion as a form of Korea without any modification, and expressed universal western-style silhouette as Korean image by using traditional technique including dyeing and silk made by herself, quil-t and decorative saddle stitching. In the as-pect that a chain of work has made not by westernization of Korean clothes but by re-creation of Korean clothes, it suggested a new way of modern Korean fashion with harmonizing tradition with modernizations as of present based on our own dress tradition and have got good reputation from the press and the field in Paris as well. Therefore the tradition and the modernization of Korean design is not confronted or compromised in form, color, material, motif and decoration but has to be harmonized and reconciled independently in order that visual characteristics of dress can be made as one of Korean image.
Fashion Changes in fur Clothing & Export Industry Supporting Plan
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 245~260
Our country's fur clothing industry has rapidly grown for a short time since it started with simple needlework of fur pieces, and now it is still developing as export industry that some enterprises besides general business firm export more than ten million dollars a year. However, it is true that fur clothing industry is still in unsatisfactory level in its size and system, compared with manufacturing or leather industry. Of course, we import crude material and processed fur on an entire base, and we have few wild fur on an entire base, and we have few wild fur animals because of our natural condition and it is hard to breed them. On the other hand, the world's fur industry shows that the demand of fur clothes is increasing as fur animal breeding is improved and developed and supply has become rather abundant with the help of fur clothing fashion since late 19th century : Also, there is a trend that some developed countries depend on importing rather than self-prodoction because of the character-istic of labor-concetntraled fur industry. Accordingly, considering this situation, we can expect fur clothing industry as promising export industry by analyzing the present situation of our country's fur clothing industry and suggesting its problems and solutions, and here are developing plans for growing fur clothing industry as promising export industry. First, smoothing delivery of crude material. Second, making high quality products and diversifying goods. Third, establishing effective competition system in fur clothing industry. Fourth, raising skilled man power. Lastly, there should be coopetation among the related fields in the aspect of policy including the support from the government.
A study on the Judge's Robe
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 261~277
This study is focused on two things, on the matter of judge's robe(JR) which is worn in the court. First, Korean JR were examined from late 19th century through today(1997)to reveal the entity of the JR : characteristics of each JR has been changed according to the political or international influences. Second, JR from 92 countries were collected and analyzed to figure out the plastic characteristics of the JR among international society. The results are as follows : First, Korean JR were have changed many times according to the social, political influences. The Korean modern judicial system were proclaim in 1895 and JR were adapted in 1906. In 1920, Japanese style JR were worn until 1945 when Korean government have had her Independence. Korean Government have changed JR through which Korean identities were expressed through patterns such as national flower Mukungwha(Hibiscus) and Yang & Yin. In 1966 Korean JR were changed again and adopted western style JR until today (1997) which have many things in common with academic robe of university or clerical robe. Second, the analysis of the 92 international JR were summarized as follows : (1) The JR were consisted of three styles such as Gown style, Cape style and Jacket style. And Gown style has been found as the most popular style(86%) for JR among them. (2) As the main color of JR, black is used among 60% of countries and red is used in 33% of countries. Gold were matched for black JR and gray for red JR as their sub-color. (3) The most popular material were wool and satin were favored as its sub-materials. (4) Natural and Geometric Patterns were used to express the symbol of the country and the court. (5) Decorative items and details such as hat, gloves, shoes, wig, necklace, neck-tie, stole, tassels, rope, ruffles were used to express wearers dignity and symbolism. These results are expected to be adapted for the future design for new JR which has its identity and characteristics.
A study on the torso body shape of obesity women
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 279~288
The purpose of this paper was to find out obese women's respective characteristics of torso body shape. The subjects were 132 obese women for direct measurement and were 101 obese women for indirect measurement, age of 20~59. The criterial of obesity base on Rohrer index(
1.6) and busts girth (
90). The results were as follows : 1) In comparison with the average body shapes in common body types, in 30's was bigger in the bust and waist girth than the different age groups. 2) According to the difference in the basic girth(bust and waist girth, hip and bust girth, hip and waist girth) the body types were classified 2 groups. Types 1 was large bust and slightly curved from waist to hip. Type 2 was large hip and larger in the curve from waist to hip than type 1.
