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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Costume Culture Association
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
The Influence of the Consumers Value and Experience Quality on the Effects of Scarcity Message Types
Kim, In-E ; Kang, Yeo-Sun ; Choi, Mi-Young ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1133~1149
The major aim of this study was to find out that the relation between consumers value and experience quality toward purchase intention in addition to the influence of the consumers value and experience quality on the effects of scarcity message types collaboration using limited edition in global SPA brand. As a result of an empirical analysis, it shows that consumers value and experience quality are co-related to the intention of purchase, especially, brand familiarity and reputation influenced scarcity valuation in the affirmative and both emotional value and epistemic value influenced the intention of purchase under scarcity message. The moderating effect of consumers value and experience quality however, turns out to be not significant although its effect is directionally supported that is purchase intention was high when scarcity message is shown. Moreover, emotional epistemic group was influenced by scarcity message so we found that consumers value is changed to emotional with subjective. This result indicates that we need the scarcity message type reflecting the characteristics of consumers value and experience quality to increase customer's purchase intention.
A Classification of Obese Middle-aged Men's Lower Body Shapes
Lee, Bo-Na ; Suh, Mi-A ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1150~1162
Considering the fact that the fit for men's clothes is important for the sizing system modern ready-made pants, an analysis of obese middle-aged men is required at this period of time to determine the appropriate fit for obese men. The following research focused on 635 middle-aged obese men who had a BMI index of at least 25 and a waist circumference from the belly-button level of 34 inches or more. This research deals with the articles of circumference, thickness and other major physical changes that happen during the 30s, 40s, and 50s. According to the analysis of these body measurement articles with specific regard to age, men's height and the height of their waist seemed to decrease as their age increased. This demonstrates that as these men grow older, the waist and stomach slowly curved into a circular and flat body type due to their obesity. In this study, the first factor figure was the height and leg length. The second factor figure was the waist form. The third factor figure was the center thigh circumference. The fourth and fifth factor figures were the hip length and shape. Lastly, the sixth factor figure was the calf circumference. These 6 factor figures construct 80.57% of the volume explanation and showed 3 patterns through a cluster analysis that showed different patterns of obesity forms for waist circumferences in key figure 1, waist and thigh circumferences in key figure 2, and waist and buttocks circumferences. Therefore, it was worthwhile to consider the circumferences of the waist, buttocks and thigh according to the body type category to enhance the drafting of well-fitting pants.
Characteristics of Total Coordination in the Pursuit of Fashion Sensibility among Women in Their 20's
Baek, Hyeng-Eun ; Kim, Yong-Sook ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1163~1176
The purposes of this study was to identify characteristics of total coordination in the pursuit fashion sensibility among women their 20's. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection from 410 women in their 20's. Data collection was conducted Aug. 5 to Aug. 15, 2009. Most women emphasized on clothing for total coordination and utilized clothing color and style as a selection criteria. They tried to match makeup and clothing, and spent more time considering makeup, hair styles, and fashion accessaries than clothing for their total coordination. Factors of fashion sensibility included luxury and fashion, casualness and ethnicity, modernity, sociality, activity, and sexual attractiveness and women were segmented into fashionably sensible intermediate, low, and high groups according to their fashion sensibility. The fashionably sensible intermediate group predominantly encompassed women who were unmarried or in their late 20's, unemployed, highly educated, or of low economic status, preferred to mixing and matching colors, and who utilized their individuality or makeup color for total coordination. The fashionably sensible low group encompassed homemakers, in their early 20's, high school graduates or university students, who utilized their clothing or hair color within their total coordination criteria. The fashionably sensible high group encompassed unmarried career women in their mid 20's or of high economic status, who spent much money on their clothing, makeup, hair styles, and fashion accessaries, who preferred achromatic, warm or cool colors, and utilized their individuality or fashion color.
