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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
A Study on Rational Evaluation of Recycled Aggregates Extracted from Demolished Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 3~12
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.3
Recently, the amount of disposed construction materials like demolished concrete is growing fast and the shortage of natural concrete aggregates is becoming serious. Therefore, recycling of aggregates extracted from the demolished concrete is getting important and use of the recycled aggregates for concrete has been seriously considered. However, the use of the recycled aggregates even for low performance concretes is very limited because there are few rational standard evaluation criteria for recycled aggregates which should be different from that for natural aggregates. In this study, rational evaluation criteria for the recycled aggregates are proposed for their use as concrete aggregates. The study also shows that the performance for both the recycled aggregates and the recycled concrete manufactured with the recycled aggregates can be evaluated effectively according to water absorption ratio of recycled aggregates.
A Study on the Flexural Behavior of Proposed Spliced PSC-I Type Girder
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 13~23
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.13
In this study, an flexural test on half-scale spliced PSC-I girder was conducted to verify the efficiency of the long span spliced girder as suggested by the Korean Highway Design Specification. The experimental results showed that the specimens developed a complex failure mode due to flexural-compression and torsional stress. The cracking moment of each girder was higher the experiment than was calulated by the ACI and the ultimate strength were the almost same. To estimate the safety and the structural efficiency of the spliced girder, the proposed Yielding Resistance Index(YRI) and ductility index by American Concrete Institutes were used based on the energy concept. The proposed YRI defined the ratio of crack resisting energy and the total energy calculated from load-displacement relationship. Based on the analysis of YRI and ductility index, the flexural behavior of the spliced girder was found to be efficient. Through the experimental results, the structural behavior of proposed spliced PSC I-type girder for long span bridge was found to be more efficient than the exsisting PSC I-type girders.
A Fundamental Study on the Antiwashout Underwater Concrete for the Underwater Work of Ocean
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 25~34
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.25
When concrete is placed underwater, it is diluted with separating cementitious material and as a result the quality of concrete becomes poor. To solve this problem, antiwashout underwater concrete is increasingly used for the construction and repair of the concrete structure underwater. The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of antiwashout underwater concrete as to the mix proportion, casting and curing water through experimental researches. The unit weight of water and cement, water-cement ratio, fine aggregate ratio, unit weight of antiwashout underwater agent and superplasticizer, and casting and curing water were chosen to measure the suspended solids, pH, air contents, slump flow, unit weight of hardened concrete, and compressive strength. From this study, the incremental modulus at mix proportion design and unit weight of antiwashout underwater agent were increased more than fresh water, and it is a optimum mix proportion that the unit weight of water(and cement) is 230kg/
), waterOcement ratio is 50%, fine aggregate ratio is 40%, unit weight of antiwashout underwater agent is 1.2% of water contents per unit weight of concrete, and unit weight of supeplasticizer is 2.5% of cement contents per unit weight of concrete when the antiwashout underwater concrete is used for the underwater work of ocean.
A Study on the Prediction Model of Shear Strength of RC Beams Strengthened for Shear by FRP
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 35~46
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.35
In this paper, an analytical model is proposed to predict the shear strenth of RC beams strengthened by FRP. This predictional model is composed of two basic models-the upper bound theorem for shear failure (shear tension or shear compression criteria) and a truss model based on the lower bound theorem for diagonal tension creteria. Also, a simple flexural theory based on USD is used to explain flexural failure. The major cause of destruction of RC beams shear strengthened by FRP does not lie in FRP fracture but in the loss of load capacity incurred by rip-off failure of shear strengthening material. Since interfacial shear stree between base concrete and the FRP is a major variable in rip-off failure mode, it is carefully analyzed to derive the shear strengthening effect of FRP. The ultimate shear strength and failure mode of RC beams, using different strengthening methods, estimated in this predictional model is then compared with the result derived from destruction experiment of RC beams shear strengthened using FRP. To verify the accuracy and consistency of the analysis, the estimated results using the predictional model are compared with various other experimental results and data from previous publications. The result of this comparative analysis showed that the estimates from the predictional model are in consistency with the experimental results. Therefore, the proposed shear strength predictional model is found to predict with relative accuracy the shear strength and failure mode of RC beams shear strengthened by FRP regardless of strengthening method variable.