A Study on the Communication of Clothing Manufacturing Information
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 289~304
In Korean clothing industry, most of the manufactures produce garments by subcon-tractors partially or entirely. It is very often that the design part is remote from production part and there is miscommunication between these two parts resulting dissatisfaction to both. Therefore it is very important to communicate the manufacturing information clearly and quickly to produce garments exactly the design part intended. Also to automate the clothing out how to produce and use the information objectively and efficiently. As a first step of moving to automation, the purpose of the research is to find out how manufacturing information and data are communicated in clothing manufacturing at present. In order to follow the information flow of a cer-tain manufacturer, the case study method was used. The case study samples were 12 clothing firms of 13 brands. The results and suggestions are as follows :- 1. A manufacturing information is communicated through paper documents such as“Production Order”, sample and patterns. At present, a production order sheet is the most efficient communication media, which comprises most of the information being communicated. 2. A manufacturing information comprises control information on the product, design in-formation, pattern information, cutting information, material information, sewing information, production schedule information, quality control information, costing information and information about the subcontractors. 3. A manufacturing is not quite objective except pattern information and cutting information which is presented by CAD systems. The communication of design information and sewing information should be somehow more objective. 4. There is not much information from a subcontractor. Considering that a subcontractor is the other partener of the communication, more information from the subcontractor is required for both benefit. 5. A designer produce most of the manufacturing information, but the information is communicated through a production manager to the subcontractor. The difference between the information maker and information communicator can cause any miscommunication. In future automated manufacturing, it will be possible for the designer to communicate to the manufacturer directly from the early stage of designing.
A Study of Costumes in the Palace Painting Depicting the Worship of Buddha during the Reign of King Myungjong
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 305~321
The costume style of the Chosun dynasty changed greatly after Imjinwaeran (the Japanese Invasion of Chosun Korea, 1592∼1598). Most of the extant costumes come from the late Chosun, but some costumes produced be-fore Imjinwaeran have been excavated, and in addition, information on these older constumes is contained in contemporary literature. Of especial value in the study of pre-Imjinwaeran Chosun constumes is a mid-sixteenth century palace painting depicting the worship of Buddha, a painting in the collection of the Ho-Am Art Museum in Seoul. The present study of costume during the middle Chosun dynasty focuses on this painting, and compares it with other contemporary palace paintings, and with other contemporary palace paintings, and with Nectar Ritual Paintings. The following conclusion were drawn : * Concerning woman's hair styles of the time, married women wore a large wig. Un-married women braided their hair, and then either let it fall down their back or wore it coiled on top of their head. * The major characteristic of woman's costumes was a ample, tube-like silhouette, with the ratio of the Jeogori(Korean woman's jacket) and skirt being one-to-one. * The style of Jeogori in the painting was like that of excavated remains. Some Jeogoris were simple (without decoration), while some Jeogoris were worn with red sashes. Here we can confirm the continuity of ancient Korean costumes with those of the sixteenth century * Although the skirt covered the ankles, it did not touch the ground. Because the breadth of the skirt was not wide, it seems to have been for ordinary use. Colors of skirts were mainly white or light blue. * All men in the painting wore a headdress. Ordinary men, not Buddhist monks, wore Bok-du (headstring), Chorip (straw hat), or Heuk-rip (black hat). In this painting, men wore a Heukrip which had a round Mojeong (crown). * The men wore sashes fastened around their waist to close their coats, which was different from the late Chosun, in which men bound their sashes around their chest. That gave a ration of the bodice of the coat to the length of the skirt of one-to-one, which was consistent with that of woman's clothing. * In this painting, we cannot see the Buddhist monk's headdress that appeared later in the Chosun, such as Gokkal (peaked hat), Songnak (nun's hat), and Gamtu (horsehair cap). These kinds of headdresses, which appeared in paintings from the seventeenth century, were worn widely inside or outside the home. Buddhist monks wore a light blue long coat, called Jangsam (Buddhist monk's robe) and wore Gasa (Buddhist monk's cope), a kind of ceremonial wrap, round their body. We can see that the Gasa was very splendid in the early years of the Chosun dynasty, a continuing tradition of Buddhist monk's costumes from the Koryo dynasty.
