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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Strength Estimation Model of Early-Age Concrete Considering Degree of Hydration and Porosity
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 137~147
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.137
Maturity models involving curing temperature and curing ages have been widely used to predict concrete strength, which can accurately estimate concrete strength. However, they may not consider physical quantities such as the characteristics of hydrates and the capillary porosity of microstructures associated with strength development. In order to find out the effects of both factors on a strength increment, the hydration model and the estimation method of the amount of capillary porosity were established, and the compressive strength test of concrete nth various water/cement ratios was carried out considering two test parameters, curing temperature and curing age. In this study, by analyzing the experimental results, a strength estimation model for early-age concrete that can consider the microstructural characteristics such as hydrates and capillary porosity was proposed. Measured compressive strengths were compared with estimated strengths and good agreements were obtained. Consequently, the proposed strength model can estimate compressive strength of concrete with curing age and curing temperature within an acceptable error.
Moisture Sensitivity and Aging Effects of Recycled Wastepaper fiber Cement Composites
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 148~155
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.148
This research investigates the moisture and aging effects of wastepaper fiber-cement composites. Wastepaper fibers is obtained by a dry process. Wastepaper fiber-cement composites was manufactured by the hatscheck process. The effects of moisture and aging on the performance of wastepaper fiber-cement composites were investigated through accelerated laboratory tests simulating the effects of moisture sensitivity and wet-dry cycles as well as freeze-thaw cycles and long-term drying. They were shown to possess acceptable moisture and aging performance compared with virgin fiber cement composites.
Flexural Behaviors of High Performance Hollow Core Slabs with Upper Strands
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 156~163
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.156
Hollow core slabs generally have not been used for a bridge or a parking slab in Korea. In this study, high performance hollow core slabs, which have been the most thick one in domestic are re-designed and examined for practical use. Flexural tests were performed on four 315mm deep hollow core slabs to investigate adaptability for high vehicle live loadings and composite action with topping concrete. The precast slabs were pre-tensioned with ten strands of 1/2 inch diameter at the lower of slab and four strands of 1/2 inch diameter at the upper of slab, and cast with 80 mm deep topping concrete. Tested hollow core slabs showed ductile failure behaviors which were conformed to the current Ultimate Strength Design Method for a span of 10m up to the live load of 1,000 kgf/㎡. The rectangular md round shear cotters which were used for the composite action between precast and topping concrete, developed sufficient strengths because cracking, even micro had not been developed at the end of slabs up to the pure flexural tensile failure.
Strength and Durability of Polymer-Modified Mortars Using Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 164~170
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.164
Effect of the polymer-binder ratio and slag content on the properties of combined wet/dry-cured polymer-modified mortars using granulated blast-furnace slag are examined. Results shows that the flexural and compressive strengths of polymer-modified mortar using the slag tend to increase with increasing slag content, and reaches a maximum at a slag content of 40 ％, and is inclined to increase with increasing polymer-binder ratio. Water absorption, carbonation depth and chloride ion penetration depth tend to decrease with increasing polymer-binder ratio and slag content. Accordingly, the incorporation of slag into polymer-modified mortars at a slag content of 40％ is recommended for a combined wet/dry curing regardless of the types of polymer.
Relation of Deflection of Prestressed Concrete Members to Unbonded Tendon Stress and Effects of Various Parameters
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 171~179
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.171
This paper is a part of research series for the verification of the proposed Moon/Lim design equation. An analytical study was performed to examine the relation between the flexural behavior and the unbonded tendon stress of PSC members. The strain compatibility assumption was used in this study since previous studies showed that the stress variations of tendon had a close relation with the member displacements. The proposed equation has been developed with the same assumption of strain compatibility. Therefore the analytical procedure with the strain compatibility assumption was developed to compute the member displacements of previous tests. Then the analytical results were compared with tests results. The comparison showed that the strain compatibility assumption can be properly applicable to the design equation. Based on the analytical results, the relation between the tendon stress and the member flexural behavior at ultimate was examined. A parametric study also carried out with regard to the member displacements. As results, the parameters used for the proposed equation were proven to be proper for the computation of tendon stress.
Pseudo Dynamic Test for the Seismic Performance Enhancement of Circular RC Bridge Piers Retrofitted with Fibers
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 180~189
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.180
The objective of this experimental research is to assess the seismic performance of circular RC bridge pier specimens retrofitted with fibers which were designed as a prototype of Hagal bridge in the city of Suwon, Korea. Pseudo dynamic test has been done for four(4) test specimens which were nonseismically or seismically designed by the related provisions of the Korea roadway bridge design specification, and four nonseisemic test specimens retrofitted with fibers in the plastic hinge region. Glass and carbon fiber sheets were used for the seismic capacity enhancement of circular test specimens. Important test parameters were confinement steel ratio, load pattern, and retrofitting. The seismic behavior has been analyzed through the displacement ductility, energy analysis, and capacity spectrum. Approximate 7.7 ∼8.7 displacement ductility was observed for nonseismic test specimens retrofitted with fibers subjected to Korea Highway Cooperation artificial earthquake motions. It is concluded that these retrofitted test specimens could have sufficient seismic capacity in the region of moderate seismic zone.
