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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
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Determination of Optimal Mixture Proportion of Segregation Reducing Type Superplasticizer for High Fluidity Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 275~282
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.275
High fluidity concrete needs high dosage of superplasticizer to acquire sufficient fluidity and high contents of fine powder and viscosity agents to prevent segregation. But it requires high manufacturing cost and has difficult in quality control. Therefore, in this paper, determination of optimal mixture proportion of segregation type superplasticizer for high fluidity concrete and manufacturing high fluidity concrete by applying developed segregation reducing type superplasticizer are discussed using flowing concrete method. According to test results, as dosage of superplasticizer increases, it shows that fluidity and bleeding increase, while air contents and ratio of segregation resistance decrease. It also shows that adding viscosity agent into it reduce bleeding and improve segregation resistance. Dosage of AE agent into it containing viscosity agent recovers loss of air contents during flowing procedure. Combination of proper contents of superplasticizer, viscosity agent and AE agent make possible to develope segregation reducing type superplasticizer Compressive strength of high fluidity concrete applying flowing method with it is higher than that of base concrete. No differences of compressive strength between compacting methods are found.
Toughness Improvement of Unsaturated Polyester Mortars Blended with Polyurethane Liquid Rubber
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 283~290
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.283
Generally polymer mortar and concrete using unsaturated polyester resin has high strengths and good chemical resistance. However it also has high brittleness and because of this reason, it is not used for the purpose that demands high resistance to impact. The purpose of this study is to improve the brittleness of unsaturated polyester mortar(UPE mortar) which could be used for the flooring material with recycled aggregates and UPE. Polyurethane liquid rubber(PU) and recycled aggregates were used to complement the brittleness and to recycle the resources respectively. The characteristics of mortar were investigated according to the molecular weight and substitution rate of PU. As the molecular weight and PU substitution rate were increased, the viscosity was increased, working life became fast and curing shrinkage was reduced. Compressive and flexural strengths were also reduced but tile brittleness was improved. Therefore, it is seemed that the improved WE mortar could be obtained by using polyurethane liquid rubber with the polyol of molecular weight 2000, 3000.
System Development for Analysis and Compensation of Column Shortening of Reinforced Concrete Tell Buildings
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 291~298
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.291
Recently, construction of reinforced concrete tall buildings is widely increased according to the improvement of material quality and design technology. Therefore, differential shortenings of columns due to elastic, creep, and shrinkage have been an important issue. But it has been neglected to predict the Inelastic behavior of RC structures even though those deformations make a serious problem on the partition wall, external cladding, duct, etc. In this paper, analysis system for prediction and compensation of the differential column shortenings considering time-dependent deformations and construction sequence is developed using the objected-oriented technique. Developed analysis system considers the construction sequence, especially time-dependent deformation in early days, and is composed of input module, database module, database store module, analysis module, and analysis result generation module. Graphic user interface(GUI) is supported for user's convenience. After performing the analysis, the output results like deflections and member forces according to the time can be observed in the generation module using the graphic diagram, table, and chart supported by the integrated environment.
Strength Development and Permeability of Latex-Modified Concrete with Rapid-Setting Cement
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 299~306
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.299
The purpose of this research was to develop a rapid setting cement latex modified concrete (RSLMC) for bridge deck repairing and overlaying. The main experimental variables were latex contents, antifoamer contents and water-cement ratioes. The workability, strength development and permeability were measured as responses. The results showed that latex content increased the slump and reduced the unit water required for same workability. The air contents were measured as 8.0∼9.0％ and 2.0∼3.0％ without antifoamer and with 1.6∼3.2％ of antifoamer, respectively. This resulted in the increment of compressive strength development by 10∼20 ％. The flexural strength of RSLMC increased greatly as the latex content increased, but not in compressive strength. The compressive strength and flexural strength developed enough for opening the overlayed RSLMC to the traffic after 3 hours of RSLMC placement. The permeability of RSLMC was evaluated as negligible due to its very low charge passed. Thus, RSLMC could be used at repairing or overlaying the concrete bridge deck at fast-track job sites.
Freeze and Thaw Durability of Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 307~314
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.307
Utilization of demolished-concrete as recycled aggregate has been researched for the purpose of substituting for insufficient natural aggregate, saving resources and protecting environment. There, however, are some Problems not only the large difference of dualities in recycled aggregates but also a little deterioration of mechanical properties in recycled aggregate concrete in comparison with that of natural aggregate concrete. In this study, the test results of freez and thaw durability of concrete with demolished-concrete recycled aggregate(DRA) arc as follows. Improvement of crushing process is an important assignment because that adhered mortar on source-concrete recycled aggregate(SRA) and DRA highly affects thc qualifies of recycled aggregate. The compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete was not highly different in comparison with that of control concrete. But the resistance to penetration of Cl in recycled aggregate concrete was shown smaller than that of control concrete because of adhered mortar on recycled aggregate. The resistance to frcezing and thawing of recycled aggregate concrete was highly different due to adhered mortar on recycled aggregate, and durability factor of concrete with NA-SRA and DRA was more decreased than that of control concrete. On the other hand, durability factor of concrete with AA-SRA was larger than that of control concrete. It, therefore, is necessarily required that recycled aggregate including adequate entrained air should be used for satisfying the freez and thaw durability of recycled aggregate concrete.
