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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Costume
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41 - Nov 1998
Volume 40 - Sep 1998
Volume 39 - Jul 1998
Volume 38 - May 1998
Volume 37 - Mar 1998
Volume 36 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
The Meaning of the Shortening Tendency of Women's Chogori in the Latter of Period Chosun
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 5~19
This study aims to analyze the shortening tendency of women's hanbok chogori (upper part of the Korean traditional dress) in the latter period of Chosun in three respects-socially, economically, and aesthetically. First, from the social point of riew, sexual role and social starus were examined. The strict sexual roles between males and females made the latter inferior to the former. The relatively lower sexual role had the woman look receptive and passive and wear a short and narrow kind of chogori. Also, the confusion of the social status system weakened the function of the costumes to differentiate social classes and, consequently, almost all classes wore short chogori. Second, the economic progress in the wake of the commerce-centered positivism at that time helped raise the economic status of the middle and low classes. As a result, with their social and economic status elevated, they tried to wear somewhat luxurious chogori. Third, aesthetically speaking, erotically-look-ing and much-shortened chogori derived from the weakened male-centered Confucian tra-ditional ethics in conflict with the humani-tarian positivism.
The Study About Formation-Process Of religious Dress And It's Ornament(I)-Forcusing On Ancient Egypt-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 21~37
This study researchs forms of Egyptian religious dress for studying formation-process of religious dress and its ornament. The study goes abreast literature and the very spot's materials also divides god's dress, priest's. Ancient an egytian worshiped mainly animals, step by step animal's humanization. So gods were expressed animal's face and human's body. Egypt god's costume is 1st, to take off upper hament and wear loin cloth on trousers 2nd only to wear short sheath skirt. 3rd to wear shout sheath skirt and to skirt and to wear loin cloth on there 4th to cover whole body and to open hand like mummy. Egype goddess' costume is largely to wear long sheath skirt up to the ankle and we can see selkit goddess's figure that wearing kalasiris after new dynesty. Priest had been a bald head and worn loin cloth and surrounded leopard's skin on there, but after the period of empire, worn a wig and worn less stoically. Also god had hung the lion's tail at symbol of the dignity and priest had put on sandals for a ceremony.
Characteristics of the Haute Couture Design in Paris and Rome
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 39~58
In this research, first of all, the special feat-ures of Haute Couture design world (1990∼1996) prevailed in Paris and Rome are investigated, and additionally the understanding of collection concept and design structure analysis are performed to show the various method-ology of creative design. Expression method and design method are the main criteria in analyzing, and the main results of this research are summarized as follows : 1. Most of designers in Paris and Rome ex-press the traditional costume style. Paris designers are focusing on the expression of design morphology through the abstraction and re-appearance without being confined to theme expression ; Rome designers are expressing their main ideas utilizing the fashion image as their theme in lieu of expressing the design morphology. 2. Most of the designers in Paris and Rome are using simple lines for their design. Paris designers prefer the plastic design based upon formal and symmetrical balance of informal and asymmetrical balance to the partial trans-formation design ; Rome designers are enjoy-ing rather the partial transformation using the detail and trimming than the plastic design.
A Study on the Traditional Sash of‘She’Ethnic Group in China
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 59~77
This paper is focused on the traditional sash weaving handicraft of‘She’ethnic group, which is located in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong province of China. This research is main-ly based on the field work, analyzed and inter-preted the traditional sash in systematic and reasoned way. The summary of this study are as follows : 1. On its technological aspect, weaving structure of the traditional sash is made of warp rod backed weaving. The used tool is primitive one but the weaving process includes scientific method. 2. From the social-cultural point of view, the sash ha been the symbol of love towards her lover. Every woman of this group had taken training for this sash weaving from a child. 3. On its ethnological aspect, it has been long history and has interchanged with other ethnic group like Miao, Han and also Okinawa country of Japan. The pattern inside this sash are almost looks like characters, but they are not Chinese characters whereas are the inde-pendent code of‘She’ group and have been inherent from ancestors and which will be tran-smitted to their posterity. These independent code of‘She’group are the traditional message to their later generation implicating their natural circumstances, human relationship, ethnic myth, spirit etc. 4. I recognize that the pattern inside the sash is defined as the communicative code and in comparison to language, it is more repetition and less apparent as close code. Nowadays China has been developed es-pecially in the economical fields rapidly. Under the circumstances traditional weaving culture of ethnic groups has been facing a crisis of disappearance, which will be a great loss for the country as well as the human beings. For this reason, I emphasize that it is very immediate to make co-researches into the material culture of Chinese ethnic groups.