Earthquake-Resistance of Slender Shear Wall with No Boundary Confinement
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 47~57
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.47
Experimental and numerical studies were done to investigate seismic performance of slender shear walls with no boundary confinement that are principal structural members of high0rise bearing wall buildings. 1/3 scale specimens that model the plastic region of long slender shear walls subjected to combined axial load and bending moment were tested to investigate strength, ductility, capacity of energy dissipation, and strain distribution, The experimental results show that the slender shear walls fail due to early crushing in the compressive boundary, and then have very low ductility. The measured maximum compressive strain is 0.0021, much less than 0.004 being commonly used for estimation of ductility. This result indicates that the maximum compressive strain is not a fixed value but is affected by moment gradient along the shear wall height and distance from the neutral axis to the extreme compressive fiber.
Strength Characteristics of Concrete Containing Blast-Funrnace Slag as Coarse Aggregate
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 59~68
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.59
A series of experiments were performed to investigate the strength characteristics of concrete which contain air cooled blast-furnace slag as coarse aggregate. The slag is a by product of GISC. The experimental conditions are varied with three different W/C(45%, 50%, 55%) and the weight of water and S/a are constant. The strength properties of the concrete at 7days, 28days, 90days are examined. Also the same strength properties are examined for the normal concrete which contain river gravel and crushed stone respectively as coarse aggregate. As the comparison results of the strength properties, it was found that the compressive strength development of concrete containing blast-furnace slag is better than that of concrete using river gravel at early age, however this is adversely at long-term age, and the tensile and flexural strength of the concrete were not nearly affected by water-cement ratio.
The Prediction of Remaining Service Life of Land Concrete Due to Steel Corrosion
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 69~80
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.69
This paper presents the prediction of remaining service life of the concrete due to steel corrosion caused by the following three cases; carbonation, using sea sand and using deicing salts. The assessment of initiation period was generalized considering the existing perdiction models in the literature, corrosion experiment and field assessment. To evaluate the prediction equation of rust growth, the corrosion accelerating experiments was performed. The polarization resistance was measured by potentiostat and the conversion coefficient of polarzation resistance to corrosion rate was determined by the measurement of real mass loss. Chloride content, carbonation, cover depth, relative humidity, water-cement ratio(W/C), and the use of deicing salts were taken into account and the resulting prediction equation of rust growth was proposed on the basis of these properties. The proposed equation is to predict the rust growth during any specified period of time and be effective in particular for predicting service life of concrete in the case of using sea sand.
A Study on the Limitation of Applicability of Fixed Angle Softened Truss Model
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 81~92
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.81
A fixed angle softened truss model has been developed in order to predict both shear strength and deformation of reinforced concrete members. The model takes into account the contribution of concrete by accuming the angle of cracks in the postcracking concrete that coincides with the reinforced concrete principal compressive angle determined by the applied stresses. Therefore, this model is capable of predicting the contribution of concrete from the govering equilibrium and compatibility equations including the shear stress and strain developed along concrete diagonal crack. However, the model has a limiting range to be applicable for reinforced concrete members. This research proposes a new algorthm of fixed angle softened truss model capable of removing the limitation of applicability. The proposed algorithm adopts a new conception of constitutive laws. The average normal stresses of concrete in the x- y- directions can be calculated by transforming the principal stresses of concrete. The proposed algorthm is verified by comparing to the test results.
Properities of Freshly Mixed Concrete Using Recycled Coarse Aggregates and Steel Fiber
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 93~99
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.93
The physical properties of freshly mixed steel fiber reinforced recycled concrete(SFRRC) were_investigated. Physical state and quality of fresh concrete were monitored batch by batch. the properties of freshly mixed SFRRC were determined in terms of slump, air content, superplasticizer, and bleeding ratio. Concrete mixtures were produced for three kinds of aggregate proportions. So, the experimental variables are various aggregate proportions, steel fiber contents(0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5%) and steel length(30, 50, 60mm). From experimental results, optimum s/a by various experimental variables, variations of the slump by the air contents, and optimum superplasticizer to decrease unit water were presented.
Ultimate Strength of Composite Beams with Unreinforced Web Opening
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 101~110
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.101
A practical approach of calculating the ultimate strength of composite beams with unreinforced web opning is proposed through shear behavioral tests. In this method, the slab shear contribution at the opening is calculated as the smaller value of the pullout capacity of shear connector at the high moment end and the one way shear capacity of slab. A simple interaction equation is used to predict the ultimate strength under simultaneous bending moment and shear force. Strength prediction by the proposed method is compared with previous test results and the predictions by other analytical methods. The comparison shows that the proposed method predicts the ultimate capacity with resonable accuracy.
