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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Numerical Study on Flexural Strength of Reinforced Concrete members Exposed to Fire
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 195~205
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.195
This Paper describes a numerical method to evaluate the flexural strength of reinforced concrete members exposed to fire. An analytical method is developed for the moment-curvature relationship for the cross section which is subjected to high temperature. The method performs heat-transfer analysis for the cross sections and subsequently performs numerical analysis using the stress-strain relationships of concrete and reinforcing steel in various heat conditions. The results of the numerical studies are ; 1) the residual flexural strength exposing at high temperature is affected by the heating time, the depth of concrete cover and reinforcement ratio, 2) the residual flexural strength after exposed at high temperature is recovered of its original strength at minimum ratio of reinforcement, while members having half of maximum ratio and maximum ratio of reinforcement do not recover its original strength, 3) furthermore, the concrete may reach its maximum capacity before reinforcement yields in reinforced concrete members having maximum ratio of reinforcement.
Experimental Study on the Material Characteristics of Concrete Surface Preparator with Inorganic Composite
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 206~212
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.206
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the material properties of concrete surface preparator with inorganic composite, which was modified with plaster and admixture. A series of experiment were conducted to appraise the properties according to KS F 4716. The experimental results were as follows ; When the concrete surface preparator with inorganic composite was used, the hair crack and split, due to early drying shrinkage, was little. So it is superior to concrete surface preparator with cement paste plaster The bonding strength of concrete surface preparator with inorganic composite increased about 60% compared to that of concrete surface preparator with cement paste plaster. The workability of surface flatness and finishing was superior compared to that of existing concrete surface preparator. All specifications on concrete surface preparator were satisfied in the series of this experiments. Therefore, the concrete surface preparator with inorganic composite might be satisfactory applied in field due to its superior material properties.
Alkali-Silica Reaction of Mortar Containing Waste Glass Aggregates
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 213~220
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.213
Incorporation of wastes glass aggregate in mortar may cause crack and this may result in the strength reduction due to alkali-silica reaction(ASR) and expansion. The purposes of this study were to investigate the properties of alkali-silica expansion and strength loss through a series of experiments which had a main experimental variables such as waste glass aggregate contents, glass colors, fiber types, and fiber contents. The steel fibers and polypropylene fibers were used for constraining the ASR expansion and mortar cracking. From the result, green waste glass was more suitable than brown one because of low expansion. And in this accelerated ASTM C 1260 test of waste glass, pessimum content can not be found. Also, when used the fibers with waste glass, there is an effect on reduction of expansion and strength loss due to ASR between the alkali in the cement paste and the silica in the waste glass. Specially, adding 1.5 vol.% of steel fiber to 20% of waste glass, the expansion ratio was reduced by 40% and flexural strength was developed by up to 110% comparing with only waste glass(80
Bonding Properties of Epoxy-Concrete Interface in RC Beams Strengthened by Steel Plate
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 221~227
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.221
Both strength and stiffness of RC structures strengthened by a steel plate greatly increase and however, their ductility might not be sufficient because premature failures usually occur at the adhesive-concrete interface. In this study, Mohr-Coulomb criterion was adopted to examine the bonding failure mechanism, and the diagonal shear bonding test, the direct shear bonding test, and the flexural test on RC beams strengthened by a steel plate were carried out to measure the bonding properties. It is found from the experimental and numerical results that the cohesive strengths of epoxy-concrete interfaces are ranging from 50 kgf/㎠ to 70 kgf/㎠ when the friction angle is 45°. Bonding failure loads can be predicted by applying the bonding properties to the structural analysis of RC beams strengthened by steel plate. By considering them in the design of strengthened beams, the premature failure would be effectively prevented.
