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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Properties of Eco-Construction Material Using Recycled Sewage Sludge Ash
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Lee, Jea-Ik ; Park, Seung-Kook ; Lee, Jae-Seung ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 667~676
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.667
As the 21st century began, cement and concrete that are representatives of modem building materials became a major factor in global warming, air pollution and environmental pollution. Also, the problems that are generated while pursuing high performance and high strength became social issues. Therefore, it has become urgent to prepare counter plans. This study has aimed at the recycling of sewage sludge ash and developing it as a new concept in building material which serves the environmental considerations for long-lasting developmental purpose. Also, the study aimed to find a substitute for scarce natural resources and to secure high techniques for waste recycling. The purpose of this study was also to solve fundamentally secondary environmental pollution. The results revealed that the chemical components of sewage sludge ash are mainly
which are similar to the components of pozzolan. Also, it was identified that sewage sludge ash can be utilized as a hardened specimen with an alkali activated pozzolan reaction. Considering the possibility of appropriate strength development and the advantage of drying shrinkage, compared with that of cement, it was believed that sewage sludge ash can demonstrate a function as a substitute for cement given.
An Experimental Study to Prevent Debonding Failure of RC Beams Strengthened with GFRP Sheets
You, Young-Chan ; Choi, Ki-Sun ; Kim, Keung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 677~684
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.677
This study investigates the failure mechanism of RC beams strengthened with GFRP (glass fiber reinforced polymer) sheets. After analyzing failure mechanisms, the various methods to prevent the debonding failures, such as increasing bonded length of GFRP sheets, U-shape wrappings and epoxy shear keys are examined. The bonded length of GFRP sheets are calculated based on the assumed bond strengths of epoxy resin. The U-shape wrappings are either adopted at the end or center of the CFRP sheets bonded to the beam soft. The epoxy shear keys are embedded to the beam soft to provide sufficient bond strength. The end U-wrappings and the center U-wrappings are conventional, while epoxy shear keys are new details developed in this study. A total six half-scale RC beams have been constructed and tested to investigate the effectiveness of each methods to prevent debonding failure of GFRP sheets. From the experimental results, it was found that increasing bonded length or end U-wrappings do not prevent debonding failure. On the other hand, the beams with center U-wrappings and shear keys reached an ultimate state with their sufficient performance. The center U-wrappings tended to control debonding of the longitudinal GFRP sheets because the growth of the longitudinal cracks along the edges of the composites was delayed. In the case of shear keys, it was sufficient to prevent debonding and the beam was failed by GFRP sheets rupture.
Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Members Having Different Steel Arrangements
Lee, Jung-Yoon ; Kim, Ji-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 685~692
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.685
When the shear force governs the response of an RC element, as in the case of a low-rise shear wall, the effect of shear on the element's response is thought to be responsible for the 'pinching effect' in the hysteretic loops. However, it was recently shown that this undesirable pinching effect can be eliminated in the hysteretic load-deformation curves of a shear-dominant element if the steel grid orientation is properly aligned in the direction of the applied principal stresses. In this paper, the presence and absence of the pinching mechanism in the hysteretic loops of the shear stress-strain curves of RC elements was explained rationally using a compatibility aided truss model. The analytical results indicate that the pinching effect of the RC elements is strongly related to the direction of the steel arrangement. The area of the energy dissertation does not increase proportionally to the difference between the direction of the principal compressive stress and the direction of the steel arrangement.
Concrete Maturity Method Using Variable Temperature Curing: Experimental Study
Kim, Tae-Wan ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Han, Kyung-Bong ; Park, Sun-Kyu ; Oh, Seok-Min ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 693~700
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.693
The maturity method is used to estimate the effects of time and temperature on the strength development of concrete. The purpose of this paper is to show how variable curing temperatures affect strength development for both normal and high-strength concrete using the maturity concept. The experimental results for normal-strength concrete show clearly the cross-over effect of strength development as the time of the peak temperature varied. However, this cross-over effect does not exist after the actual ages are converted to the temperature dependent equivalent age. In other words, the existing maturity method does not include the effect of varying the time to peak temperatures but instead includes the effect of the magnitude of peak temperatures. For high-strength concrete, the results were inconclusive. This fact for normal-strength concrete coincides with the ASTM stated limitation that the existing maturity method doesn't take into account the effect of early age temperature on long-term ultimate strength. The results of this 3-year study are used as a basis for an improved concrete maturity function.