A Study on the Stabitity and Dyeing Condition in the Curcuma Longa L.
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 79~89
This study was carried out the effect of stability and color extract for it's condition in the curcuma L.. dyeing. The stability is to investigate the absorbance of the curcumin, one of the major yellow pigments and the stability regarding the effect of light, oxygen temperature and pH. The dyeing condition is compared the effect of mordanting condition and the best way to extract pigment and analysed through the color-fastness rating, color-difference value test. The main results obtained are summarized as follows ; 1.The best and proper solvent to extrect curcumin pigment was a ethanol and a distilled water. 2. The light effect indicated that the absorbances of solution in absence of ligh was more stable. 3. The oxygen(O2) effect to curcumin show-ed that the condition in the absence of O2 was more stable than that in presence of O2 4. The temperature showed that the absorbnace was best stable in4
and less changed at
5. The curcumin-etanol solution was stable in pH 2~4. 6. Generally color-fastness rating to silk, wool and cotton indicated that crocking C.F. and perspiration C.F. were more than 3rd grade and dry cleaning C.F. was more than 4th grade. But light color-fastness and washing color-fastness were very poor. 7. To make good color fastness, the mordan-ting treated group and the pre-mordant conditions were more effective than others 8. When compared with color-difference value test indicated that the silk was looks like more reddish and bluish color and than the wool and cotton were greenish and bluish. As a mordant, A(C2H4OH(COOH3) and D(K2Cr2O7)were more effective to make green-ish color in the silk and the reddish color was abtained by B(Al.K(SO4)2.12H2O) and C(FeSO4.7H2O).
Background and Future of Casual Korean Clothes. The purpose of this study is to present the method for the settlement of c
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 91~98
This paper is to study the development background of casual Korean clothes through the consideration of the style change of traditional clothes. The purpose of this study is to present the method for the settlement of casual Koran clothes as everyday clothes and to present the direction which casual Koran clothes follow in the future. The development. The development backgrounds of casual Korean clothes are as followings. 1) the self-awakening for the importance of national culture. 2) practical aspects 3) the change of life style accompanied with economic growth 4) the development of mass media Casual Korean clothes in the future should be studied and developed in following aspects. 1) practical aspects by developing design for easy activity 2) environmental aspects by natural dyeing which is harmless to human body and the nature 3) emotional aspects by regarding traditional beauty as importance 4) color sense aspects according to scarcity of as form change of the Korean clothes 5) production aspects by mass production of ready-made clothes not order clothes 6) diplomatic aspects as folk costume which is corresponding with international trend 7) scientific aspects by developing many patterns according to various bodies 8) economic aspects by low price through the mass cultivation of natural materials 9) fashionable aspects by subdividing traditional clothes to ceremonial clothes, everyday clothes, working clothes.
