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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Standardization of Estimation Function of Concrete Compressive Strength with Non-Destructive Test Using Andesite Aggregates
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.001
The purpose of this research is to obtain a practical expression for the estimation of compressive strength of concrete using non-destructive testing method such as rebound Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse
Assessment of Ductility for the RC Piers with Transverse Reinforcement and Application of Carbon-Fiber Red
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 8~15
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.008
This paper presents a study carried out for the seismic capacity in reinforced concrete(RC) piers by the confinement effect of transverse reinforcement as such a hooked-tied, welded-tied and spiral reinforcement. In order to assess the seismic capacity with transverse reinforcement, experiment리 and analytical methods were adopted. A RC column survey was conducted based on eight one-fourth scale single circular column specimens designed and tested under slow horizontal cyclic loads. Two cases were analyzed. The confinement effect of concrete by transverse reinforcement is considered not in Case 1 but in Case 2. Also, we studied the propriety of making use of the method in which a carbon fiber rod replace spiral reinforcement in RC piers. In experimental tests, a welded-tied and spiral reinforcement has a good seismic capacity, but a carbon fiber rod presents low ductility in comparison with a hooked-tied reinforcement. In an analytical study, displacement ductility is approximate to the experimental result because of considering the confinement effect of the transverse reinforcement. Even if the confinement effect of the transverse reinforcement is considered, the analytical results for ductility of the specimens with welded-tied and spiral reinforcement show an excessive underestimation of the experimental results.
Physical Properties of Planting Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 16~23
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.016
In construction field, million tons of demolished concrete are produced in korea. It is urgently needed that they are used as recycled materials in order to prevent environment pollution and gain economic profits. However, existing recycling methods of demolished concrete have their limits for wide application. They have been only focused on the burying and banking. Therefore, in this paper, physical and mechanical properties of planting concrete using construction wastes for aggregates are described in order to investigate the validities of demolished concrete as recycled aggregates. The Properties of strength and durability are tested. According to the experimental results, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of planting concrete using recycled aggregates shows worse performance than those using crushed stone concrete. But, it shows positive performance on the absorption ratio and thermal conductivity. Especially, considering the side of recycling of concrete wastes, it is recommended that recycled aggregates made with construction wastes is applied to planting concrete.
Torsional Resistance of RC Beams Considering Tension Stiffening of Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 24~32
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.024
The modified compression field theory is already applied in shear problem at some code(AASHTO-1998) partly. Nominal shear strength of concrete beam is sum of the concrete shcar strength and the steel shear strength in the current design code. But Torsional moment strength of concrete is neglected in the calculation of the nominal torsional moment strength of concrete beam In the current revised code. Tensile stress of concrete strut between cracks is still in effect due to tension stiffening effect. But The tensile stresses of concrete after cracking are neglected in bending and torsion In design. The torsional behavior is similar to the shear behavior in mechanics. Therefore the torsional moment strength of concrete should be concluded in the nominal torsional moment strength of reinforced concrete beam. This paper shows that the torsional moment strength of concrete is caused by the average principal tensile stress of concrete. To verify the validity of the proposed model, the nominal torsional moment strengths according to two ACI codes (89, 99) and proposed model are compared to experimental torsional moment strengths of 55 test specimens found in literature. The nominal torsional moment strengths by the proposed model show the best results.
Properties Vacuum · Reduced Air pressure Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.033
Vacuum concrete manufactured by vacuuming and decompressing fresh concrete. It is known to have improvement on abrasion and strength by making a structural confinement through elimination of internal gap. It has been implemented on buildings floors, concrete dam, etc. in developed countries. This study was aimed to monitor changes in physical characteristics such as strength and slump of concrete influenced by changes of vacuum, decompression level and combination condition during concrete manufacturing process. The results are as follows: It is indicated that decompressed concrete shoved increase in unit weight and compressive strength by compact compression phenomenon influenced by decrease in internal gap caused by diminishing oxygen. However, continuous research is necessary to resolve problems on construction, design and durability.
Physical Properties of Permeable Polymer Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.041
In this paper, permeable polymer concretes with unsaturated polyester or vinylester resin content from 5 to 8 weight ％, resin-filler ratio of 1 : 1, sand content from 0 to 15 weight ％ and crushed stone of size 2.5∼10 mm were prepared, and tested for compressive strength, flexural strength and water permeability. The effects of the resin and sand contents on the properties of permeable polymer concrete were discussed. It is concluded from the test results that increase in the strength and decrease in the coefficient of permeability of the permeable polymer concrete arc clearly observed with increasing the resin and sand contents. The permeable polymer concrete showed compressive strength in the range of 170 to 350 kgf/
and flexural strength in the range of 40 to 90 kgf/
at coefficient of permeability from 0.1 to 1.0 cm/sec in this experiment.
Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Steel Fiber Reinforced Columns
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 49~57
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.049
As composite materials, the addition of steel fiber with concrete significant)y improves the engineering properties of structural members, notably shear strength and ductility. Flexural strength, fatigue strength, and the capacity to resist cracking are also enhanced. Especially the strengthening effect of steel fiber in shear is to prevent the brittle shear failure. In this study, shear-strengthening effect of steel fiber in RC short columns were investigated from the literature surveys and 10th specimem`s member test results. From the test results, following conclusions can be made; the maximum enhancement of shear-strengthening effect can be achieved at about 1.5 ％ of steel fiber contents, shear strength and ductility capacity were improved remarkably in comparison to stiffness and energy dissipation capacity in steel fiber reinforced concrete.
Fracture Characteristics of Concrete at Early Ages
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 58~66
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.058
The objective of this study is to examine the fracture characteristics of concrete at early ages such as critical stress intensity factor, critical crack-tip opening displacement, fracture energy, and bilinear softening curve based on the concepts of the effective-elastic crack model and the cohesive crack model. A wedge splitting test for Mode I was performed on cubic wedge specimens with a notch at the edge. By taking various strengths and ages, load-crack mouth opening displacement curves were obtained, and the results were analyzed by linear elastic fracture mechanics and the finite element method. The results from the test and analysis showed that critical stress intensity factor and fracture energy increased, and critical crack-tip opening displacement decreased with concrete ages from 1 day to 28 days. By numerical analysis four parameters of bilinear softening curve from 1 day to 28 days were obtained. The obtained fracture parameters and bilinear softening curves at early ages may be used as a fracture criterion and an input data for finite element analysis of concrete at early ages.
Effect of Mix Ingredients on Modulus of Elasticity of High-Strength Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 67~75
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.067
For the design of concrete structures in the serviceability limit state, the uniaxial static modulus of elasticity may be a most important parameter. In particular, this may be so just for a deflection control of the structure. Even in new concrete codes, however, the elastic modulus is normally presented on the form of general empirical relationships with the compressive strength and density of concrete. Normally, there is a large uncertainty associated with the general equations obtained by regression. Thus, in a typical plot of static modulus of elasticity vs. compressive strength, a large scatter can be observed at same strength. The aim of this study is to present the method for obtain the maximum modulus of elasticity at same compressive strength. In the present paper report the effects of mix ingredients on the modulus of elasticity of high-strength concrete. The test of 284 cylinder specimens arc conducted for type I with 11 ％ replacement of fly-ash cement concretes. Different water-hinder ratio, amounts of water and coarse aggregate as variables were investigated. And also analyzed it statistically by using SAS.
Restrained Shrinkage Properties of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Rapid-Setting Cement Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 76~82
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.076
The rapid-set cement concrete causes high hydration temperature and nay result in a high drying shrinkage and shrinkage-induced cracking. This problem may be fixed by incorporating polypropylene fibers in rapid-set cement concrete, because of increased toughness, resistance to impact, corrosion, fatigue, and durability. A series of concrete drving shrinkage tests was peformed in order to investigate the shrinkage properties of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete with experimental variables such as concrete types, fiber reinforcement, W/C ratio, with and without restraint. Uni-axially restrained bar specimens were used for the restrained shrinkage tests. The results were as follows; The dry shrinkage of rapid-set cement concrete was much lessor than that oi OPC, probably because of smaller weight reduction rate by early hydration and strength development. The constraint and bridging effects caused by polypropylene fibers were great for the rapid-setting cement concrete when compared with that of plain concrete, and this resulted In increased resistance against tensile stress and cracking.
The Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Coupling Elements in Wall-Dominant System
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 83~91
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.083
A common form of construction for apartment buildings consists of walls and coupling elements. But, the structural behavior of coupling elements are very complex and affected by the properties of coupling elements. The objective of this study is to estimate the behavior of coupling elements in wall-dominant systems. For the purpose of this study, two wall-slab specimens and two wall-beam specimens were tested. The specimens with different reinforcement layouts were subjected to reversed cyclic loading, consistent with coupling action, with increasing imposed inelastic deformations. From the results of this study, 1) in coupling slabs, the stresses were not uniform across the width, 2) the effective width of coupling slabs was found smaller than that of predicted from previous studies, 3) diagonally reinforced coupling beam with slab showed larger ductility and more amount of energy dissipation to be attained compared with conventionally reinforced coupling beam.
Properties of Physical and Surface Glossing of Exposed Concrete with the Contents of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 92~99
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.092
This paper is Intended to investigate physical properties and surface glossing of exposed concrete incorporating granulated blast furnace slag(BS). According to test results there is no remarkable variations in fluidity and air content with increase of BS, but unit weight shows decline tendency Compressive strength at later age gains considerably due to potential hydraulicity reaction of BS. It shows that drying shrinkage increases. It is found that low W/B, surface coating and high BS content lead to favorable effects on the surface glossing of exposed concrete because of filling effects on the voids of the concrete. It is improved by about 7 ％ with increase every 10 ％ of BS content. The effects of form pannel kinds on the improvement of surface glossing are in order for acryl, fancy, steel and wood.
