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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 11, Issue 2 - 00 1999
Volume 11, Issue 1 - 00 1999
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Thermal Characteristics in Association with Cement Types in Massive Concrete Structure
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 3~12
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19184.108.40.206
The larger, loftier and more highly strengthened the recent structures become, the greater attention is paid to the problem of thermal crack occurrence associate with hydration heat. As one of methods to solve the problem, a care has been taken to the improvement of construction such as the application of pre-cooling or pipe-cooling, adjustment of concrete block size, concrete placement timing, joint arrangement and so on. But it is expected that a proper selection of cement shall additionally contribute to the control of thermal cracks. In this study, thus, we selected 4 types of cements such as Type V for anti-sulphate, blast furnace cements (slag content of 45% and 65% respectively)and ternary blended low heat cement, and carried out mock-up tests. In every assigned time, temperatures and thermal stresses were measured and calculated from raw data. As a result of measurement, it was found that the magnitude of hydration heat is in order of blast furnace slag cement. Type V and ternary blended low heat cement. Results of thermal stresses were same as the order of temperature. In addition, thermal stresses calculated from the data of strain gauges showed almost similar to those measured from effective stress gauges only when strain values were adjusted properly in accordance with initial time of stress appearance. Theoretical results agreed well with the measured values comparatively, but showed slight differences. It is inferred that these differences shall be reduced if more tests capable of evaluating thermal characteristics of concrete are carried out.
Prediction of Prestressing Steel Stress at Ultimate State of Prestressed Concrete Members with External Unbonded Tendons
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 13~24
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19220.127.116.11
The external, unbonded prestressed concrete(PSC) members exhibit very different structural behavior from that of internal bonded PSC members because of eccentricity change and slip occurrence during loading process. The purpose of the present study is to propose the ultimate failure stresses of prestressing (PS) steels for those external unbonded PSC members. To this end, a comprehensive analysis has been made using the nonlinear finite element analysis program developed recently for external unbonded PSC members by authors. A series of major influencing variables have been included in the analysis. It was found that the span-depth ratio, neutral axis depth-effective depth ratio, load geometry, amount of ordinary steel, and prestressing steel ration have great influence for the ultimate failue stress of PS steel is preposed and is compared with experimental dat as well as existing formulas for internal unbonded members. The Comparison indicates that the proposed equation agrees relatively well with experimental data and that existing formulas including ACI and AASHTO equations show some discrepancies from experimental ones. The present study allows more realistic analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures with external unbonded tendons.
Influence of Fly Ash Content with Respect to the Fresh and Mechanical Properties in Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 25~33
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.1918.104.22.168
The role of fly ash in concrete become impotant with finding the charateristics of fly ash in which it is used as cement replacement material. An experimental study is carried out to investigate the characteristics of concrete containing fly ash. The loss of slump and air content of fly ash concrete tested up to 120 minutes are lower than those of ordinary concrete, but the setting time and bleeding are increased with increasing fly ash content. The compressive and tensile strength of fly ash concrete are slightly lower than those of ordinary concrete between 7 and 28 days, however, the long-term (at 180 days) compressive strength of fly ash concrete is significantly higher. In addition, fly ash reduces the heat of hydration and peak of temperature rise in concrete.
Development of Tension Stiffening Models for Steel Fibrous High Strength Reinforced Concrete Members
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 35~46
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.1922.214.171.124
The steel fiber reinforced concrete may affect substantially to the tension stiffening at post cracking behavior. Even if several tension stiffening models exist, they are for plain and normal strength concrete. Thus, the development of tension stiffening models for steel fibrous high strength RC members are necessary at this time when steel fiber reinforced and high strength concretes are common in use. This paper presents tension stiffening effects from experimental results on direct tension members with the main variables such as concrete strength, concrete cover depth, steel fiber quantity and aspect ratio. The comparison of existing models against experimental results indicated that linear reduced model closely estimated the test results at normal strength level but overestimated at high strength level. Discontinuity stress reduced model underestimated at both strength levels. These existing models were not valid enough in applying at steel fibrous high strength concrete because they couldn't consider the concrete strength nor section area. Thus, new tension stiffening models for high strength and steel fiber reinforced concrete were proposed from the analysis of experimental results, considering concrete strength, rebar diameter, concrete cover depth, and steel fiber reinforcement.