The Study on Cubism expressed in Current Fashion
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 99~111
Cubism has played a great role to change traditional concept of art and visual of people as developed into one of new art stlyes. It has avoided three dimensional perspectives and reformed the concept of time and space. It expresses objects with geometric shape by simplifying and reconstructing the objects after taking them apart. This has the effect of simultaneous vision and transparency and brings in collage by combining geometric image and visual elements. The results of the study as follows: First, the geometric shape expresses straight lines, curves, faces, and cubics by simplifying the objects. In fashion, it expresses circles, triangles, squares with a cloth. This shows visual changes as three dimensional space moves. Second, simultaneity disassembles and recontructs the objects. It tries to understand the internal shape with method of disassembling and makes visions coexist. In so doing, cubists adopt simultaneity for expressing shapes. In fashion, it expresses new items through disassembling or combining with other items. Third, transparency simplifies cubics by duplicating with transparent flats and crosses contour lines for reconstructing the simplified objects. This implies broader spatial order. It allows people to perceive penetration of layed clothes. Fourth, collage expresses geometric shape by adding visual elements(concrete image and color). It uses concrete image with paper, letters, cloth, etcs, which is not related to painting, and introduces various colors. In fashion, it uses dolls, postcards, feathers, metals, plastics, for patchwork.
The Effects of Kisaeng's Clothes on General Women's Fashion in the Late Choson Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 113~123
This study focuses on the effects of the clothes worn by kisaeng; courtesans trained in singing and dancing, on changes in female psychology as reflected in general women's fashions during the later years of the Chosun dynasty. During this period, the social order had broken down considerable, due in part to the introduction of Roman Catholicism, and in part to the actions of Sil-hak, who emphasized open-ness and practicality in the organization of social affairs. This freer social environment disrup-ted the established social hierarchies. The kisaeng were among the first to respond to the new social mores by adopting more colorful, sensual, and individualized fashions. Their social position allowed them to reflect the new aesthetics of the time right away. Those aesthetics seemed to lay great emphasis on the artistic effects of contrast. The kisaeng would adorn their heads with large Kache (an elaborate wig or hairdo typically reserved for use by women in full formal dress). In contrast to this conspicuous hairstyle, they typically wore very tight-fitting Jogori (short-cropped Korean traditional jackets for women) around their upper torsos. The long skirts emerging from beneath these short jackets would typically flare out dramatically, with the aid of petticoats. However, these skirts would be bound at the waist with a sash, increasing the sexual suggestiveness of the clothing by drawing at-tention to the hips, and by exposing the bottom frills of the petticoats, or the wide pantal-oons and other undergarments the kisaeng wore to add volume to their skirts. The relative freedom enjoyed by the kisaeng to experiment with new fashions was not widely shared by most women. This generated envy from women of the noble classes, who were more bound by convention, and restrained from adopting such a mode of dress. It also generated envy from women of the humble classes, who saw the kisaeng as working little for their wealth, and yet dressing every day in finery that the average women would only ever be able to afford on her wedding day. This envy directed at the relative freedom/wealth of the kisaeng by women who faced greater socioeconomic constraints was given cultural expression through the adoption of elements of the kisaeng's fashion in the fashions of both noblewomen and humble women in old korea. The luxurious Kache sported by the kisaeng had in fact been borrowed from the habitual attire of upper-class women. So to distinguish themeselves from the kisaeng, they began to abandon these elaborate hairstyles in favor of traditional ceremonial hoods (Nel-ul-a thin black women's hood) and coronets (Suegaechima). This supposed reaction to the abuse of the Kache by the kisaeng still remained influenced by the kisaeng still remained influence by the kisaeng, however, as these headdresses became adorned with many more jewels and decorations, in imitation of the kisaeng's adaptations of the coronet. At the same time, noblewomen began sporting the Jangwue ; a headdress previously worn only by kisaeng and lower class women, and lower class women were then permitted to wear the Kache at weddings. All women behan to wear shorter, tighter Jogori jackets, and to add volume to their skirts. They also attached frills to their under-garments in imitation of the kisaeng's exposed petticoats and pantaloons. The impact of kisaeng fashions was thus deep and widespread, and can be understood as an expression of women's longing for freedom from socioeconomic constraints in the late Chosun dynasty. This study adopts an interdisciplinary ap-proach to the understanding of historical changes in women's fashions. Such interdisciplinary work can greatly enrich the study of fashion, often narrowly focused on clothing morphology and broad generalizations about society. For this reason, specific dynamics of feminine psychology in the late Chosun dynasty were elaborated in this study, to provide a deeper under-standing of the changes in fashion underpinned by them. If more such detailed analyses are undertaken, a whole new understanding of changes in fashion can be generated, and perhaps a transformation of the field of fashion history can be ultimately achieved.