A Study on the Bird Image Expressed in Modern Fashion Design
Ahn, Se-Ra ; Geum, Key-Sook ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1177~1192
As a free creature that can fly in the sky, the bird has been an object of admiration and mystery and a mediator between human beings and the heavens. This study aims to clarify the aesthetic value of birds through study of the various expressions of the bird image on clothing and by the formative will of designers. Based on the general examination of the bird image through the study of documents, this study is composed of a case analysis, which reveals on modern fashion designs. Additionally, the forms of expression of the bird image are organized according to the stereoscopic expression of shaping, the relief expression of handicraft decoration, the flat expression of surface design, and the characteristic expression of wings and feathers. The aesthetic characteristics revealed by the expression patterns are metaphorical symbolism, surrealistic humor, lyrical naturalness, and fantastical femininity. Since antiquity, the bird image continuously recreated by artists has offered aesthetic value in terms of formativeness in the external form and symbolism in the internal form. This study would help to understand the diversity of creation in contemporary fashion design.
Tactile Value Expressed in the Design of Madeleine Vionnet
Yoon, Jin-Young ; Yim, Eun-Hyuk ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1193~1204
As designs that simulate man's five wits are important, all five senses used are complex. Tactil value by Bernard Berenson means that the object in fine art makes the spectator feel like his or her finger is touching something, although the spectator is distant from the art piece. Especially as costumes have a relationship with the flexible skin and moving body, tactile modality and tactile value is more important. In order to analyze how Madeleine Vionnet realized a new femininity through the application of the principal of tactile value to dress design and in order to define tactile value in the field of fashion, this study examines the theory of tactile value, sculpture, painting, contemporary art, and product design as well as the design of Madeleine Vionnet from 1925 to 1937 because she was in the fashion business enlarging dress shops in New york during this period. The shape of Madeleine Vionnet's dresses made the concealed body alive through organic curves pressed against the body from cuts and dissections based on the anatomy of a supple body with curves and movement. In the garments, soft physical characteristics or the glossy touch of silk or pile textile imitated smooth skin while colors similar to a woman's eye, hair, and skin color continue the impression of the dress extending to the body through these design elements, Madeleine Vionnet's dresses reinforce the will to touch female body hidden under the dress by tactile values, not by the body's modification or visual exposure.
A Study on Body Silhouette Change by Wearing English Women's Upper Garments of the Late
Cha, Joo-Eun ; Chun, Jong-Suk ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1205~1220
The purpose of this study is to verify the change of body posture by putting on the late
century English women's bodice or waistcoat. This study analyzed the female somatotype which puts on upper garments of Victorian era with using 3D body scan technology. Two sets of
century women's bodice and waistcoat patterns were developed with the
century model size and those patterns were used for making the experimental garments. The fit of experimental garments was evaluated by the degree of change with posture and waist measurements. Three women with the same waist girth measurements with the model size were participated to the fitting test. The postural change was measured from cross-sectional body diagrams. The result of this study showed that the waist measurement of the late
century English women's bodice and waistcoat pattern was smaller than the waist girth measurement. These garments compressed the midriff of the body and it made women's distinct body silhouette. The waist girth measurement of 1876 bodice pattern was 9.2cm smaller than presented model size. The subjects' waist girth measurements were shortened by 5.0~6.1cm after wearing the 1876 bodice garment. The waist girth measurement of 1880 waistcoat pattern was 7.1cm smaller than presented model size. The subjects' waist girth measurements were shortened by 2.7~3.7cm after wearing the 1880 waistcoat garment. The back side parts of their waist were compressed and their postures were changed. The neck and shoulders were moved forward after wearing the experimental garments. These results showed that body posture could be changed to "S" shape silhouette as wearing the late
century English women's bodice or waistcoat.