Durability Characteristics of High Performance Shotcrete for Permanent Support of Large Size Underground Space
Won, Jong-Pil ; Kim, Hwang-Hee ; Jang, Chang-Il ; Lee, Sang-Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 701~706
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.701
This study evaluated the durability of high-performance shotcrete mixed in the proper proportions using alkali-free and cement mineral accelerators as a permanent support that maintains its strength for the long term. Durability tests were performed the chloride permeability, repeated freezing and thawing, accelerated carbonation, and the effects of salt environments. Test results showed that all the shotcrete mixes included silica fume had low permeability. In addition, after 300 freeze/thaw cycles, the shotcrete mix had excellent freeze/thaw resistance more than the 85% relative dynamic modulus of elasticity. The accelerated carbonation test results were no effect of accelerator type but, the depth of carbonation was greater in the shotcrete mix containing silica fume. No damage was seen in a salt environments. Therefore, the high performance shotcrete mix proportions used in this study showed excellent durability.
Effect of Micro-Cracks on Chloride Ions Penetration of Concrete II: Examination of Critical Crack Width
Yoon, In-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 707~715
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.707
The vulnerability of concrete to its environment is significantly dependent on the fact that concrete is a porous material. For well-consolidated and well-cured concrete, its service life is a very long and an entrance of aggressive substance might be only pores. However, for cracked concrete, cracks should be preferential channel for the penetration of aggressive substance such as chloride ions. The effect of crack on chloride penetration depends on its size for example, crack width and crack depth. The purpose of this study is examining the effect of crack width and crack depth on chloride penetration. In order to visualize chloride penetration via cracks, RCM (rapid chloride migration) testing is accomplished. Crack width is examined using an optical microscope and CMOD value is used to estimate average crack width. From the examination on the trend of chloride diffusion coefficients of concrete specimens with various crack widths, a critical crack width and a critical crack depth are found out.
Shear Behavior of Slender HSC Beams Reinforced with Stirrups using Headed Bars, High Strength Steels, and CFRP Bars
Yang, Jun-Mo ; Kwon, Ki-Yeon ; Choi, Hong-Shik ; Yoon, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 717~726
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.717
If conventional reinforcements are used for high-strength concrete (HSC) structures, a large amount of the reinforcement must be required to compensate for the brittleness of HSC and make the best use of HSC. This raises some structural problems such as steel congestion and an increase in self-weight. Therefore, alternative reinforcing materials and methods for HSC structures are needed. In this study, four full-scale beam specimens constructed with HSC (100 MPa) were tested to investigate the effect of the different shear reinforcements on the shear behavior. These four specimens were reinforced for shear stirrups with normal and high strength steels, headed bars, and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars, respectively. In addition, steel fibers were added to the HSC in the two of the specimens to observe their beneficial effects. The use of high strength steels resulted in the improvement of the shear capacity since the shear resistance provided by the shear reinforcements and the bond strength were increased. The specimen reinforced with headed bars also showed a superior performance to the conventional steel reinforced specimen due to the considerably high anchorage strength of headed bar. CFRP bars used in this research, however, seemed to be inadequate for shear reinforcement because of the inferior bond capacity. The presence of the steel fibers in concrete led to remarkable improvement in the ductility of the specimens as well as in the overall cracks control capability.
Application of Concentrated FRP Bars to Enhance the Capacity of Two-Way Slabs
Lee, Joo-Ha ; Yang, Jun-Mo ; Yoon, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 727~734
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.727
The influence of the differences in the physical and mechanical properties between fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) and conventional steel, concentrated reinforcement in the immediate column region, as well as using steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) in the slab near the column faces, on the punching behavior of two-way slabs were investigated. The punching shear capacity, stiffness, ductility, strain distribution, and crack control were investigated. Concentrating of the slab reinforcement and the use of SFRC in the slab enhanced the punching behavior of the slabs reinforced with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. In addition the test results of the slabs with concentrated reinforcement were compared with various code equations and the predictions proposed in the literature specifically for FRP-reinforced slabs. An appropriate method for determining the reinforcement ratio of slabs with a banded distribution was also investigated to allow predictions to properly reflect the benefit of the slab reinforcement concentration.