Development of Reinforced Concrete Shell Element with Drilling Rotational Stiffness
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 47~56
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19126.96.36.199
In this paper, a nonlinear finite element procedure is presented for the analysis of reinforced concrete shell structures. The 4-node quadrilateral flat shell finite element with drilling rotational stiffness is developed. The layered approach is used to discretize behavior of concrete and reinforcement through the thickness. Material nonlinearity is taken into account by comprising tensile, compressive and shear models of cracked concrete and a model of reinforcing steel. The smeared crack approach is incorporated. The steel reinforcement is assumed to be in a uniaxial stress state and to be a smeared in a layer. The proposed numerical method for nonlinear analysis of reinforce concrete shells will be verified by comparison with reliable experimental results.
Design and Optimization of Prestressed Precast Double-tee Beams
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 57~67
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19188.8.131.52
Optimization scheme is presented for the design of precast prestressed double-tee beams used as slabs in the parking or market structures. The objective considered is defined by a function that minimizes the hight of the double-tee beam, including the prefabricated element and the concrete topping poured in a second phase. The Sequential Quadratic Programming method is adopted to solve the problem. As an example 12 double-tee beams are designed with the design loads of the current design code of our country. The results from optimization process show that at least 29cm less in overall height than that designed by PCI design handbook. The section determined from the optimization process was refined for practical considerations. A MathCad 7.0 Pro Spreadsheet was prepared to verify all ACI requirements for flexure, shear and deflections. Flexural tests are performed on four full-scale 12.5m prototype models and show that all the specimens are fully comply the flexural strength requirements as specified by ACI 318-95. The present optimization scheme can be used for wider application of the design of precast prestressed double-tee beams with different materials and configurations particularly for in a large scale or for important designs.
Fundamental Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Using Viscosity Modifying Admixture
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 69~78
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19184.108.40.206
Hydroxyethyl cellulose -based-viscosity modifying admixture and melamine-basd-superplasticizer were selected to be admixtures for self-compacting concrete based on the test results of fluidity and air content of mortar using 3 different viscosity modifying admixtures. The experimental results show that the initial and final set of self-compacting concrete and fly ash concrete with viscosity modifying admixture only have been delayed approximately 5 hours and 8~9 hours, respectively. It is found that the optimum dosage of viscosity modifying admixtures, coarse aggregate and cement content are 0.2% of water content, under 742 kg/
and over 364 kg/
, respectively. Test results also show that the optimum fly ash in replacement of cement is 10% of cement weight for the enhancement of fluidity and long-term strength.
Application of Electro-deposition Method for Crack Closing and Surface Improvement of Reinforced Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 79~88
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19220.127.116.11
In this paper, the electro-deposition method for the rehabilitation of cracked concrete, based on the electro-chemical technique, is presented. The main purpose of this paper is to apply this technique to reinforced concrete members on land. After cracking with a specified load(crack width 0.5mm), 10
20cm concrete specimens with embedded steel bars were immersed in several solutions, then a constant current density between the embedded steel in concrete and an electrode in the solution was applied for 4~20 weeks. The results indicate that electro-deposits formed in this process are able to close concrete cracks and to coat the concrete surface and that formation of these electro-deposits is confirmed to have an effect of protection against detrimental materials. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the electro-deposition method can be usefully applied for the rehabilitation technique of concrete.