The Effect of Eyeglasses, Earrings, Hair Length, and Clothing Color on Impression Formation of Woman in Her 20s - Focused on the Evaluation of Female College Students -
Lee, Myoung-Hee ; Song, Won-Young ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1221~1234
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences and interaction effects in impression formation according to eyeglasses, earrings, hair length, and clothing color worn by woman in Her 20s. A quasi-experimental method was used for this study. The experimental design was a
clothing color) factorial design. The model of stimulus photographs was a woman with an oval shape face in her late twenties. She wore a tailored collared jacket with a white dress shirt. The subjects were 362 female college students. First, the women wearing glasses were found to be more potent but gave more negative impressions in terms of loveliness, politeness, and attractiveness than the women without glasses. Second, the women wearing earrings were perceived to have higher individuality, attractiveness, potency, loveliness, and elegance than the women without earrings. Third, the women with short hair were evaluated to have higher individuality, potency, and elegance, and to have lower loveliness, politeness, and attractiveness than the women with long hair. Fourth, the red clothes were perceived to have the higher individuality, loveliness, and attractiveness than the dark red or grey clothes. The light grey clothes were considered as the most elegant and the dark grey clothes were shown to have low attractiveness. Fifth, the women wearing the horn-rimmed glasses with short hair were evaluated to have high individuality. The women wearing glasses with short hair were evaluated lower in loveliness than those with long hair. The women with short hair, wearing glasses without earrings were evaluated very low in attractiveness.
A Study on Nail Management Behavior Based on Psychological Wellness - Focusing on Women Engaged in Sales and Services -
Bae, Sun-Young ; Park, Kil-Soon ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1235~1246
The purpose of this study lies in identifying the psychological state of working women engaged in sales and services and seeing how it is correlated to their nail management behavior. Also, the study aims to look into the relationship that exists between these two factors and provide information to help women live and work better with higher self-satisfaction. As for the research process, 210 women aged 20 to 30 engaging in sales and services of clothing, financing, and cosmetics sales were asked to fill out questionnaires. Survey results indicate that women who received college education and beyond as well as those working in the cosmetics sales area were exceptional in their psychological wellbeing. In addition, women with higher income, especially those who work in the cosmetics sales field and are not yet married participated in nail management behavior with the most enthusiasm. Therefore as for the relationship between psychological wellbeing and nail management behavior, it can be said that the better one's psychological wellbeing is, the more one is likely to strive for uniqueness in managing nails.
Consumer Characteristics and Their Influences on Fashion Leadership - Focused on Centrality of Visual Product Aesthetics, Consumer Innovativeness, Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influences, and Role-relaxed Consumption -
Jeon, Kyung-Sook ; Park, Hye-Jung ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1247~1258
This study aimed to clarify the relationships among the characteristics of consumers and their influence on fashion leadership. Two kinds of variables were investigated in this study: centrality of visual product aesthetics and consumer innovativeness as personal characteristics, and role-relaxed consumption and consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence as interpersonal characteristics. Data were gathered by surveying university students in the Seoul metropolitan area, using convenience sampling, and 322 questionnaires were used in the statistical analysis. In analyzing data, correlation analysis, factor analysis, and regression analysis were conducted. Factor analysis on the centrality of visual product aesthetics revealed three sub-factors: value, acumen, and response intensity. Meanwhile, factor analysis for consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence revealed two sub-factors: informative and normative conformities. However, consumer innovativeness, role-relaxed consumption, and fashion leadership revealed only one factor. Regression analysis showed that visual product aesthetics, especially acumen and response intensity, were the most influential factors; furthermore, consumer innovativeness and normative conformity had positive influence on fashion leadership. However, role-relaxed consumption had negative influence on fashion leadership.