Development of Thermal Stress Measuring System
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 228~236
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.228
Even though numerous researches have been performed for the prediction of thermal stresses in mass concrete structures by both analytical and experimental means, the limitations exist for both approaches. In analytical approach, the fundamental limitation is derived from the difficulty of predicting concrete properties such as modulus of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.. In experimental approach, there are many uncertainties related to in-situ conditions, because a majority of researches have focused on measuring thermal stresses in actual and simulated structures. In this research, an experimental device measuring thermal stresses directly in a laboratory setting is developed. The equipment is located in a temperature chamber that follows the temperature history previously obtained from temperature distribution analysis. Thermal strains are measured continuously by a strain gauge in the device and the corresponding thermal stresses are calculated simply by force equilibrium condition. For the verification of the developed device, a traditional experiment measuring thermal strains from embedded strain gauges is performed simultaneously. The results show that the thermal strain values measured by the newly developed device agree well with the results from the benchmark experiment.
Prediction of Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Concrete by a New Apparent Activation Energy Function
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.237
The prediction model is proposed to estimate the variation of compressive strength of fly ash concrete with aging. After analyzing the experimental result with the model, the regression results are presented according to fly ash replacement content and water-cement ratio. Based on the regression results, the influence of fly ash replacement content and water-cement ratio on apparent activation energy was investigated. According to the analysis, the model provides a good estimate of compressive strength development of fly ash concrete with aging. As the fly ash replacement content increases, the limiting relative compressive strength and initial apparent activation energy become greater. The concrete with water-cement ratio smaller than 0.40 shows that the limiting relative compressive strength and apparent activation energy are nearly constant according to water-cement ratio. But, the concrete with water-cement ratio greater than 0.40 has the increasing limiting relative compressive strength and apparent activation energy with increasing water-cement ratio.
Effects of Bar Deformation on Bond between Reinforcing Steel and Concrete Subjected In Cyclic Loading
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 244~250
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.244
One of the reasons for brittle failure in reinforced concrete structures subjected to severe earthquake is due to large slip between reinforcing steel and concrete. This study aims to evaluate effects of deformation patterns of ribbed reinforcing bars on bond under cyclic loading. Bond test specimens were constructed with machined bars to test the newly developed reinforcing bars with high relative rib areas. The degree of confinement is also another key parameter in this bond test. From the test results under monotonic and cyclic loading, bond strength and stiffness were evaluated. Bond strength and bond stiffness increase as relative rib areas under cyclic loading for specimens highly confined by transverse reinforcement. The increase rates of the bond performance under cyclic loading are larger than those of specimens under monotonic loading. The developed bars with high relative rib areas will contribute for better bond performance for reinforced concrete structures subjected to severe seismic loadings.
Axial Strain Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Reversed Cyclic Loading
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 251~260
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.251
It is required to evaluate the axial strain of reinforced concrete beams in order to predict the ductility of reinforced concrete beams subjected to reversed cyclic loading. A model was proposed to determine the axial strains In reinforced concrete beams by analysing the behavior of reinforced concrete sections and comparing with published test results. The proposed axial strain model inclusively reflected four kinds of paths : Path 1-steel bar in an elastic stage or a unloading region; Path 2-after flexural yielding; Path 3-a slip region; and Path 4-a reversing loading region. The equations to predict the axial strains of each path were proposed. The proposed equations took into account the effects of the loading program. Comparison of axial strains between experimental results and the results from proposed equations showed to be in a good agreement with experimental results.
Ductility of High-Strength Concrete Columns with High-Strength Lateral Ties
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.261
The objective of this experimental study is to find the allowable level of axial load to give the proper flexural ductility according to the yield strength of lateral ties, and the distribution and amount of longitudinal bars used in confined high-strength concrete columns. Twelve concrete columns with a 20 cm square section and 80 cm high were tested under hi-axial loads. It was observed that the ductility tends to be improved at the axial loads not less than 0.4f
g/. The utilization of high-strength ties in accordance with the ACI 318-99 can cause the brittle failure due to the wide tie spacing. Under the high level of axial loads not less than 0.4f
g/. it is necessary for the buckling prevention of the longitudinal bars and the proper ductility improvement to use the high-strength ties with the consideration of the volumetric ratio and confinement type of the lateral ties, and the distribution of the longitudinal bars.