Strength Properties of SBR-Modified Concretes Using Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.315
The effects of slag content and polymer-binder ratio on the strength properties of the polymer-modified concretes using ground granulated blast-furnace slag and a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex are examined. As a result, the compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of the SBR-modified concretes using slag increase with increasing polymer-binder ratio and slag content, and maximized at a slag content of 40 ％. In particular, the SBR-modified concretes with a slag content of 40 ％ provide approximately two times higher tensile and flexural strengths than unmodified concretes. Such high strength development is attributed to the high tensile strength of SBR polymer and the improved bond between cement hydrates and aggregates because of the addition of SBR latex.
Shear Capacity of Composite Basement Walls
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 321~330
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.321
This paper presents the experimental results of composite basement wall in which H-pile and reinforced concrete wall are combined using shear connector Twelve specimens are tested to evaluate the shear capacity of the wall. Main variables in the test are composite ratio, distribution of shear connector, thickness of wall, shear-span ratio, and shear reinforcement. Test results indicate that the shear capacity of test specimens varies with the foregoing variables except the composite ratio. The results are compared with strengths predicted using the equations of ACI 318-99, Zsutty, and Bazant. Based on this investigation, a method for predicting the shear strength of composite basement walls is proposed.
Analysis of Axial Restrained Behavior of Early-Age Concrete Using Sea-Sand
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 331~340
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.331
In this paper, finite element analysis is applied for simulation of cracks due to restraining autogenous and drying shrinkage at early-age concrete. A micro-level heat hydration model and a shrinkage prediction model along with a moisture diffusion model are adopted for the finite element analysis. Then, an axial restraint test is carried out for concrete specimens containing different amounts of chloride ions to evaluate stress development and cracking due to the restraining shrinkages at early ages. Test results show that the increase of contents of chloride ions increases restrained stress, but does not increase strength. By this increase of shrinkage strain at early-age, time to occur the crack is accelerated. Finally, stress development and cracking of concrete specimens containing different amount of chloride ions we simulated using the finite element analysis. Results of the analysis using the Proposed model are verified by comparison with test results.
Stress Analysis of Tunnel Concrete Lining for Maintenance Monitoring
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 341~348
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.341
The purpose of maintenance monitoring is to offer the objective and continuous data in order to be lasting security affirmation and best fitted maintenance of tunnel structure. Though recently the examples of maintenance monitoring which Is applied to tunnel are rapidly increasing, long-term measured monitoring actual results and rationally analysis method researches are wholly lacking. In this study, it is analyzed that the relationship of stress and reinforcement stress of concrete lining, i.e., last support materials of tunnel through regression analysis based on the monitoring result of the subway tunnel, which was accomplished the monitoring for long period, passing the weathering. Also, through the analysis of the stress and the safety of concrete lining, it is estimated that the frequency of maintenance monitoring and the in-situ application of the criteria value of management.
Properties of High-Performance Concrete Containing High - Reactivity Metakaolin
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 349~356
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.349
This research deals with the properties of fresh and hardened high-performance concrete(HPC) incorporating high-reactivity metakaolin(HRM). The properties of fresh and hardened state concrete were investigated included air content, slump flow, setting time, heat of hydration, compressive strength, resistance to chloride-ion penetration, abrasion and repeated freezing and thawing. The properties of the HRM concrete were also compared with those of the portland cement concrete and silica fume(SF) concrete. The laboratory test results indicate that HRM material can be used as a supplementary cementitious material to produce high-performance concrete.