A Study on the High School Girl's Brand Loyalty in Casual Wear-Focus on the Brand Discernment and Self-image-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 125~138
In order to help apparel manufactures and marketers to promote apparel products more efficiently, and aid them in instilling brand names or brand images more distinctively in the minds of target consumers, it is the intent of this study (1) to investigate on the high-school girls brand loyalty and the brand discernment, self image(product image), and the buying behavior of casual wear. The subjects were 532 female high school students selected from the four high school in Seoul. The data were collected by self-admin-istered questionnaires. The data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, T-test, x2-test, and correspondence analysis. (1) 29.1% of the female students were cat-egorized as the brand loyalty group that was smaller than the non-brand loyalty group(70.9%). (2) In identifying the relationship between the demographic factors and the brand loyalty, the monthly household income and the month-ly personnel expenses were statistically significant. Namely, higher household income and the monthly personnel expenses were statistically significant. Namely, higher household income and the monthly personnel expenses there were, higher the brand loyalty was revealed. (3) The power of discernment was statistically significant according to the brand loyalty. That is, the brand loyalty group was more outstanding than latest fashion brands, the high-price brands, and the better-style brands in terms of design, color, and fabric. (4) The self image was also statistically significant according to the brand loyalty, Wher-eas the brand loyalty group preferred the unique, high-quality, sexy, and active self-images, non-brand loylty group revealed to prefer the non-noticeable and feminine self-images. The findings of this study will assist apparel manufactures and marketers in better identifying the target market, and in subsequently adjusting their products, brand image, and promotional activities in order to reach the target market more efficiently.
A Study on the Active children's Clothes in the Latter Part of the 18th Century in England -In Relation with Rousseau's Naturalism
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 139~166
This dissertation is to help understanding about the emergence of active children's clothes in the latter part of the 18th century in England. In previous ages children had not been look-ed upon as children, but as incomplete and in-ferior men and women, the costume of children had not been distinguishable from that of their elders. The early eighteenth-century chil-d could not play in comfort because they dressed like their parents. But in the third quarther of the eighteenth century children became free from their con-comfortable and became active. English chil-dren's clothes was prevailing even in Europe as well. In the background of this liberation, there were many enlightened ideas, such as philosophers of enlightenment, doctors, writers, educators. Among these John Locke and Jean Jacque Rousseau criticized openly about rampant fashion which was distorting the body by corset and hoop. Rousseau was the one who wrote
and played the most important role to free children from an old fashioned idea, and emphasized to bring up children by the natural process of mental and physical development as human beings are a part of nature. Fashion reflects politic, economic, social, ideology, culture of the days and these factor function to create fashion which shows“Time Spirit”.Children's clothes, like those of their parents, follow the fashion, but with a difference, the form of which varies with the attitude to the child. Thus this dissertation was to study in relation with the background of the times in the latter part of 18th century in England and Rousseau's Naturalism in connection with the emergence of active children's clothes. The result is that diffusion of the idea of freedom and equality, the growth of bourgeoisie, the development of clothing and tex-tile industry have influenced to the emergence of active children's clothes. Also a great deal of middle and high class parents devoted to their children's education and was influenced by Rousseau's Naturalism. Specially the bourgeoisie who made their fortune by their own effort were eager to educate their achievement and business by their children through education. This factor influenced to the children's clothes as well.