Self-Image and Clothing Behavior of College Men
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 323~336
The purpose of this study was to classify the contents of self-image of college men and to investigate how clothing behavior was influenced by self-image, age, major, and the expenses of clothing. Samples were 342 male students of univer-sity in Seoul. Results of this study were following : 1. Four factors of self-image derived by factor analysis : F. 1‘mature-unmatured’;F. 2‘characteristic-ordinary’; F. 3‘conservative-open’; F. 4‘dominant-submissive’.2. 5 variables of clothing behavior were influenced by real self-image. Fashion was influenced by characteristic, open, dominant image, and the expenses of clothing. The ex-planatory power of the 4 variables was 29.3%. Aesthetics was influenced by characteristic, submissive, conservative image, the expenses of clothing, and age(R2=28.7%). Modesty was influenced by conservative and ordinary im-age(R2=6.5%). Coformity was influenced by ordinary image and the expenses of clothing (R2=5.7%). Comfort was influenced by dominant image and age(R2=5.3%). 3. 5 variables of clothing behavior were influenced by ideal self-image. Fashion was influenced by unmatured, characteristic, sub-missive image, and the expenses of clothing (R2=28.9%). Aesthetics was influenced by characteristic image, the expenses of clothing, and age(R2=23.5%). Modesty was influenced by conservative, mature, and ordinary image (R2=8.3%). Coformity was influenced by ordinary image(R2=1.9%). Comfort was influenced by mature image and age(R2=5.6%). The findings indicated that self-image had a significant effect on fashion and aesthetics, and characteristic image and conservative image were important variables that affected clothing behavior of college men.
The Concept of Right-and-Left in Korean Traditional Costume
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 337~358
Underlying principles on the origin and establishment of the concept fo Right-and-Left (R-&-L) in Korean traditional costume is studied in this paper. Among Korean traditional costumes, ordinary and funeral costumes are considered in this study. Thed concept of R-&-L expanded into different elements of daily life among Korean people is also considered as a process of conceptual development : starting from astron-omy principle, then developed to pragmatism principle, and expanded to abstraction principle. No evidence on the case where the astro-omy principle was directly applied to was found in this study. In most cases, pragmatism and abstraction principles are observed as underly-ing principles. In ordinary costumes, pragmatism principle is the fundamental base for R-&-L through right-hand-use rule. Even though abstraction prin-ciple was found in some ordinary costumes, we believe that this was generated for adding more meanings in addition to the pragmatism principle. In funeral costumes, pragmatism principle was almost totally ignored unlike in ordinary costumes because the funeral rite was performed though formality with abstract thoughts. The abstraction principle was exercised with the form of simple-discrimination rule based on the dual system along with Yin-Yang related cultural rules such as‘Yang-left-and-Yin-right’or‘father-left-and-mother-right’. However, the case where‘left-male-and-right-female’rule is applied to was not found in this study.
A Study on the Bee-chy-mo
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 359~368
Bee-chy is the name of a bird as well as of a jade. This study is about Bee-chy-mo which only Royalty had used in the Shilla period. Bee-chy is a bird which belongs to Alcedinid-ae, and is called as“Ruddy Kingfish”,“Black-capped Kignfish”,“Common Kingfish”. It is distributed all over the world only except for the South Pole. The colors of Black-capped Kingfish and Common Kingfish's feathers are bright green or deep blue. The feather was so beautiful that people already used it in ancient China. Feather garments as well as decorations with Kingfish feathers were popularized in Tang period. Bee-chy-mo was used by attaching Kingfish feathers to decorations or weaving clothes with Kingfish feathers.
A Study on Modernism and Postmodernism depicted on the 20th Century of Fashion-Focused on Anti-Aesthetics and Open Fashion-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 38, 1998, Pages 369~392
In order to identify and describe the central core of fashion desire, the concept of“anti-aesthetics”and“open fashion”were analyzed based on the discourses of postmodernism dis-cussed in the field of sociology, culture, art and philosophy. In this paper, first, the new perspectives of fashion related to modernism and postmodernism were proposed, open concept, anti-aesthet-ics which is ephemerality but eternal ideology. Key principles of postmodernism as anti-aess-thetics mean the philosophy of nihilism proposed by Nietzsche indeterminency, the endd of original art(the death of art), the sublimity provided by Lyotard, and the pluralism to release human from the closed way of thinking, value, ideology. Second, the old and classical definition of fashion,“the differentiation of class”proposed by Veblen and Simmel has been changed into the“differentiation of taste”in postmodern condition. Third, the dichotomous system, that is, ration vs emotion, soul vs body, male vs female, culture vs nature, and so on has been deconstructed and disolved in the postmodern fashion phenomenon using the technique of anti-formalism, such as pastich, parody, bricolage an kitsch for the expression of sublimity and freedom of human.