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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
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Hydration of Expansive Materials with CSA-System
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 631~637
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.631
This paper deals with hydration properties of the OPC with CSA-system expansive materials. In OPC using CSA, that was formed monosulfate for the main part. but In OPCs using CSA and gypsum, using CSA and gypsum and lime, that were formed ettringite for the main part. On the shrinkage ratio, the former is larger than the latter And CSA-system with gypsum and lime is smallest of all systems. According to dimension of shrinkage ratios are as follows; OPC using CSA only＞ OPC only＞ OPC using CSA and gypsum＞ OPC using CSA, gypsum and lime. And "R"s are 0.32, 0.37, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8 each others. In OPC with CSA-system expansive materials, we know that expansive properties were depend upon the value of "R". "R" means supplying quantities about demanding quantities for ettringite. In the case of expansive materials with CSA-system and lime, it is to be rich Ca(OH)
in the solution. so, it is formed small ettringite as the needle shapes. they are contribute to expansive.
Stress Block of High Strength Polymer Concrete Flexural Members
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 638~644
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.638
The stress-strain relationship of polymer concrete flexural member was evaluated using C-shaped polyester concrete specimen, the compressive strength of which is 1400 kgf/
. Eccentric compression test was performed to estimate the parameters,
for equivalent rectangular stress block. The ultimate moment strength ware obtained from the bending test on reinforced polymer concrete beams which were prepared with S different tensile steel ratios with a shear span ratio of 4.0. These values were compared with theoretical ultimate moment strengths, which were obtained using the parameters
1=0.73 from stress-stain curves of C-shaped specimens. The results showed that, when tensile steel ratio was over 0.50
b, the experimentally obtained moment strengths were well matched with theoretically calculated values. In order to develop accurate criteria for polymer concrete flexural members, however, many other expermental studies for parameter determination are necessary using C-shaped specimens which have various compressive strengths and different sizes.
Effect of Bond Length and Web Anchorage on Flexural Strength in RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP Plate
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 645~652
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.645
This paper presents the flexural behavior and strengthening effect of reinforced concrete beams bonded with carbon FRP plate. Parameters involved in this experimental study were plate bond length and sheet web anchorage length. Test beams were strengthened with FRP plate on the soffit and anchored with FRP sheet on the web. In general, strengthened beams with no web anchorage were failed by concrete cover failure along the longitudinal reinforcement. On the other hand, strengthened beams with web anchorage were finally failed by delamination shear failure within concrete after breaking of CFRP sheet wrapping around web. The ultimate load and deflection of strengthened beams increased with an increased bond length of FRP plate. Also, the ultimate load and deflection increased with an increased anchorage length of FRP sheet. Particularly, the strengthened beams with web anchorage maintained high ultimate load resisting capacity until very large deflection. The shape of strain distribution of CFRP plate along beam was very similar to that of bending moment diagram. Therefore, an assumption of constant shear stress in shear span could be possible in the analysis of delamination shear stress of concrete. In the case of full bond length, the ultimate resisting shear stress provided by concrete and FRP sheet Increased with an increase of web anchorage length. In the resisting shear force, a portion of the shear force was provided by FRP anchorage sheet.
Punching Shear Strength of Prestressed Precast Concrete Deck
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 653~659
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.653
Recently, the failure case of the bridge deck slabs have been increasing in Korea and it was observed that the failure modes of most deck slabs collapsed were not caused by flexural moment but by local punching shear. The main reason of the failures was the punching shear failure of deck slabs under heavy truck traffics. This paper presents test results obtained from punching shear tests performed on prestressed precast deck specimens. Cracking patterns, failure modes, deflections, and stresses are included as well as discussion of the punching shear strength observed during punching shear tests. Static lest specimens had punching shear failures at loads much higher than predicted by the current codes. Tests results indicate that current code provisions appear to be conservative.