A Study on Ordinary Costume For Woman in the Late Chosun Period-Focused on Shilhak Scholars' Viewpoints on Costumes and Costumes in genre paintings-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 167~179
The objective of this study is to examine the costumes of the period covered in the writings of Shilhak (practical science) scholars and to research the history of costumes and their characteristics by examining how they are worn in genre paintings which are said to describe the actual life of the period. This should be studied in order to correctly establish the history of costumes. To begin with, through the writings of the representative Shilhak scholars who are thought to have affected the changes in ordinary costumes for woman, this study examined how ordinary woman of the period looked in their costumes and how they regarded various costumes they had. Then, how their viewpoints of costumes influenced ordinary costumes was investigated. Not only relics, but what was commonly worn, as they appeared in the genre paintings that contain information about daily living of that period, were researched chronologically. The results of this study showed that the change in ordinary costumes for woman in the late Chosun period was affected by Shilhak scholars who had ideologies of Shilsakusi (use of positive methods in studying), Yiyonghusaeng (the promotion of commerce and industry and the development of techonologies), and Ky ngsech'iyong (pursuit of stability in a rural economy). Moreover, after those changes there were many more changes. However, the criticism of costumes of that time and the will of revolution affected some time, costumes changed directly. The forms of the costumes had been changed in a variety of ways following the tendencies of the times, but the origin of today's hanbok (Korean traditional dress) had already been fixed in the late Choson period. Yet, today's hanbok are for special occasions, not worn as ordinary clothing. Thus, there are several reasons why the hanbok is not suitable for daily life. One of the reasons is that Korean could not cope with the western costumes indepen-dently imported during Japanese occupation in the last period of the Choson Dynasty and con-tinuing the Japanese Colony. Thus, only a part of the ordinary costume of the late Choson period has remained until now.
A Study on the Costume of the Ruling Classes in the Three Kingdoms Period
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 181~196
This study is about the similarities and the individualties of the traditional costumes in the ruling classes of Koguryo(高句麗), Bakjae(百濟), and Shilla(新羅). The analysis is based on the views of historical reformation on
Bongi(本紀). The costumes that were worn by the governing classes are categorized by the following, official duties, wars, ceremonies, and recreations(hunting). Up to the present time, there has been a great tendency to emphasize the similarities of the Three Kingdoms' costumes among most of academic researchers. However, the conceptions of individualities of the costumes among the Three Kingdoms were conceived by the facts that geological environments, political systems, social traditions, social aspects, and foreign affairs. The Three Kingdoms had different official rank systems along with official costume systems. Monopolization of official positions of the ruling parties tried to show their dignity and authority through styles of their costumes. The costumes of Koguryo were greatly differentiated by geographical regions ; One direct example is cheak of Pyoungyang and Anak regiona was named as official hats of rulling parties of Kokuryo. However, in this study, the cheak was viewed as a product of influences of Chinese costume. Further-more, the laguan was named as mooguan. Costumes of ceremonial occasions were heavily decorated to symbolize dignity and auth-ority. Metal ornament of headgear and belt, metal shoes were con-sidered as ceremonial costumes. the tight hunting costumes of Koguryo shown in mural pain-ting costumes of Koguryo shown in mural pain-tings were presumed to be spring and autumn clothing. Excavated from Neungasnlee, the hunting costumes inscribed in the gold incense burnner were confirmed as hunting costumes of Bakjae. The individuality of the costumes of the Three Kingdoms could also be supported by the fact that they had different climates. The temperature difference between Gipan region and Kyoungjoo(慶州) region was emphasized. Especially winter clothing would have had a big difference in style than the summer clothing. Through the research summarized above, this study was able to confirm that each of the Three Kingdoms had developed individualized costumes based on their geographical, cultural and environmental factors. Furthermore, through this study, it was possible to find out the difference as well as the similarities of their costumes according to each of their people's sociopolitical status, awareness of indepen-dence, andunique historical and traditional charactoristics.