A Study on Naturalism in Fashion from 1980 to 2009 - Focus on Content Analysis of Vogue Magazine -
Eun, Sook ; Park, Jae-Ok ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1259~1271
This study investigates and compares the changes of naturalism in fashion presented over a 30-year period to understand the diversity of naturalism in fashion. Data were collected from 59 volumes of the "Vogue" magazine for January and July in each year from 1980 to 2009. The data used for content analysis consists of 440 words and these were condensed into three periods according to decade(1980~1989, 1990~1999, and 2000~2009). The selected words were classified into four sub-themes according to the previous research definitions such as primitive look, natural look, eco look and handcrafted look. The results are as follows. First, naturalism of fashion was highly presented in the 1980s but the percentages of naturalism in three decades were all more or less similar. Especially, natural look appeared more in the 1980s and eco look was in the 1990s, while natural look, eco look and handcrafted look were found all together in the 2000s. Second, naturalism of fashion showed higher frequency of F/W seasons in the 1990s, while S/S seasons in the 1990s and 2000s. In particular, natural look was presented more at S/S seasons. The sub-themes coexistence were presented in the 24 seasons out of 59 seasons and showed more variously in the 2000s. Third, the words selected from sub-themes of naturalism in fashion demonstrated the differences by decade.
The Influences of Objectified Body Consciousness and Body Esteem on Weight and Hair Management Behavior
Jeon, Hyun-Jin ; Chung, Myung-Sun ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1272~1287
The purpose of this study were to investigate the influences of objectified body consciousness and body esteem on the weight and hair management behaviors of females. The questionnaires were administrated to 632 female residents of the Gwangju city, Korea. The SPSS for Windows 18.0 Statistics Package was used for data analysis. To verify the formulated hypotheses, descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis(Cronbach's
), regression analysis, path analysis were used. The results were as follows. First, objectified body consciousness was divided into three factors: body shame, body surveillance, and appearance control beliefs. objectified body consciousness turned out to have positive influences on overall weight management behaviors and hair management behaviors. Second, objectified body consciousness appeared to have positive influence on overall body esteem. When the influences were further examined, body surveillance turned out to have significant positive influence on body esteem, whereas body shame and appearance control beliefs seemed to have few significant influences on body esteem. Third, body esteem appeared to have significant positive influence on all weight management behaviors and hair management behaviors. Fourth, it was found that objectified body consciousness had direct impact on the weight management behaviors and hair management behaviors without mediation body esteem.
Comparison of Feel/Sense and Purchase Behavior among NIKE, PUMA, and KUHO POP-UP Store Visitors
Kim, Sun-Young ; Kim, Chil-Soon ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1288~1301
The purpose of this study was to observe a case study of pop-up stores in an apparel company in Korea in order to evaluate different feel and to determine the purchase behavior of pop-up visitors of three major fashion brands. This research was conducted through secondary data collection and primary data collection. A survey was conducted among NIKE, KUHO, and PUMA pop-up store visitors who were 20 to 40 years old, via questionnaires. Data were collected on-line and off line at the pop-up store. Data were analyzed using SPSS program. Through data analysis, we learned that most of the study participants were captivated by the digital elements in the environment of the NIKE pop-up store. Puma, the second most favorably ranked, was favored for its interior design. Meanwhile, KUHO stimulated its customers with its limited edition fashion products at a good price. Several feels of visitors about the pop-up stores were significantly different among the 3 different brands. There was a significant difference in purchase criteria, such as brand recognition, size, and design among visitors of the three different brands. Visitors who preferred KUHO considered design of products more than NIKE-preferred visitors. In conclusion, the clothing pop-up stores have the possibility of satisfying consumers' desires. Each brand can achieve a good performance in promotion with a differentiated strategy.