Physical Properties of Polymer Modified Mortar Containing FRP Wastes Fine Powder
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 190~198
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.190
In this research the physical properties of polymer modified mortar containing pulverized FRP(Fiber-Reinforced Plastics) wastes fine powder as a part of fine aggregate were investigated. Styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR) latex, polyacrylic ester(PAE) emulsion and ethylene-vinyl acetate(EVA) emulsion were used as Polymer modifier. Polymer modified mortars containing FRP wastes fine powder were prepared with various FRP wastes fine powder replacement(5∼30 wt％) for fine aggregate and polymer-cement ratios(5∼20 wt％). The water-cement ratio, water absorption rates and hot water immersion test, compressive and flexural strengths of polymer modified mortars were tested and the results compared to those of ordinary portland cement mortar. As the results, compressive and flexural strengths of polymer modified mortar containing FRP wastes fine powder depend on the contents of FRP wastes fine powder, type and additional amounts of polymer modifier. Some of them showed higher compressive and flexural strengths than those of ordinary portland cement mortar. Especially, SBR-modified mortar showed the highest strengths properties among three types of polymer modifier. Also water absorption rates, compressive and flexural strengths of SBR-modified mortar were more superior than those of PAE or EVA-modified mortar. The optimum mix proportions of SBR-modified mortar was 20 wt％ of polymer-cement ratio and 20 wt％ of FRP wastes fine powder replacement. Otherwise heat cured polymer modified mortar accelerated the improvement of early compressive and flexural strengths.
Seismic Behaviors of OMRCF Columns
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 199~206
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.199
The objective of this study is to investigate the seismic behavior and evaluate structural performance of columns in Ordinary Moment Resting Concrete Frames (OMRCF). For this purpose 3 story OMRCF building was designed and detailed in compliance to ACI 318 (1999). Only gravity load is considered for the design. It is important to note that details strongly relate to the structural performance. The 1st story columns in the 3 story building are considered in this study since 다lese columns shall resist the largest axial and lateral forces during an earthquate. Four test specimens were made for representing the upper part and lower part of exterior and interior columns. All specimens are two-third scale. Based on the test results this study estimates deformation, ductility, strength, and energy absorption capacities as well as plastic hinge length.
Physical Properties of Foamed Concrete up In the Manufacturing Waste Expanded Poly-Styrene
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 207~215
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.207
This study is focusing on mixing the foamed concrete incorporated by waste expanded polystyrene(W-EPS), investigating the physical properties and offering a proper quality control method to the field engineers. Two types of W-EPS (type A and type B) were studied. Type A (B) had globular (crushed) shape and diameter of 3-5 (1-2) mm. The results show that the flow was suddenly reduced with increasing mixing quantity of two types, but it satisfies KS F 4039 until 60 ％ of mixing rate. In general, the absorption rate was suddenly reduced with increased mixing quantity of two types especially, in type A. Apparent specific gravity was 0.36∼0.53 and reduced with increasing mixing quantify of type A. But it increased in case of type B. Compressive strength and heat conduction rate increased with mixing with W-EPS than non-mixing W-EPS but reduced with mixing too much W-EPS. Based ong the results, it is believed that mixing with W-EPS can improve the recycle of industrial wastes and produce the high quality foamed concrete.
Flexural Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with Steel Strand and Carbon Fiber Sheet
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 216~222
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.216
With deterioration of the nation`s infrastructure comes the growing, need for effective means of rehabilitating structures. Possibly one for the most challenging tasks is to upgrade the overall capacity of concrete structure. Therefore, considerable efforts are still being made to develop new construction materials. Rehabilitation of damaged RC structures occasionally requires the removal and replacement of concrete in the tension zone of the structural members. Typical situation where the tension zone repair is necessary is when the concrete in the tension zone in beams or slabs has spalled off as a result of corrosion in the bottom reinforcing bars or due to extensive fire. The rehabilitation of such conditions normally involves the removal of the concrete beyond the reinforcement bars, cleaning or replacing the tensile bars and reinstatement of concrete to cover the steel bars the original shape and size. This study focused on the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by steel strand and carbon fiber sheet in the tension zone. The properties of beams are 15
25 cm rectangular and over a 200cm span. Test parameters in this experimental study were strengthening methods, jacking volume, the number of sheet. We investigated the flexural behavior of simply supported RC beams which are strengthened with the carbon fiber sheet, monotonic loads. Attention is concentrated upon overall bending capacity, deflection, ductility index, failure mode and crack development of repaired and rehabilitated beams.