Ultimate Stress of Prestressing CFRP Tendons in PSC Beams Strengthened by External CFRP Prestressing
Park, Sang-Yeol ; Kim, Chang-Hoon ; Hong, Seong-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 735~744
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.735
This study deals with literature review, developing a predicting equation for the ultimate stress of prestressing (PS) CFRP, and experimental test with the parameters affecting the ultimate stress of prestressing CFRF in prestressed concrete beams strengthened by external prestressing. The ACI (American Concrete Institute) predicting equation for the ultimate stress of unbonded prestressing CFRP is analyzed to develop a new integrated predicting equation. The proposed predicting equation takes rationally the effect of internal PS steel into consideration as a function of prestressing tendon depth to neutral depth ratio. In the experimental study, prestressed concrete beams strengthened using external prestressing CFRP are tested with the test parameters having a large effect on the ultimate stress of prestressing CFRP. The test parameters includes infernal prestressing steel and external prestressing CFRP tendon reinforcement ratios, and span to depth ratio. The test results are analyzed to confirm the rationality and applicability of the proposed equation for predicting the ultimate stress of external prestressing CFRP.
Modeling of Tension Stiffening Effect Based on Nonlinear Bond Characteristics in Structural Concrete Members
Lee, Gi-Yeol ; Ha, Tae-Gwan ; Kim, Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 745~754
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.745
This paper presents a unified modeling technique for tension stiffening effect in structural concrete members. The model is mathematically derived from the bond stress-slip relationships which account for splitting crack. The relationships in CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 and Eurocode 2 are employed together with the assumptions of a linear slip distribution along the interface and the uniform condition of concrete tensile contribution for the mid section of cracked member at the stabilized cracking stage. With these assumptions, a model of tension stiffening effect is proposed by accounting for the force equilibrium and strain compatibility condition associated to the steel strain and concrete contribution by bond stress. The model is applied to the test results available in literatures, and the predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured behavior.
Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of PSC I Girder and the Effect of External Prestressing
Lee, Byeong-Ju ; Park, Jae-Guen ; Kim, Moon-Young ; Shin, Hyun-Mock ; Park, Chang-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 755~762
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.755
For the evaluation of the load carrying capacity of the deteriorated PSC I girder bridge in service load state and the verification of the grade to the reinforcement effect of actual bridge strengthened by external prestressing tendons, the field test using vehicles is applied widely. Because this teat was executed in elastic range, the investigation of the characteristics of behavior caused by live load is only available. And it is impossible to estimate load carrying capacity in limit state and nonlinear behavior after that a crack is appeared. In this study, the 27-year-old prestressed concrete girder bridge is used and various load tests are performed, so we evaluate the behavior characteristics of the bridge in service load state and ultimate load state, and estimate the load carrying capacity of bridge. In addition, the artificial damages are induced from cutting internal tendons, and external tendons is added to strengthen it as much as vanished internal tendons. Next we compare the damage state with the strengthening state. In case of the application of external prestressing method to PSC I girder bridge, the present experiment result may decide more exactly the load carrying capacity of actual bridge, the amount for reinforcement, and the standard of quality control etc. at reinforcement work.
Behaviour of One-Way Concrete Slabs Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars
Seo, Dae-Won ; Han, Byum-Seok ; Shin, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 763~771
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.763
Over the last few decades, many researches have been conducted in order to find solution to the problem of corrosion in steel reinforced concrete. As a result, methods such as the use of stainless steel bars, epoxy coatings, and concrete additives, etc., have been tried. While effective in some situations, such remedies may still be unable to completely eliminate the problems of steel corrosion. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) elements are appealing as reinforcement due to some material properties such as high tensile strength, low density, and noncorrosive. However, due to the generally lower modulus of elasticity of FRP in comparison with the steel and the linear behavior of FRP, certain aspects of the structural behavior of RC members reinforced with FRP may be substantially different from similar elements reinforced with steel reinforcement. This paper presents the flexural behavior of one-way concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars. They were simply supported and tested in the laboratory under static loading conditions to investigate their crack pattern and width, deflections, strains and mode of failure. The experimental results shows that behavior of the FRP reinforced slabs was bilinearly elastic until failure. Also, the results show that the FRP overreinforced concrete beams in this study can be safe for design in terms of deformability.
Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Continuous T-Beams Externally Strengthened with Wire Rope Units
Yang, Keun-Hyeok ; Sim, Jae-Il ; Byun, Hang-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 773~783
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.773
A simple unbonded-type shear strengthening technique for reinforced concrete beams using wire rope units is developed. Six two-span continuous T-beams externally strengthened with wire rope units and an unstrengthened control beam were tested. The main variables investigated were the amount and prestressing force of wire rope units. All specimens had the same geometrical dimension and arrangement of internal reinforcement. Influence of the distribution of vertical stresses in beam web owing to the prestressing force of wire rope units on the diagonal shear cracking load and the ultimate shear capacity of beams tested is presented. Based on the current study, it can be concluded that the amount and initial prestress of wire rope should be limited to be above 2.5 times the minimum shear reinforcement ratio specified in ACI 318-05 and below 0.6 times its own tensile strength, respectively, to ensure the enhancement of shear capacity and ductile failure mode of the strengthened beams. A numerical analysis based on the upper-bound theorem is developed to assess the shear capacity of continuous T-beams strengthened with wire rope units. From the comparisons of measured and predicted shear capacities, a better agreement is achieved in the proposed numerical analysis than in empirical equations recommended by ACI 318-05.
The Use of Galvanostatic Pulse Transient Techniques for Assessing of Corrosion Rate of Reinforcing steel in Concrete
So, Hyoung-Seok ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 785~793
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.785
An electrochemical transient response technique was used to study the corrosion of reinforcing steel bar in the concrete. Analysis of the transient electrochemical potential response in a corrosion interface to an applied current has enabled the separate components that make up the measured transient response to be isolated. These components display a range of resistances and capacitances, dependent on the corrosion conditions of the reinforcing steel, which may be attributed to the corrosion process, to effects within the concrete cover or to film effects on the surface of the concrete. In this technique, the corrosion rate was evaluated by summing all of the resistances in the separate components to obtain an aggregated corrosion resistance. However, it is possible that not all resistances identified are associated with the corrosion process. The results obtained show that the corrosion rates are significant dependent on the assignment of the separate components to either corrosion or to other processes. The assignment of resistive components associated with the corrosion rate can be clearly identified by taking a series of the transient measurement at different lateral distances from the corroding reinforcing steel. An inappropriate selection of measurement time however may result in an additional resistance, which is not associated with corrosion, being included or part of the resistance associated with corrosion being left out.
Structural Capacity of RC Beam Retrofitted by CFS with Bond Loss
Seo, Soo-Yeon ; Yun, Hyun-Do ; Choi, Ki-Bong ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 795~802
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.795
Recently, various strengthening methods using carbon fiber sheets (CFS) have been developed for the rehabilitation of structures and applied to the concrete member. However, still research need arises in order to verify the structural capacity of RC member which experienced bond loss between concrete and CFS after strengthening. This is because previous research has focused on the development of design process and evaluation of structural capacity only for retrofit. The appearance of this loss may be initiated at just after retrofit construction. And it will be more serious when the layer number of CFS increases. In order to minimize above mistake in retrofit design using CFS, more exact evaluation process to predict the bond loss of CFS is required. The objective of this research is to study the variation of flexural structural capacity of beam which has experienced bond loss after strengthening using CFS. Experimental and analytical study are performed and evaluation of the previous formula is conducted. Test result showed that the significant strength deterioration was not found until the bond loss of 20%. Overall structural behavior of the beams can be predicted by nonlinear sectional analysis.
Stress-Strain Responses of Concrete Confined by FRP Composites
Cho, Soon-Ho ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 19, issue 6, 2007, Pages 803~810
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2007.19.6.803
An analytical method capable of predicting various stress-strain responses in axially loaded concrete confined with FRP (fiber reinforced polymers) composites in a rational manner is presented. Its underlying idea is that the volumetric expansion due to progressive microcracking in mechanically loaded concrete is an important measure of the extent of damage in the material microstructure, and can be utilized to estimate the load-carrying capacity of concrete by considering the corresponding accumulated damage. Following from this, an elastic modulus expressed as a function of area strain and concrete porosity, the energy-balance equation relating the dilating concrete to the confining device interactively, the varying confining pressure, and an incremental calculation algorithm are included in the solution procedure. The proposed method enables the evaluation of lateral strains consecutively according to the related mechanical model and the energy-balance equation, rather than using an empirically derived equation for Poisson's ratio or dilation rate as in other analytical methods. Several existing analytical methods that can predict the overall response were also examined and discussed, particularly focusing on the way of considering the volumetric expansion. The results predicted by the proposed and Samaan's bilinear equation models correlated with observed results with a reasonable degree, however it can be judged that the latter is not capable of predicting the response of lateral strains correctly due to incorporating the initial Poisson's ratio and the final converged dilation rate only. Further, the proposed method seems to have greater benefits in other applications by the use of the fundamental principles of mechanics.