Durability of Ultrarapid-Hardening Polymer-Modified Mortar Using Redispersible Polymer Powder
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 660~667
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.660
The effects of polymer-cement ratio and antifoamer content on the durability of ultrarapid-hardening polymer-modified mortars using redispersible polymer powder are examined. As a result, regardless of the antifoamer content, the setting time of the ultrarapid-hardening polymer-modified mortars using redispersible polymer powder tend to delay with increasing polymer-cement ratio. The water absorption and chloride ion penetration depth of the ultrarapid-hardening polymer-modified mortars using redispersible polymer powder decrease with increasing polymer-cement ratio and antifoamer content. The resistance of freezing and thawing and chemicals improvement is attributed to the improved bond between cement hydrates and aggregates because of the incorporation of redispersible polymer powder
Theoretical Analysis of Interface Debonding on the Strengthened RC Bridge Decks
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 668~676
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.668
Especially, when orthotropic material such as uni-dierectionally woven Carbon Fiber Sheet, resisting only the unidirectional tension, is used to strengthening bridge deck, the direction and width of the strengthening material should be considered very carefully. Thus, analysis of the failure characteristics and the premature failure mechanism of the strengthened decks based on the test results are required. In this study, the premature failure due to the interface debonding of strengthening material of the strengthened deck slab are inquired into failure mechanism through both experiments results and analyses with prototype strengthened deck specimens using carbon fiber sheet. From the test results, interface debonding of strengthening material is occured at the crack face
Modeling and Parametric Studies on Moment-Curvature Relation of a Reinforced Concrete Column Subject In Axial-toad and Bi-Axil Moment
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 677~688
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.677
A analytical model is developed which can simulate a complete inelastic biaxial moment-curvature relations of a reinforced concrete column. The model can simulate sudden drop in moment capacity after peak moment and due to spalling of cover concrete. Parametric studies are performed examine the effects of constituent material properties as well as topological arrangement of reinforcements on moment-curvature relations and P-M interaction curve. It has been analytically observed that ductility of a reinforced concrete column is influenced mostly by magnitude of the axial load and spacings or the volume of lateral reinforcements. Compared to ACI P-M interaction curve, overall increase about 10％ in square root of sum of squares of axial force and moment, and about 20％ in peak load are observed for the columns reinforced according to ACI seismic design code.
Dynamic Fracture Behaviors of Concrete Three-Point Bend Specimens
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 689~697
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.689
The dynamic loads and load-point displacements of concrete three-point bend (TPB) specimens had been measured. The average crack velocities measured with strain gages were 0.16 ㎜/sec ∼ 66 m/sec. The fracture energy for crack extension was determined from the difference of the kinetic energy for the load-point velocity and the strain energy without permanent deformation from the measure external work. For all crack velocities, there were micro-cracking for 23 ㎜ crack extension, stable cracking for 61 ㎜ crack extension at the maximum strain energy, and then unstable cracking. The unstable crack extension was arrested at 80 ㎜ crack extension except the tests of 66 m/sec crack velocity. The tests less than 13 ㎜/sec crack velocity and faster than 1.9 m/sec showed static and dynamic fracture behaviors, respectively. In spite of much difference of the load and load-point displacement relations for the crack velocities, the crack velocities of dynamic tests did not affect on fracture energy rate during the stable crack extension due to the reciprocal action of kinetic force, crack extension and strain energy. During stable crack extension, the maximum fracture resistances of the dynamic tests was 147％ larger than that of the static tests.
Strength Properties of High-Strength Concrete Exposed at High Temperature
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 698~707
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.698
A review is presented of experimental studies on the strength performance of concrete exposed at short-term and rapid heating as in a fire and after cooling. Emphasis is placed on concretes with high original compressive strengths, that is, high-strength concrete(HSC). The compressive strength-temperature relationships from the reviewed test programs are distinguished by the test methods used in obtaining the data(unstressed, unstressed residual strength, and stressed tests) and by the aggregate types(normal or lightweight), The compressive strength properties of HSC vary differently with temperature than those of NSC. HSC have higher rates of strength loss than lower strength concrete in the temperature range of between 20
to about 400
. These difference become less significant at temperatures above 400
compressive strengths of HSC at 800
decrease to about 30 ％ of the original room temperature strength. A comparison of lest results with current code provisions on the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete compressive strength and elastic modulus shows that the CEN Eurocodes and the CEB provisions are unconservative.