Durability Characteristics and Environmental Assessment of Controlled tow-Strength Materials Using Bottom Ash
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 223~230
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.223
The main intent of this research was to determine the feasibility of utilizing recycling bottom ash as CLSM (controlled low-strength material). CLSM is a cementitious material, commonly a blend of portland cement, fly ash, sand, and water, that is usually flowable and self-leveling at the time of placement. The durability characteristics of mixtures made bottom ash we compared with those of fly ash CLSM in order to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of bottom ash as material in CLSM. A comprehensive evaluation of the bottom ash in CLSM and mix proportions indicated that the bottom ash are capable of performing as CLSM mixtures. The durability characteristic of CLSM incorporating the bottom ash under various physical and chemical causes of deterioration were investigated. Test results indicated that CLSM using bottom ash has acceptable durability performance. CLSM incorporating with bottom ash were also found to be environmentally safe.
Semi-Empirical Prediction of Crack Width of the Strengthened Bridge Deck with External Bonding Plastic
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.231
Dry shrinkage md temperature change cause to develope concrete bridge decks on main girders have initial unidirectional cracks in longitudinal or transverse direction. As they receive traffic loads, the crack gradually propagate in different directions depending on the concrete dimension and reinforcement ratio. Since existing equations that predict crack width are mostly based on the one directional bond-slip theory, it is difficult to determine the actual crack width of a bridge deck with varying the spacing of rebar or strengthening material and to estimate the improvement rate in serviceability of the strengthened bridge deck. In this study, crack propagation mechanism is identified based on the test results and a new crack prediction equation is proposed for evaluation of serviceability. Although more accurate results are derived using the proposed equation, the extent of error is increased as the strain of the rebar or the strengthening material increases after the yielding of rebar Therefore, further research is required to better predict the crack width after the rebar yields under fatigue loading condition.
Unified Constitutive Model for RC Planar Members Under Cyclic Load
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 239~248
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.239
A constitutive model unifying plasticity and crack damage mode)s was developed to address the cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete planar members. The stress of concrete in tension-compression was conceptually defined by the sum of the compressive stress developed by the strut-action of concrete and the tensile stresses developed by tensile cracking. The plasticity model with multiple failure criteria was used to describe the isotropic damage of compressive crushing affected by the anisotropic damage of tensile cracking. The concepts of the multiple fixed crack damage model and the plastic flow model of tensile cracking were used to describe the tensile stress-strain relationship of multi-directional cracks. This unified model can describe the behavioral characteristics of reinforced concrete in cyclic tension-compression conditions, i.e. multiple tensile crack orientations, progressively rotating crack damage, and compressive crushing of concrete. The proposed constitutive model was implemented to finite element analysis, and it was verified by comparison with existing experimental results from reinforced concrete shear panels and walls under cyclic load conditions.
Autogenous Shrinkage of High Performance Concrete Containing Ply Ash
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 249~256
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.249
High performance concrete is prone to large autogenous shrinkage due to its low water to binder ratio (W/B). The autogenous shrinkage of concrete is caused by self-desiccation as a result of water consumption by the hydration of cement. In this study, the autogenous shrinkage of high performance concrete with and without fly ash was Investigated. The properties of fresh concrete, slump loss, air content, and flowability as well as the mechanical properties, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, were also measured. Test results was shown that the autogenous shrinkage of concrete increased as the W/B decreased. For the same W/B, the autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete with fly ash was considerably reduced although the development of its compressive strength was delayed at early ages. Furthermore, the autogenous shrinkage and compressive strength of high strength concrete were more rapidly developed than those of normal strength concrete. It was concluded that fly ash could improve the quality of high strength concrete with respect to the workability and autogenous shrinkage.
Physical Properties of Porous Concrete Using Admixtures
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 257~265
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.257
Porous concrete has good permeability sine it contains about 10∼20 ％ of voids, had has been introduced to korea in early 1980`s. It, however, has problems such as a lack of optimized mixture, low strength and durability, and etc. It is thus Interesting to manufacture high-performance porous concrete satisfying the mechanical characteristics to be supplied In practical construction. The results of this study were as follows : the compressive strength was 132∼221 kgf/
, the splitting tensile strength was 15∼25 kgf/
, the flexural strength was 36∼54 kgf/
, and the coefficient permeability was 1.05
-1/ ∼ 9.20
-2/ cm/sec. In order to change the maximum size of aggregate, It is believed that other mixtures should be studied further.
Investigation of the Stress-Wave Propagation In Improve the Reliability of the Impact-Echo Method
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 2, 2002, Pages 266~274
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.2.266
The impact-echo test, which is to evaluate the integrity of concrete and masonry structures nondestructively, is an excellent method in the practical application. However, there are cases that the Impact-Echo testing nay result in the low reliability. In this study, the reliability of the Impact-Echo testing was investigated through the numerical simulation of the Impact-Echo testing. The finite element analysis and the analysis based on the dynamic stiffness matrix method was incorporated for the numerical simulation, in which the cases of a sandwiched shear stiffness, an incr＋easing or decreasing stiffness, and a homogeneous stiffness. Based on the results of the analysis were considered, this study proposed the approaches to Improve the reliability of the Impact-Echo testing.