Semiotic Interpretation of Vivienne Westwood's Works Reflected Punk Rock
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 197~215
Vivienne Westwood, the revolutionary cre-ator of Punk fashion(ripped T-shirts, bondage clothes, fetishist accoutrements) was a street fashion designer. Although Westwood's clothes have frequently been described as decadent, degenerate and unwearable, they have also exerted a powerful influence on interntional fashion. Westwood became a fashion designer in the mid-1970s, when he emergence of Punk put London back on the fashion map for the first time since 1965. Just as the Mods, Rockers, and Hippies of the 1960s had embraced par-ticular styles of dress and music, so also did the Punks create their own subculture. The Punk“style in revolt”was a deliberately“re-volting style”that incorporated into fashion various offensive or threatening objects like tampons, razor blades, and lavatory chains. Vivienne Westwood and parter Malcolm McLaren articulated this youth culture, who roots lay in music. A sign is something which stands for some object or idea, while the semiotics are the ex-ternal expression for an internal meaning. Semiotics can be used as a medium of communication between dress and music. A language is simply used for explicit of meaning, while the style of dress and music express the explicative and implicative signs. Peirce's scheme among several theories of the semiotics was chosen for this study, because the Peirce's scheme was the first non-language communication medium between external and internal stages, and readily inter-preted the styles of dress and music. Punk rock was studied at first to identify the style which influenced Vivienne Westwood's works and then Semiotics were used to apply the above results to the 1970s and 1990s for analyzing and interpreting the Vivienne Westwood's works were also interpreted by the symbolic characteristics of Semiotics, because the symbol of semiotics often found at Youth Cults reflected punk rock. The symbol of revolt, decadence, grungy, freedom in Vivienne Wes-twood's works wre determined by using Punk rock's semiotics. This study could conclude that the style of dress and punk rock were able to be interpreted by semiotics.
A Study on Make-up Culture of Korea, China and Japan
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 217~237
The present research is to study the make-up culture of Korea and its neighboring countries such as China and Japan during the period from the prehistoric age to the 19th cen-tury. The research was made by documents analysis. The results are summerised as follows : (1) A man has a basic instinct to beautify himself. There was not a significant difference between the make-up behavior of men and women in its primal stage. It was by the start of farming and the division of labor that made the make-up behavior as a feminine culture. The difference of sexual role caused the con-ceptual difference between manly beauty and womanly beauty. It was very natural for women to regard the make-up as the best way for showing their feminine beauty. In Korea, China and Japan, there were vari-ous kinds of primal actions such as tattooing, body-painting, and tooth make-up which were used in the purpose of body protection, incantation, ornament, and so on. Ass their ornamental purpose was becoming more important, these primal actions became the basis of the feminine make-up culture. Nowadays make-up, having mental and emo-tional function, is helpful to increasing self-satisfaction, promoting good personal relation-ship, and attracting attention from the other sex. It also has other functions of showing social status, wealth, age, sex, courage, power, and so on. (2) The representative make-up product used widely in the three countries was Boon (powder) which decides the overall color of face. The key point in the production of Boon was to increase its power of adsorption. The invention of Yunboon (power mixed with lead) solved this major problem of Boon. Yeonji which decides the color of cheek was the mixture of Boon and the powder of Honghwa (a kind of red-colored flower or tree). Mimook (eyebrow pencil) was developed to match up with the various and changing currencies of penciling eyebrows in each nation and times, Yeonji and Joosa (red sand) were used as Jinji (lip stick). The predominant color of Jinji was red. As miscellaneous methods of partial make-up, there were Kon-ji used in a wedding cer-emony in korea, Aek-hwang, Hwa-jeon, Sa-hong, and Myun-yup in China, and Chi-heuk, a peculial method of partial make-up in japan. (3) There were various factors