Diffusion Characteristics of Chloride ion under Single and Combined Attacks in Concrete Structures
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 708~717
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.708
Durability is a major concern in the design and construction of concrete structures which are located in the sea environments. In particular, the combined action of chlorides, sulfates, and carbonation nay influence greatly the deterioration behavior of concrete structures. The purpose of the present study is to explore the diffusion characteristics of chloride ions in concrete structures under combined deterioration conditions. The present test results indicate that the chloride penetration into concrete structures is more pronounced under combined attacks of chlorides, sulfates and carbonation. The diffusion coefficients and surface chloride contents were found to increase under combined multiple deterioration conditions. The present study provides quantitatively the penetration and diffusion characteristics of chloride ions in concrete structures under various deterioration conditions. The results of present study may be efficiently used for the realistic design of concrete structures under combined deterioration conditions.
Development of Frictional Wall Damper and Its Analytical Applications in R/C frame Structures
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 718~725
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.718
A wall type friction damper is newly Proposed in this paper to improve the performance of R/C framed structures under earthquake loads. Although traditional dampers are usually placed as bracing members, the application ot bracing-type dampers into R/C structures is not as simple as those of steel structures due to the connection between R/C members and dampers and the stress concentration in connection region. Proposed damper is consisted of Teflon-sheet slider and R/C shear wall. The damper can also avoid stress concentration and reduce P-Δ effect. To evaluate the performance of proposed damper, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried on 10 story and 3 bay R/C structures with numerical model for the damper. It is shown that the damper reduces the inter-story drifts and the time-historic responses; especially the damper prevents from forming plastic hinges on the lower columns.
Shrinkage Stress Analysis of Concrete Slab with Shrinkage Strip in Multi-Story Building
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 726~733
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.726
Shrinkage strip or separation strip is a temporary joint that is left open for a certain time during construction to allow a significant part of the shrinkage to take place without inducing stress. A shrinkage stress analysis method of shrinkage strip in concrete slab of multi-story building considering the relaxation effect of creep and construction sequence is proposed. The analysis results of 10-story example building show that the effect of shrinkage strip can be analyzed easily by the proposed method. And shrinkage strip installed in a particular floor makes the stress of that floor reduced and the stress of the other floors increased a little. The rate and amount of stress reduced with closing time mainly depends on the development of shrinkage with time of concrete model used. The amount of stress reduced is determined by the amount of shrinkage strain developed before the closing of shrinkage strip.
Inelastic Behavior of Beam-Column Joints Composed of RC Column and RS Beams
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 734~741
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.734
An experimental study was carried out for beam-column joints composed of RC column and RS beams. The purpose of this study is to examine the inelastic seismic behavior for the RC-RS connection. Two interior and one exterior beam-column assemblies with variable moment ratios were tested. Experimental results showed that strength and deformability except stiffness were satisfactory. It is considered that the lack of stiffness was due to the slipping of steel beam from RS beam. The behavioral characteristics of the RC-RS connection were evaluated according to the quideline suggested by Hawkins et al. Nominal strength at 5 ％ joint distortion was not satisfactory, but all the other requirements, such as strength preserving capability, energy dissipation, and initial stiffness and strength ratios after peak load were satisfactory compared with the guideline. Thus it was concluded that the RC-RS connections can maintain ductility with excellent energy-dissipating capacity if being provided with appropriate reinforced structural system such as RC core wall for the initial lateral stiffness.