A Study on the Development of Corrosion Prediction System of Reinforcing Bars in Sea-shore Structure
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 89~100
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.1918.104.22.168
Service life of concrete structures that are exposed to the environmental attack is largely influenced by the corrosion of reinforcing bare due to the chloride contamination. Chloride ions penetrate continuously into concrete from the environment, and chloride diffusion velocity is governed by a mechanical steady stage. In this study, a method is developed to predict corrosion initiation of reinforcing bars in the sea-shore structures, based on governing equations that take into account the diffusing of chloride ions and a mechanical steady state. As a result of this study, Corrosion Prediction System (CPS) is developed, and it can be used to determine an optimal time for repair and rehabilitation actions need to be taken. Futhermore, CPS assists the concrete mixing structures by predicting of chloride concentrations in concrete mixture, exposed to salt concentrations and service environment.
Effect of Edge Confinement on Deformation Capacity in the Isolated RC Structural Walls
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 101~112
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.1922.214.171.124
Structural walls have been mostly used for the design of reinforced concrete buildings in seismic areas because they play a role as an efficient bracing system and offer great potential for lateral load resistance and drift control. The lateral resistance system for the earthquake load should be designed to have enough ductility and stable hysteretic response in the critical regions where plastic deformation occurred beyond yielding. The behavior of the reinforced concrete element to experience large deformation in the critical areas by a major earthquake is affected by the performance of the confined core concrete. Thus, the confinement of concrete by suitable arrangements of transverse reinforcement results in a significant increase in both the strength and ductility of compressed concrete. This paper reports the experimental results of reinforced concrete structural walls for wall-type apartment structure under axial loads and cyclic reversal of lateral loads with different confinement of the boundary elements. The results show that confinement of the boundary element by open 'U'-bar and cross tie is effective. The shear strength capacity is not increased by the confinement but deformation capacity is improve.
A Study on Fatigue Characteristics of Domestic Low-Relaxation PS Strands
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 113~119
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19126.96.36.199
Fatigue failure is a phenomenon such that structures under cyclic service load is failed by sudden brittle manner. Therefore, in order to obtain structures safety against the fatigue failure during their service lifes, fatigue characteristics should be considered for design and analysis of the structures. As stress range of prestressed (PS) tendons, which governs fatigus characteristic of prestressed concrete (PSC) structures, increases with increased use of partial prestressig, it is more necessary to consider fatigue characteristics of PS tendons. In this paper, direct-tension fatigue experiments with special specimen-setting devices are carried out to obtain fatigue characteristics of domestic low relaxation PS strands having different diameters and PS strands connected with coupler. Then, allowable stress range of fatigue for PSC beams using low relaxation strands are presented for the fatigue examination of prestressed concrete beams applied cyclic loading.
Properties of the SHOT PATCH Mortar a Wet System for Small Bore Tunnels
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19188.8.131.52
The SHO PATCH System Mortar is a mortar shotcreting system which uses fairly small machine and equipment, and is applied for shotcrete tunnel linings, in particular for small bore tunnels of aqueducts by the TBM(Tunnel Boring Machine) method, and for reparing tunnels suffering from spring water and deterioration. This study shows the characteristics of the new mortar shotcreting system, the SHOT PATCh System Mortar, which exhibits excellent shotcrete performance.
Slip Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams to Corroded Steel State
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 11, issue 6, 1999, Pages 129~135
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.19184.108.40.206
Reinforced concrete structures are constructed under the basic assumption of perfect bonding between steel and concrete. The corrosion of steel in the reinforced concrete beams results in the excessive cracks and gradual deterioration of concrete. This paper are concerned about the slip characteristics of reinforced concrete between steel and concrete. The accelerated test by external power supply was conducted with the three corrosion rates in the laboratory. As a result, it was obtained as follows: (1) the yield strength of steel was reduced according to corrosion states. (2) the equivalent steel area should be considered for detailed analysis. (3) According to the use of corroded steel or not, slip amounts between concrete and steel in test beams increased as the corrosion rate increased. These results can be explained from the bond loss between concrete and steel in test beams.