A Study on high Quality of Antiwashout Underwater Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.111
In case of constructing concrete structure under water, generally concrete mixed with antiwashout admixture, high range water reducer, or AE-water reducing agent etc has been manufactured to ensure the quality of antiwashout underwater concrete because of being difficulty in ascertaining construction situation by the naked eye. The properties of high quality antiwashout underwater concrete that were aimed at affluent fluidity, workability and the compressive strength of 450 kgf/
at 28 ages using two types of blended cements are following as;(1) Setting time of antiwashout underwater concretes using blended cements was more greatly delayed than that of control concrete, however, was satisfied with criteria value of "Quality standard specification of antiwashout admixture for concrete".(2) As a test results of slump flow, efflux time and box elevation of head, it was found that workability of high quality antiwashout underwater concrete was improved. (3) Heat evolution amount of OPC was 1.5 times as high as that of two types of bended cements in 72 hours. (4) Suspended solids of antiwashout underwater concrete using blended cements was more than that of control concrete, also compressive strength of high quality antiwashout underwater concrete was very low in early age, but was better than that of control concrete as to increasing ages.
Effects of Specimen Depth on Flexural Compressive Strength of Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 121~130
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.121
Currently, in evaluating a flexural strength of a concrete member, the effect of specimen depth has not been systematically studied, even though its effect on ultimate strength of a section is very important. For all types of loading conditions, the trend is that the strength of a member tends to decrease when the member depth increases. In this study, the influence of specimen depth on flexural compressive strength of concrete member was examined experimentally. A series of C-shaped specimens subjected to axial compressive force and bending moment were tested using three geometrically similar specimens with different length-to depth ratios (h/c = 1, 2 and 4) which have compressive strength of 55 MPa. The results indicate that the flexural compressive strength decreased as the specimen depth increased. A model equation was derived based on regression analyses of the experimental data. Also, the results show that ultimate strain decreases as the specimen depth increases. Finally, a general model equation for the depth effect is proposed.
An Experimental Study on the Physical Properties of Porous Cement Concrete Using Polymer as an Admixture
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 131~139
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.131
Porous Concrete usually contains large amount of voids(about 10∼20%) after compaction so that it has relatively high permeability. It has been introduced in domestic since early 1980's but it has problems such as lack of optimized mixture, low strength and durability, and other defects, etc. The purpose of this study is to manufacture high-performance porous concrete using polymer to enhance the mechanical properties. The results of this study are as follows; the compressive strength range 12 92∼207kgf/㎠, the tensile strength range is 14∼28kgf/㎠, the bending stength range is 42∼73kgf/㎠, and the coefficient permeability range is 5.77×10-2∼6.79×10-1cm/sec. To develope high-performance porous concrete. further studies are needed on optimum mixture of fineness modulus and admixture.
Evaluation on Sulfate Attack Resistance of Cement Matrix
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 141~151
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.141
Compressive strength, sulfate deterioration factor(SDF) and length change of 5 types of mortars immersed in sodium sulfate solution were observed. As the results of tests, it was found that the sulfate resistance of blended cement mortars were superior to that of portland cement mortars. Pore volume with diameter larger than 0.1
of 5 types of pastes indicated that the micro-structures of blended cement pastes were denser, due to pozzolan reaction and latent hydraulic properties, than those of portland cement pastes. The XRD, ESEM, EDS and TG analyses demonstrated that the reactants such as ettringite and gypsum were significantly formed in portland cement pastes. Besides, compared with the
content of ordinary portland cement pastes immersed in water and sodium sulfate solution, the
contents of fly ash blended cement and ground granulated blast-furnace slag cement paste were about 58% and 28% in water, and 55% and 20% in sodium sulfate solution, respectively.
Numerical Study on Long-term Behavior of Flat Plate Subjected to In-Plane Compressive and Transverse Loads
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 12, issue 5, 2000, Pages 153~164
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2000.12.5.153
Numerical studies were carried out to investigate long-term behavior of flat plates, subjected to combined in-plane compressive and transverse loads. For the numerical studies, a computer program of nonlinear finite element analysis was developed. It can address creep and shrinkage as weel as geometrical and material nonlinearity, and also it can address various load combinations and loading sequences of transverse load, in-plane compressive load and time. This numerical method was verified by comparison with the existing experiments. Parametric studies were performed to investigate the strength variations of flat plates with four parameters; 1) loading sequence of floor load, compressive load and time 2) uniaxial and biaxial compression 3) the ratio of dead to live load 4) span length. Through the numerical studies, the behavioral characteristics of the flat plates and the governing load combinations were examined. These results will be used to develop a design procedure for the long-term behavior of flat plates in the future.