which decided the characteristics of make-up culture usually reflects international atmosphere, the form of government, economic situation, re-ligious and social ideology, aesthetic sense, symbolizing meanings of colors, and so on. The up and down of an influentian country was one of the major factors which decided the characteristics of the make-up culture of its neighboring countries. When a country took a liberal form of government, it had diverse and splendid tendencies in its make-up culture. The better a nation's economic situation is, the more abandant and various its make-up culture is, and sometimes, the more eccentric and decadents it was. In the field of make-up production, the three countries had their own characteristics. But, as a whole, China was the leading nation who spread the culture and products of make-up to Korea and Japan. Though the Chinese make-up culture and products were usually spread to Japan through Korean, there was some evidence of direct exchanges between China and Japan through its dispatches of Kyun-Tang-Sa(Japanese delegation to the Tang Dynasty). While religion had a positive influence on the development of make-up culture by introducing new methods of make-up, Confucianism exercised strict control over the make-up cul-ture. The currencies in arts and changes of esthetic sense introduced new methods and booms to the make-up culture. Literature made people pay increasing attentions to the countenances of women and changed the standards of esthetic sense. We can find out that the social status of woman was also reflected in the make-up culture. As the social status of women became higher, the feminine make-up culture also developed more then ever. As mentioned above, the make-up cultures of the three countries reflected their social values, esthetic senses, and emotional feelings. Through their cultural exchanges, the three countries could develop various make-up products and methods.
A Study on the Fashion & Jewelry in the Art Deco Style
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 239~255
Art deco means decorative form on the base of cubism which has widely spread from 1910's to 1930's. Also it pursued the rational & functional design even than deecoration of art nouvear, and colorful combination of fauvism. The analytical study on design included occurrence, developing process and formative features expressed in the art deco fashion. The changes of the art deco style, it referred to the fashion illustration which was the Graphic-s of Ert in 19 century. Besides analysised activity designer in the art deco style, at the same time considered fashion design as comparable analysis. Paul Poiret, a representative french designer, contributed to the clothing culture which accepted oriental influence and it was all the fashion enough to call the originator of present fashion. He did away with the corset, relaxed the waistline, and freed the body from clothing constrictions of almost a hundred years. Since 1914, because of industry of woman clothing that art deco represent concern of one's Chanel's perennial rival in the firmanent of parisian high fashion was the Italian designers, Elsa Schiaparelli, Schiaparelli's originalily was profoundly influenced by the avant-garde art of the time ; Da da and Surealism were principal soures of new ideas. It apply the style to geometrical or abstract form impressed straight and smooth line on suitable technic. Such inflection of art deco heralded a close collaboration between the artist-jeweller and the fashion industry. Especially, jewelry designers were fond of juxtaposing transparent faceted stoned which reflected the light, with matt stones, which offered rare or unconventional contrasts through their opacity. Consequently, art deco will exert value of utility for the progressive fashion & jewel CAD through continuous research.
A Comparative Study on the Literature of Korean and Current Shroud
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 257~269
Comparison the literature of Korean Shroud with Current Shroud are as follows. 1. The Mo(冒) and m were not included in current shroud. Onang(五囊), Ch'im(枕), Kum(衾) and Kyo(絞) were included in current shroud. 2. Terms of the current shroud were various than the literature of korean shroud. 3. The cloths of the literature of korean shroud were Chu, Chung, P'o(布), Ch'o and Kyon, etc. But the cloths in the current shroud were Myongchu, Sambe and Kongdan. The color of the literature of korean shroud were various, but in the current shroud was light color center upon the white color. 4. The shape of the current shroud was various.