Resistance In Chloride ion Penetration and Pore Structure of Concrete Containing Pozzolanic Admixtures
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 100~109
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.100
Significant damage to concrete results from the intrusion of corrosive solutions, for example, dissolved chlorides corrode reinforcing steel and cause spatting. Effectively blocks the penetration of these solutions will eliminate or greatly reduce this damage and lead to increased durability. This study is to investigate the effects of pozzolanic admixtures, fly ash and silica fume, and a blast furnace slag on the chloride ion penetration of concretes. The main experimental variables wore the water-cementitious material ratios, the types and amount of admixtures, and the curing time. And it is tested for the porosity and pore size distributions of cement paste, chloride ion permeability based on electrical conductance, and 180-day ponding test for chloride intrusion. The results show that the resistance of concrete to the penetration of chloride ions increases as the w/c was decreased, and the increasing of curing time. Also, concrete with pozzolans exhibited higher resistance to chloride ion penetration than the plain concrete. The significant reduction in chloride ion permeability(charge passed) of concrete with pozzolans due to formation of a discontinuous macro-pore system which inhibits flow. It is shown that there is a relationship between chloride ion permeability and depth of chloride ion penetration of concrete, based on the pore structure (porosity and pore size distributions) of cement paste.
Theoretical Assessment of Limit Strengthening Ratio of Bridge Deck Based on the Failure Characteristic
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 110~117
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.110
In a strengthened bridge deck which received increased service loads, failure patterns of bridge deck vary depending on deck thickness, compressive strength of concrete, yielding strength of reinforcement, reinforcement ratio and additional strengthening ratio. General failure pattern that is most commonly reported as punching shear failure after the main rebar yields, followed by yielding of distributing rebar. In this paper, by Proposing a limit to the amount of strengthening material, a brittle failure can be prevented and a ductile failure mode similar to that developed in unstrengthened deck is derived. In order to calculated the limit strengthening ratio, the yield line theory and previously proposed plastic punching shear model have been used
Mathematical Modeling of Degree of Hydration and Adiabatic Temperature Rise
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 118~125
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.118
Hydration is the main reason for the growth of the material properties. An exact parameter to control the chemical and physical process is not the time, but the degree of hydration. Therefore, it is reasonable that development of all material properties and the formation of microstructure should be formulated in terms of degree of hydration. Mathematical formulation of degree of hydration is based on combination of reaction rate functions. The effect of moisture conditions as well as temperature on the rate of reaction is considered in the degree of hydration model. This effect is subdivided into two contributions: water shortage and water distribution. The former is associated with the effect of W/C ratio on the progress of hydration. The water needed for progress of hydration do not exist and there is not enough space for the reaction products to form. The tatter is associated with the effect of free capillary water distribution in the pore system. Physically absorption layer does not contribute to progress of hydration and only free water is available for further hydration. In this study, the effects of chemical composition of cement, W/C ratio, temperature, and moisture conditions on the degree of hydration are considered. Parameters that can be used to indicate or approximate the real degree of hydration are liberated heat of hydration, amount of chemically bound water, and chemical shrinkage, etc. Thus, the degree of heat liberation and adiabatic temperature rise could be determined by prediction of degree of hydration.
Failure Behavior and Separation Criterion for Strengthened Concrete Members with Steel Plates
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 1, 2002, Pages 126~135
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.1.126
Plate bonding technique has been widely used in strengthening of existing concrete structures, although it has often a serious problem of premature falure such as interface separation and rip-off. However, this premature failure problem has not been well explored yet especially in view of local failure mechanism around the interface of plate ends. The purpose of the present study is, therefore, to identify the local failure of strengthened plates and to derive a separation criterion at the interface of plates. To this end, a comprehensive experimental program has been set up. The double lap pull-out tests considering pure shear force and half beam tests considering combined flexure-shear force were performed. The main experimental parameters include plate thickness, adhesive thickness, and plate end arrangement. The strains along the longitudinal direction of steel plates have been measured and the shear stress were calculated from those measures strains. The effects of plate thickness, bonded length, and plate end treatment have been also clarified from the present test results. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been performed and compared with test results. The Interface properties are also modeled to present the separation failure behavior of strengthened members. The cracking patterns as well as maximum failure loads agree well with test data. The relation between maximum shear and normal stresses at the interface has been derived to propose a separation failure criterion of strengthened members. The present study allows more realistic analysis and design of externally strengthened flexural member with steel plates.