Effect of Foaming Agent on the Continuous Voids in Lightweight Cellular Concrete
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 742~749
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.742
This study was performed to clarify the formation procedure of continuous voids in cellular concrete, and to examine the effect of a foaming agent on the manufacture of cellular concrete with continuous voids. By the experiments, it was determined that cellular concrete to be formed with continuous voids is influenced by temperature, viscosity and flowability of cement paste, and stability of air voids, and is formed in accordance with cohesion of air voids. It was also found that separate voids are formed at an added amount of air voids corresponding to 2 ％ or less of the amount of cement, whereas an antifoaming phenomenon occurs when the added amount of air voids exceeds 9 ％ of the amount of cement. In products with respective cement fineness of 3,000, 6,000, and 8,000㎠/g, a higher compressive strength was exhibited at a higher cement fineness. The continuous void ratio depending on a variation in fineness was 38 ％, 52 ％, and 22 ％ in those products, respectively. That is, a highest continuous void ratio was exhibited at a cement fineness of 6,000㎠/g. When the water-cement ratio was reduced from 45％ to 25％, the compressive strength of the cellular concrete was increased from 15 kgf/㎠ to 20 kgf/㎠ Thus, the reduction in water-cement ratio was effective in achieving an increase in strength without any variation in the specific gravity of the cellular concrete.
Damage Evaluation on the Concrete Using Acoustic Emission
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 750~758
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.750
Concrete is deformed by load and subjected to micro damage under allowable deformation because of non-homogeneous property. When micro damage is accumulated, it is cracked and finally fractured. Characterization of AE can be demonstrated the micro damage which it is not discovered from visual observation, and it become known to an advantage that was clearly discriminated from the existing NDT method. This study was carried out the analysis and evaluation of concrete damage by acoustic emission technique. As a results of damage analysis, it was found out that the more concrete strength has increased, the more concrete has subjected to micro damage at lower stress ratio for chylinder specimen, and this is possible only AE method which could be described the brittle properties. Also it was revealed that the kaiser effect and felicity effect were existed in reinforced concrete bending specimens and it is found out that the onset of interface debonding between concrete and steel could be conformed in comparison with felicity ratio, AE activity and load history. From the results of this study, it was conformed that the deteriorative degree of reinforced concrete structure should be evaluated using felicity ratios.
Effect of the Prestressing Tendon Arrangement in the Wall of Circular Storage Tank
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 759~765
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.759
Prestressing tendons in the wall of circular storage tank are investigated from the viewpoint of equivalent load method. Special attention is paid to the effectiveness of eccentricities of the hoop and vertical tendons. Local effect at the bent Point of vertical tendon in the wall with varying thickness is examined. Some aspects which are frequently overlooked or misinterpreted in the conventional analyses of vertical tendons are discussed. Numerical examples are presented to emphasize the significance of accurate analysis of the vortical tendon in practice. It is expected that the equivalent load method can be effectively used to simplify the analysis of tendons in the circular wall and to minimize the errors.
Damage of Overlaid Concrete Structures Subjected to Humidity Changes in the Atmosphere
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 766~773
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.766
The failure phenomenon of overlaid concrete structures, such as surface crack, and peel-off failure, shear bond failure in the end contact zone, was investigated due to humidity changes. To investigate this failure phenomenon, the surface tensile stress, and the shear stress, the vertical tensile stress in the contact zone were analysed using the non-linear stress-strain relationship of material such as strain-hardening- and strain-softening diagrams. Overlay thickness and overlay material were the main variables in the analyses. It is assumed that the initial surface humidity of overlaid concrete structures was 100％ r.H. With a atmospheric humidity of 55％ r.H. and two load cases for drying(LCI), curing and drying(LC2), the stress states of overlaid concrete structures were calculated. The result shows that only fictitious cracks occurred in the overlay surface of CM2O, ECM25, and no shear bond failure occurred in the contact zone without CM2O. The peel-off failure was proved to be the main cause of the damage in the overlaid concrete structures. Only for overlay thickness of 1cm occurred no peel-off failure in the case of drying after a long-term public use(LC1). In the case of curing and drying during overlay work(LC2) occurred the peel-off failure within 1.5days for all the overlaid concrete structures.