A Study on the Housewives' Clothing Behavior for the Environmental Protection
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 271~281
The purposes of this study were to deter-mine the dimensions of the housewives' cloth-ing behavior for the environmental protection and the identify the effective variables. The results of this study was intended to provide fundamental material for the establishment of clothing behavior guidelines for the environmental protection. This study was conducted by reference analysis and empirical study. To develop theoreti-cal framework study. To develop theoreti-cal framework of dimensions of environmental protection behavior, references concerned were analyzed. The results of reference analy-sis showed that the dimensions of environmental protection bahavior were resource and energy saving, sold waste reduction, resource reuse or recycle, and green product purchase. The dimensions of housewives' clothing behavior for environmental protection were identified by use of self-administered questionnaires. The results of enpirical study showed that the dimensions of clothing behavior for the environmental protection wre clothing resource reuse or recycle, clothing management resource saving, clothing consumption resource saving, green product purchase, and clothing management resource saving was the highest and that of resource reuse or recycle was the lowest. Environmental consciousness, taking environmental education or not, residing place, clothing seperate-collectiong at residing place were effective variables on clothing behavior for environmental protection.
Consumer's Attitudes toward Underwear Advertisements by Appeal Types-with or without Sex Appeal-
Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, volume 39, 1998, Pages 283~299
The present study is to analyze the dimensions of affective responses according to the types of appeal in underwear advertisements and to find out the influences of affective res-ponses on the attitudes toward advertisement and brands. The research has been made by normative-descriptive survey method with the sample of 654 consumers residing in Seoul and Incheon. The data gaathered was analyzed by the methods of means, standard deviation, ANOVA, factor analysis and regression. The result are as follows : 1. There are 4 dimensions of affective responses ; Emotional dimension, Negative dimen-sion, Upbeat-activation dimension and Sexual activation dimension. 2. Affective responses to the advertising were different according to the characteristics of the consumers. According to the consumer's sex, there are significant differences in each dimension of their affective responses. To the sex appeal advertisement, man show higher degree of affective responses in Emotional, Upbeat-activation and Sexual-activation dim-ensions, while women show higher degree of affective responses in Negative dimension. 3. In case of female consumers, there are significant differences in affective responses to the both appeal type of advertisements according to consumer's age. As the age is increasing. Emotional dimension and Sexual-activation dimension are increasing, but Negative dimension is decreasing in the Ads with sex appeal. In particular, the 19∼24s age group shows strong responses in the Emotional dimension, Upbeat-activation dimension and Sexual-activation dimension to Ads with sex appeal, while it shows the lowest affective responses in Negative dimension. It represents the 19-24s age group is the most positive one to the under-wear advertisements with sex appeal. Consequently, it is proved that the Ads with sex appeal focusing on this age group can be one of the most effective advertising plans. 4. The involvement gets higher, Upbeat-ac-tivation dimension and Sexual-activation dimension are increasing both in males and female groups. But Negative dimension is in-creasing in the female consumer group of low involvement. 5. The attitudes toward advertisements and brands are comparatively stronger in the advertisements using sex appeal type. Regardless of types of appeal in the advertisements, there is a significant difference in their attitudes tow-ard Ads between male and female consumer groups. When Ads are sexual, attitudes toward Ads and Brands are stronger in the female consumer group. But males consumers show com-paratively strong attitudes toward the advertis-ements and brands in both types of appeal. 6. The age of consumers doesn't make any significant difference in their attitudes toward advertisements and brands in both types of appeal. 7. According to the involvement level of the consumers, there are significant differences in their attitudes toward advertisements. In the groups of low involvement, the female consumers show more favorite attitudes toward the advertisements with sex appeal, while the male group show more favorite attitudes toward the non-sex appeal advertisement. But there is no significant difference in consumer's attitude toward brands according to the types of appeal of the advertisement. 8. The affective responses of the consumers caused by the underwear advertisements have a respectable influence on their attitudes toward the advertisements and brands. This research represents that the advertisers should try to arise consumer's positive affective responses such as pleasant, happy, cheerful and warm-hearted emotions by the advertisements. Based on the above results of the research, it can be said that the consumer's affective responses have a strong effect not only on their attitudes toward adver-tisements but on those toward attitude toward the brands.