Resistance Curves of Concrete CLWL-DCB Specimens
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 357~364
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.357
The resistance curves (R-curves) for 381 m crack extension of CLWL-DCB specimens had been determined. The average velocities of the crack extension measured with strain gages were 0.70 and 55 ㎜/sec. The measured rotation angle of the notch faces showed the existence of the singularity at least before 171 and 93 mm crack extensions for the 0.70 and 55 ㎜/sec crack velocities, respectively. The maximum slopes of the R-curves occurred between 25 and 89 ㎜ crack extensions for 0.70 ㎜/sec crack velocity and between 51 and 127 ㎜ crack extensions for 55 ㎜/sec crack velocity During the maximum slopes of the R-curves, the micro-crack localization can be expected, and faster crack velocity may form longer micro-cracking and micro-crack localizing zones. The fracture resistance of 0.70 ㎜/sec crack velocity reached a roughly constant maximum value of 143 N/m at 152 ㎜ crack extension, while that of 55 ㎜/sec crack velocity increased continuously to 245 N/m at 254 ㎜ crack extension and then decreased to the value of 0.70 ㎜/sec crack velocity. The R-curve of 55 ㎜/sec crack velocity was similar to that of the small size three-point bend test, and it showed that small size specimen or fast crack velocity could cause more brittle behavior.
Effects of Transverse Reinforcement on Flexural Strength and Ductility of High-Strength Concrete Columns
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 365~372
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.365
This experimental investigation was conducted to examine the behavior of eight a third scale columns made of high-strength concrete(HSC). The columns were subjected to constant axial load corresponding to target value of 30 percent of the column axial load capacity and a cyclic horizontal load-inducing reversed bending moment. The variables studied in this research are the volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcement(Ps=1.58, 2.25 ％), tie configuration(hoop-type, cross-type, diagonal-type) and tie yield strength(fy=5,600, 7,950 kgf/
). Test results indicated that the flexural strength of all the columns did not exceed calculated flexural capacities based on the equivalent concrete stress block used in current design code. Columns with 42 percent higher amounts of transverse reinforcement than that required by seismic provisions of ACI 318-99 were shown ductile behavior. With axial load of 30 percent of the axial load capacity, the use of high-strength steel as transverse reinforcement may lead to equal or higher ductility than would be achieved with low-strength steel.
Optimization for the Least Weight, Precast Prestressed Gerber′s U-Beams
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 373~381
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.373
The cost on transmission and erection of the precast prestressed concrete members largely depends on the weight of them. Optimum process is performed on a U-beam section to control the prestressing force, to reduce the self-weight, and to meet the required strength and stability. The strength, deflection, and concrete stress at the top and bottom of the section considered are required to check according to each construction step in this process. The weight of the original rectangular concrete beam could be reduced up to 39∼50％ from this method. Two full scale prototype U-beams were proposed and tested in this study. It was found that the U-beams in the test showed good performance in strength and serviceability within the limits of ultimate strength design method.
Evaluation of Thermal and Shrinkage Stresses in Hardening Concrete Considering Early-Age Creep Effect
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 382~391
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.382
This study is devoted to the problems of thermal and shrinkage stresses in order to avoid cracking at early ages. The early-age damage induced by volume change has great influence on the long-term structural performance of the concrete structures such as its durability and serviceability To solve this complex problem, the computer programs for analysis of thermal and shrinkage stresses were developed. In these procedures, numerous material models are needed and the realistic numerical models have been developed and validated by comparison with relevant experimental results in order to solve practical problems. A framework has been established for formulation of material models and analysis with 3-D finite element method. After the analysis of the temperature, moisture and degree of hydration field in hardening concrete structure, the stress development is determined by incremental structural formulation derived from the principle of virtual work. In this study, the stress development is related to thermal and shrinkage deformation, and resulting stress relaxation due to the effect of early-age creep. From the experimental and numerical results it is found that the early-age creep p)ays important role in evaluating the accurate stress state. The developed analysis program can be efficiently utilized as a useful tool to evaluate the thermal and shrinkage stresses and to find measures for avoiding detrimental cracking of concrete structures at early ages.
Simple Method of Analysis of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Slab
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 392~401
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.392
The results of analysis of simply supported reinforced concrete slab by special orthotropic plate theory have been reported. This method, however, may be too difficult for some practising engineers. In this paper, the result of analysis of such a plate by means of the beam theory with unit width is reported. By using the "correction factor", the accurate solution for the plate can be obtained by the beam theory. The plate aspect ratio considered is from 1 : 1 to 1 ：6
fundamental Properties of Water-Permeable Polymer-Modified Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 402~408
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.402
The permeable polymer-modified concrete has a lot of internal voids, which has more excellent performance in permeability and durability than asphalt and cement concrete. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to ascertain the strength properties of water-permeable polymer concretes with SBR latex and redispersible polymer powder. The water-permeable polymer concretes using SBR latex and redispersible polymer powder with water-binder ratio of 29 ％, polymer-cement ratios of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ％ are prepared, and tested for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, water permeablility. From the test results, improvements in the strength properties of the water-permeable polymer concretes due to the addition of the SBR latex and redispersible polymer powder are discussed.