Material Model and Thermal Response Analysis of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 268~276
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.268
A numerical model for the thermal response analysis of concrete structures is suggested. The model includes the stress-strain relationship, constitutive relationship, and multiaxial failure criteria at elevated temperature conditions. Modified Saenz's model was used to describe the stress-strain relationship at high temperatures. Concrete subjected to elevated temperatures undergoes rapid strain increase and dimensional instability. In order to explain those changes in mechanical properties, a constitutive model of concrete subjected to elevated temperature is proposed. The model consists of four strain components; free thermal creep strain, stress-induced (mechanical) strain, thermal creep strain, and transient strain due to moisture effects. The failure model employs modified Drucker-Prager model in order to describe the temperature dependent multiaxial failure criteria. Some numerical analyses are performed and compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed model. According to the comparison, the suggested material model gives reliable analytical results.
An Experiemtnal Study on the Air Permeability Effect on Concrete Carbonation
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 277~284
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.277
Hardened concrete contains pores of varying types and sizes, and therefore the transport of air through concrete can be considered. The rate of permeability will not only depends on the continuity of pores, but also on the moisture contents in concrete and finishing material on concrete. Also it knows that the durability of reinforced concrete structure is concerned with air permeability which effects on the carbonation occurred by invasion of CO2 gas and the corrosion of steel bar occurred by O
. In this paper, the effects of curing conditions and finishing materials on carbonation and air permeability are investigated according to the accelerated carbonation test. As results, carbonation velocity and air permeability are effected by curing conditions and finishing materials, and air permeability coefficient is effected by moisture content. Also the relationship between carbonation velocity coefficients and air permeability coefficients has been quite well established.
Mechanical Property of Foamed Light Weight Concrete with Wasted Expanded Poly-Styrene
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 285~293
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.285
To improve the vulnerable point and the mechanical property of the existing lightweight foamed concrete, this study was intend to manufacture the lightweight foamed concrete with wasted expanded poly-styrene, examinate and analyze the mechanical property of its. The experiment was being processed with mixing the wasted expanded poly-styrene maximum 40 % by stages and which was mainly basis on the practical mixture. The results of the experiment are following. The flow value is most affected by the mixtured rate of the wasted expanded poly-styrene. The more the mixtured ratio, the less the flow value and the more the more the unit quantity of cement and the W/C, the more the flow value. The apparent specific gravity indicated 0.31∼0.54 and which is seemed to be mainly included in the 0.4 degree and 0.5 degree that are regulated in the KS F 4039. The more the mixtured wasted poly-styrene ratio, the less the apparent specific gravity. The absorbing ratio which was depend on the mixture condition indicated 11 ∼46% and the more the mixtured ratio of the wasted expanded poly-styrene, the less the absorbing ratio remarkably. The compressive strength of the lightweight foamed concrete had a tendency to increase as the mixtured ratio of the wasted poly-styrene, the ratio quantity of cement and the apparent specific gravity increasing but as the ratio of bubble decreasing. The W/C affected little.
Properties of Controlled Low-Strength Material Containing Bottom Ash
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 13, issue 3, 2001, Pages 294~300
DOI : 10.22636/JKCI.2001.13.3.294
The effectiveness of bottom ash on the mechanical and physical properties of Controlled Low-Strength Material(CLSM) is investigated in this study, CLSM is defined by the ACI Committee 229 as a cementitious material that is in a flowable state at the time of placement and having a specified compressive strength of 83 kgf/
or less at the age of 28 days. This study was undertaken on the use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate in CLSM. Four different levels of bottom ash with fly ash contents, 25%, 50 %, 75%, 100%, are investigated. Laboratory test results conclude that inclusion of bottom ash increases the demand for mixing water in obtaining the required flow. However, the sand was reduced because it was adjusted to maintain a constant total volume. Miかe proportions were developed for producing CLSM at three 28-day strength levels: removal with tools (less than 7 kgf/
), mechanical means (less than 20 kgf/
), and power equipment (less than 83 kgf/cm\`). The physical and mechanical properties supports the concept that by-product bottom ash can be successfully used in CLSM.