Evaluation on Shear Behaviors of the Dapped Ends of Domestic Composite Double Tee Slabs under the Short-Term Loading
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 774~781
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.774
Shear behaviors of eight dapped ends of four full-scale domestic single-tee slabs were evaluated. The dapped ends with 10cm topping concrete were designed based on live load requirements for the domestic parking lot of m 500kgf/㎡ and for the large market of 1,200 kgf/㎡. All specimens were designed by the ACI 318-99 design. The variations of the experiment were the shape of hanger reinforcements as followings: 1) general PCI design method(currently used in domestic), 2) 90 degree bent-up, 3) 60 degree bent-up. All experiments were conducted with 1.2 m shear span. The results obtained in this study were 1) all specimens fully complied with the shear strength requirements as specified by ACI 318-99 except for one strand bond slip specimen, 2)a specimen with the 60 degree bent up hanger reinforcing detail showed the best shear behaviors under full service and ultimate load, and 3)a specimen with the 90 degree bent up hanger reinforcing detail resulted in the worst shear behaviors.
Estimation of Aging Effects on Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete by Non-Destructive Tests
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 782~788
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.782
Several non-destructive test methods have been developed to estimate compressive strength of concrete in other countries. However, their applications are limited in domestic concrete due to their inaccuracies. The purpose of this study is to propose an aging coefficient of compressive strength of structural concrete in rebound number method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method for domestic concrete. The test variables include type of aggregate, curing condition, and compressive strength. Two approaches are used to estimate aging coefficient. One is evaluated by uniform linear regression equation for all ages and shows uniform strength reduction coefficient regardless of material properties and the other is evaluated by individual regression equation for each ages and shows nonuniform strength reduction and rebound increasing coefficients which decrease with increasing of rebound number and compressive strength. The latter result which can include the effect of rebound number and compressive strength is more resonable than the former.
Evaluation of Chloride Bound Ratio in Cement Pastes by Pore Solution Analysis
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 789~795
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.789
To evaluate the bind rate and behavior of two types chloride ion-one is the chloride ion added in mixture when un-washed sea sand is used as fine aggregate, one is the chloride ion admitted in the new version of concrete standard specification, pore solution extracted in cement paste were analyzed. The results are follow. 1 As passing the time, the chloride concentration in the pore solution decreases with the Increase in the chloride content absorbed by the hydrate products. As compared with chloride contents in mixing water, the bound ratio of chloride at 49 days is 64∼90％. 2. The bound ratio of chloride in cement paste considering evaporable water as pore solution is obtained. In case of Pl∼P3(added chloride content wt of cement 0.046∼0.16 ％), the bound ratio of chloride is 91.8∼93.5 ％. P4(added chloride wt of cement 0.3％) is 89.1％, but P5(added chloride wt of cement 0.617％) bound is only 77％. 3. The bound ratio of chloride to wt of cement is 0.015∼0.475％ with adding chloride. In case chloride added over 0.091 ％ wt of cement, the bound chloride content increases 1.7∼1.8 times in spite of added chloride increase twice. The bound ratio of chloride to wt of cement decreased with the increase in the chloride content. 4. The more increase added chloride content, the more increase the bound ration of chloride. But the absolute value of chloride content in pore solution increased.
Evaluation of the Effective Width and Flexural Strength of the T-Stalled Walls
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 14, issue 5, 2002, Pages 796~803
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2002.14.5.796
T-shaped walls have different strength, stiffness and ductility in the two opposite directions parallel to the web when subjected to horizontal in-plane loads. When the flange is in tension, the extent that the flange reinforcement contributes to the flexural strength will be subjected to shear-lag effect. Because of this shear-lag effect, the flange may not participate fully in the action with the web, and the effective flange width is needed for predicting the actual strength and stiffness of structures. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effective flange width and actual strength of the T-shaped wall with Korean code specified detailing of the wall web. Three specimens were tested with cyclic lateral loading applied at top of the wall. A constant axial load of approximately 0.1f
g/ is maintained during the testing. Test results show that the effective flange width increases with increasing drift level, such that the entire overhanging flange of h/3 is effective at the maximum strength level. Therefore, the use of PCI or KBC(Korean Building Code) value of h/10 is unconservative with respect to detailing at the wall web boundary.