A Study for Improving Properties of Antiwashout Underwater Concrete Mixed with Mineral Admixtures
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 409~419
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.409
Nowadays, antiwashout underwater concrete is widely used for constructing underwater concrete structures but they, especially placed in marine environment, can be easily attacked by chemical ions such as SO
-/ and Mg
2＋/, so the quality and capability of concrete structures go down. In this paper, to solve and improve those matters, flyash and GGBFS(ground granulated blast furnace slag) were used as partial replacements for ordinary portland cement. As results of experiments for fundamental properties of antiwashout underwater concrete containing 10, 20, 30％ of flyash and 40, 50, 60 ％ of GGBFS respectively, setting time, air contents, suspended solids and pH value were satisfied with the "Standard Specification of Antiwashout Admixtures for Concrete" prescribed by KSCE, and also slump flow, efflux time and elevation of head were more improved than that of control concrete. From the compressive strength test, it was revealed that the antiwashout underwater concrete containing mineral admixtures(flyash and GGBFS) is more effective for long term compressive strength than control concrete. An attempt to know how durable when they are under chemical attack has also been done by immersing in chemical solutions that were x2 artificial seawater, 5 ％ sulphuric acid solution, 10％, sodium sulfate solution and 10％ calcium chloride solution. After immersion test for 91days, XRD analysis was carried out to investigate the reactants between cement hydrates and chemical ions and some crystalline such as gypsum ettringite and Fridel′s salt were confirmed.
A Study for Recycling CO
Silicate Bonded Waste Foundry Sand as Fine Aggregate for Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 420~429
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.420
The amount of
-silicate bonded waste foundry sand(WFS) occurred in Korea is over 800,000 ton per year. WFS, as a by-product, is generated through manufacturing process of foundry may affect our environmental contamination, The reason is that WFS has been buried itself not less than 90％ out of total WFS. So, it can give damage on the ground of contamination in soil and underwater. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the method recycling WFS because of being intensified waste management law. In this study, we performed the research with respect to harmful component analysis, the qualities of WFS mortar and concrete mixed with WFS. As the results the specific gravity of WFS is the same as that of natural aggregate while unit weight and percentage of solids of WFS are smaller than those of it. But it is found that WFS can be used by substituting WFS for natural aggregate after control of poor grade of WFS. The flowability of mortar and concrete with WFS is inferior to those of natural aggregate, and the setting time of concrete with WFS is faster than that with only natural aggregate, On the contrary, the bleeding of concrete with WFS is shown good result, and compressive and tensile strength of concrete substituted WFS for 30％ are higher than those with only natural aggregate regardless of elapsed time.
Pullout Test of Reinforcement with End Mechanical Anchoring Device
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 430~439
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.430
The development of reinforcing steel is required in reinforced concrete structures. The standard hooks that have been widely used for the tensile development in the beam-column joints tend to create difficulties of construction such as steel congestion as the member cross sections are becoming smaller due to the use of higher strength concrete and higher grade steel. Using the reinforcing bars with end mechanical anchoring device (headed reinforcement) provides potential economies in construction such as reduction in development lengths, simplified details, and improved responses to cyclic loadings. In this paper, the pullout strengths and behaviors of the headed reinforcement were experimentally studied. In 33 pullout tests performed using D25 deformed reinforcing bars, the test parameters were embedment depth, edge distance, head size, and the use of transverse reinforcement. The pullout strengths determined from tests closely agreed with the pullout strengths predicted using the CCD method. The pullout strengths increased with increasing embedment depths nd edge distances. The strengths tend to increase with the use of larger heads. From the experimental program where the effect of the transverse reinforcement was examined, a modification factor to the CCD was suggested to represent the effect of such reinforcement that is installed across the concrete failure plane on the pullout strengths.
Expansion Properties of Mortar Using Waste Glass and Industrial By-Products
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 3, 2002, Pages 440~448
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.3.440
Waste glass has been increased with the development of industry. The utilization of waste glass for concrete can cause the concrete to be cracked and to be weakened due to an expansion by alkali-silica reaction(ASR). In this study, ASR expansion and properties of strength were analyzed in terms of waste glass color(amber, emerald-green), industrial by-products(ground granulated blast-furnace slag, fly ash), and the content of industrial by-products for reducing ASR expansion caused by the waste glass. The possibility of using glass ground as pozzolanic properties was also analyzed. From the result of this study, the pessimum size of waste glass was 2.5∼1.2 mm regardless of waste glass color. And the smaller than 2.5∼1.2 mm waste glass is, the more decreasing expansion of ASR is. Also, the combination of waste glass with industrial by-products have an effect on reducing the expansion and strength loss caused by ASR between the alkali in the cement paste and the silica in the waste glass, and the glass ground of less than 0.075 mm is applicable as a pozzolanic material.