Fashion Communication and Exhibition Project - Focused on Fashion Exhibition Design by Maison Martin Margiela -
Jang, Ra-Yoon ; Yang, Sook-Hi ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1302~1319
The purpose of this study is to investigate the means by which designers communicate their philosophies and messages through fashion exhibitions, which are one of the communication methods that use visual images, by focusing on the aesthetics of fashion exhibition design. For this study, previous studies related to design exhibitions were analyzed, in addition to the related theoretical background, by examining the existing literature and conducting an illustrative study on fashion exhibitions. Our illustrative study focused on the aesthetic meanings of exhibitions held by the fashion brand Maison Martin Margiela over the past 10 years. According to our analyses, the fashion philosophy of fashion designer Martin Margiela's was reflected by Maison Martin Margiela in the exhibition design. After studying the features of Maison Martin Margiela's exhibition design, the inner values of deconstructivism and mysticism and appearance techniques of trompe-l'oeil, white spirit and assemblage were observed. This study aims to supply basic data for an active research on consilience and communication conducted in fashion communication field through a fashion exhibition designed to be seen as a work, an objet of the exhibition. In-depth studies on the cultural and aesthetical aspects of fashion exhibitions should be carried out, not only based on the sense of sight but also the senses of touch and hearing. Next, theories should be established on fashion scenography, to consider the use of the space design of fashion shows, presentations and advertising and movies to communicate fashion.
High School Students' Buying Attitudes toward School Uniform Brands according to Clothing Conformity
Seo, Ji-Min ; Lee, Ji-Yeon ; Park, Myung-Ja ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1320~1333
The purpose of this study is to investigate high school students' buying attitudes toward school uniform brands according to clothing conformity orientation. For this research, a survey was carried out to 418 boy and girl students in Seoul and Gyeonggi areas. The data analysis of this study was verified by descriptive analysis, factor analysis, reliability tests, cluster analysis, one-way ANOVA with Duncan-test, and
-test. The results are as follows. First, high school students preferred and had strong intentions to buy school uniforms of famous leading brands although they were not satisfied with famous brands. Especially, respondents tended to have favorable attitudes toward sophisticated and luxurious designs of famous school uniform brands. Second, respondents who had a conformity to parents tended to follow parents' opinions by purchasing famous brand uniforms. The conformity group of mass media preferred famous brands, and acquired the information about uniforms from various mass media such as television or magazines. A peer conformity group also preferred leading brands. Based on results of this study, curriculum of home education department should consist of contents for inducing rational consumption of uniforms by considering students' inclination of conformity. In terms of marketing perspectives, school uniforms firms need to reinforce strategies to improve products' quality and value for money.
A Study of Fashion Cultural Products Based on the Motif of Traditional Beoseon Socks
Kim, Sun-Young ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1334~1346
This study focused on the beoseon, traditional Korean socks that are a fashion item showcasing the beauty of the round hanbok shape. The study utilized the beoseon as an influential design motif and suggested 24 cultural fashion items to which the beoseon can be applied, including neckties, scarves, and T-shirts. For the purposes of this study, Adobe Illustrator CS3 and Adobe Photoshop CS3 were used for the motif design as well as the literature review on traditional beoseon socks. For the basic design motif, two basic forms were taken from the collection of the National Folk Museum of Korea. The key point of the motif development is that it maintains the basic shape of the beoseon but highlights the attractiveness of the Korean image by using repetition, rotation, symmetry and overlap into a new image pattern so that modern and chic images were taken into consideration for each cultural product. For the necktie, the mixed or repeated patterns for each motif were used as is. Alternatively, an oblique line pattern was adopted to express a stable and stylish image. For the T-shirt, a round-neck sleeveless type was designed. T-shirts were unified in the white color to highlight the image from the pattern. For the scarf, two shapes were displayed, square and rectangle. Through mixture of two repeated variation unit patterns for each motif, a splendid and stylish image was revealed along with various layouts.
Comparative Analysis of Body Measurement and Fit Evaluation between 2D Direct Body Measuring and 3D Body Scan Measuring
Istook, Cynthia L. ; Lim, Ho-Sun ; Chun, Jong-Suk ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1347~1358
This study purposed to analyze differences in body measurement between the 2D direct body measuring method and the 3D body scan measuring method and to perform the appearance evaluation and cross-sectional evaluation of the fit of pants to which body measurements obtained by each measuring method were applied. Body measuring was conducted in 10 women in their 20s-30s using 2D direct body measuring and 3D automatic measuring with Hamamatsu body scanner. Among the 10 women, 3 participated in experimental garment wearing. Experimental pants were made using their 2D direct body measurements and 3D automatic measurements, and wearing tests were performed through expert evaluation and cross-sectional evaluation. The results of the experiment were as follows. According to the results of comparative analysis on differences between 2D direct body measurements and 3D scan measurements, 3D automatic measurements were significantly larger in bust circumference, ankle circumference, armscye circumference, shoulder length, scye depth, and arm length. As circumferences measured with the 3D body scanner were somewhat larger than directly measured ones, it is suggested to adjust ease when using existing pattern making methods. We prepared experimental garments by the same pattern making method through applying body measurements obtained with the two measuring methods, and assessed the fit of the garment comparatively through expert evaluation and 3D scan cross-sectional evaluation. According to the results, 2D-pants using 2D direct body measurements was slightly tighter than 3D-pants using 3D measurements in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal circumference. In the results of comparing appearance in terms of the fit of the experimental garment in each subject, significant difference was observed in most of the compared items. This result suggests that 3D automatic body measuring data may show different accuracy according to body shape and therefore it is necessary to examine difference between 2D direct body measurements and 3D automatic measurements according to body shape.
Comparative Assessment of Virtual Garments using Direct and Manual Avatars
Lim, Ho-Sun ; Istook, Cynthia L. ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1359~1371
The purpose of this paper is to compare two avatars made using direct and manual methods and to evaluate the fit and appearance of two virtual garments on the direct and manual avatars. In this study, two subjects were measured by
body scanner and the avatars and virtual garments were created by OptiTex software. The direct avatar was made by the direct importation of 3D body scan data and the manual avatar was made by manual input from extracted body measurement. Two virtual garments in a tank-top were evaluated by distance, transparency, and stretch maps. In the results of comparing difference of the direct and manual avatars, the bust and back of the manual avatar are protruded slightly more than that of the direct avatar and the manual avatar is slightly larger dimensions at the bust, waist, abdomen, and hip area in the side view in case of subject 1 and 2. In the results of comparing difference of the fit and appearance of two virtual garments on the direct and manual avatars, in case of subject 1 and 2, the back of the virtual garment on the manual avatar are protruded more than that of the direct avatar. Also, the ease in the bust area of the virtual garment on the manual avatar with a projected bust area was smaller than that of the virtual garment on the direct avatar and the stretch of that of the manual avatar was also high in the bust area. The results of this study are expected to be used as basic information in the apparel industry using virtual try-on technology.
Effects of Egonomy Tendency on Their Self-makeup and Appearance Management Behavior of University Women in Jeonbuk Province
Park, Hyo-Won ; Kim, Yong-Sook ;
The Research Journal of the Costume Culture, volume 19, issue 6, 2011, Pages 1372~1384
The purpose of this study was to identify egonomy tendency on their self-makeup and appearance management behavior of university women in Jeonbuk province. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Frequency analyses, reliability analyses, cross-tabulations and multiple regression analyses were used. Factors of university women's egonomy tendency were individuality, value, luxury good, style, design, appearance, and economic feasibility. University women were classified into the egonomy retarde group(G1), the value pursuing group(G2), the economic feasibility pursuing group(G3), and the highly egonomy pursuing group(G4). G1 were indifferent to their makeup methods and appearance management, had the least experience in buying recommended cosmetics or idea cosmetics. G2 invested time and efforts in makeup and managed their appearance with cosmetics or folk remedies, had less experience in buying artist brand cosmetics. G3 performed makeup frequently, were not much interested in appearances while showing the most frequent appearance management behaviors using cosmetics of folk remedies, and spent small amount of money to buy cosmetics. G4 showed high frequencies of all factors of self-makeup and appearance management behaviors, had the most experience in buying artist brand cosmetics and spent much amounts of money to buy cosmetics. Self-makeup behavior was affected by their tendencies to pursue individuality, values, appearance and appearance management behavior was affected by their tendencies to pursue luxury goods, appearance, and economic feasibility.