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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Shear Performance of Full-Scale Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete Beams without Shear Reinforcement
Lee, Young-Oh ; Yun, Hyun-Do ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 225~232
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.225
This paper presents the test results on the shear performance of large-size reinforced concrete beams using recycled fine aggregate to evaluate its applicability to structural concrete. The performance of these beams is compared to that of similar beams casted with natural coarse and fine aggregates. All of the beam specimens without shear reinforcement had
rectangular cross section and a shear span ratio (a/d) of 5.0. Five concrete mixtures with different replacement levels of recycled fine aggregates (0, 30, 60, 70 and 100%) were used to obtain a nominal concrete compressive strength of 28MPa. The test results of load-deflection curve, shear deformation, diagonal cracking load, crack pattern, ultimate shear strength, and failure mode are examined and compared. In addition, code and empirical equations from KCI, JSCE, CSA, Zsutty, and MCFT were considered to evaluate the applicability of these equations for predicting shear strength of reinforced concrete beam with recycled fine aggregate. The results showed that the overall shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams incorporating less than 60% recycled fine aggregate was comparable with that of conventional concrete beam. The MCFT gave good prediction and other code equations were conservative in predicting the shear strength of the tested beams. The beam specimens with replacement of 70 and 100% of natural fine aggregates by recycled fine aggregates showed different failure mode than other tested beams.
Influence of Water-Binder Ratio and Expansion Admixture on Mechanical Properties of Strain-Hardening Cement-Based Composite with Hybrid Steel and Polyethylene Fibers
Kim, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Young-Oh ; Kim, Hee-Jong ; Yun, Hyun-Do ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 233~240
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.233
Hybrid SHCC is being researched actively for its excellent performance in controlling macro and micro cracks using macro and micro fibers, respectively. However, a significant autogenous shrinkage of SHCC is expected since it possesses high unit cement volume in its mix proportion, resulting in autogenous shrinkage cracks. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate mechanical property of shrinkage-reducing type hybrid SHCC mixed together with steel fiber and PE fiber with excellent micro/macro crack controlling performance. In order to evaluate mechanical property of shrinkage-reducing type hybrid SHCC, replacement ratios of 0% and 10% of expansive admixture and water to binder ratios of 0.45, 0.3, and 0.2 were considered as variables. Then, shrinkage, compressive, flexural, and direct tensile tests were performed. The test results showed that mix proportion with W/B 0.3 significantly improved mechanical performance by using 10% replacement of expansive admixture.
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Columns by Applying Steel Fiber-Reinforced Mortar at Plastic Hinge Region
Cho, Chang-Geun ; Han, Sung-Jin ; Kwon, Min-Ho ; Lim, Cheong-Kweon ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 241~248
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.241
This paper presents a reinforced concrete composite column method in order to improve seismic performance of reinforced concrete column specimens by selectively applying steel fiber-reinforced mortars at the column plastic hinge region. In order to evaluate seismic improvement of the newly developed column method, a series of cyclic load test of column specimens under a constant axial load was investigated by manufacturing three specimens, two reinforced concrete composite columns by applying steel fiber-reinforced mortars at the column plastic hinge region and one conventional reinforced concrete column. Both concrete and steel fiber-reinforced mortar was cast-in placed type. From cyclic load test, it was found that the newly developed steel fiber-reinforced columns showed improved seismic performances than conventional reinforced concrete column in controlling bending and shear cracks as well as improving seismic lateral load-carrying capacities and lateral deformation capacities.
Fatigue Capacity Evaluation of the Girder-Abutment Connection for the Steel-Concrete Composite Rigid-Frame Bridge Integrated with PS Bar
Ahn, Young-Soo ; Oh, Min-Ho ; Chung, Jee-Seung ; Lee, Sang-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 249~258
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.249
Integral and rigid frame bridges have advantages in bridge maintenance and structural efficiency by eliminating expansion joints and bridge supports. However, the detail of typical girder-abutment connection is rather complex and increases construction cost depending on construction detail. For the purpose of compensating disadvantages such as complexity and additional cost, a new type of bridge is proposed in this study, which improves the efficiency of construction by simplifying the construction detail of girder-abutment connection. The proposed bridge has the connection detail of steel girder and abutment integrated by prestressed PS bar installed in the connection. In this study, finite element analysis and fatigue load test are conducted to evaluate the fatigue capacity of the proposed girder-abutment connection. The results of the finite element analysis revealed that the possibility of the fatigue damage in the girder-abutment connection is very low. The results of the fatigue load test verified that the integrity of the girder and abutment connection is maintained after 2,000,000 cycles of fatigue loading.
Evaluation for Deformability of RC Members Failing in Bond after Flexural Yielding
Choi, Han-Byeol ; Lee, Jung-Yoon ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 259~266
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.259
A general earthquake resistant design philosophy of ductile frame buildings allows beams to form plastic hinges adjacent to beam-column connections. In order to carry out this design philosophy, the ultimate bond or shear strength of the beam should be greater than the flexural yielding force and should not degrade before reaching its required ductility. The behavior of RC members dominated by bond or shear action reveals a dramatic reduction of energy dissipation in the hysteretic response due to the severe pinching effects. In this study, a method was proposed to predict the deformability of reinforced concrete members with short-span-to-depth-ratios, which would result in bond failure after flexural yielding. Repeated or cyclic loading produces a progressive deterioration of bond that may lead to failure at lower cyclic bond stress levels. Accumulation of bond damage is caused by the propagation of micro-cracks and progressive crushing of concrete in front of the lugs. The proposed method takes into account bond deterioration due to the degradation of concrete in the post yield range. In order to verify bond deformability of the proposed method, the predicted results were compared with the experimental results of RC members reported in the technical literature. Comparisons between the observed and calculated bond deformability of the tested RC members showed reasonably good agreement.
Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns Using Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag Aggregates
Jung, You-Jin ; Lee, Young-Hyun ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Kil-Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 267~273
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.267
This study is performed to evaluate the flexural performance of reinforced concrete columns with electric arc furnace oxidizing slag aggregates. Electric arc furnace slag is a by-product obtained from the process of refining scrap steel. The electric arc furnace slag can be used as a concrete aggregate, because it mainly consists of CaO and
, similar to natural rocks and minerals. Three rectangular columns with various types of aggregate were cast to test in flexure. All of the test specimens had a cross-section of
mm and a height of 1,500 mm in test region. The specimens were designed to apply reversed cyclic antisymmetric moment and constant axial force. The experimental results showed that the specimens with electronic arc furnace oxidizing slag aggregates had superior flexural performance than the specimen with natural aggregates.
Cyclic Behavior of Wall-Slab Joints with Lap Splices of Coldly Straightened Re-bars and with Mechanical Splices
Chun, Sung-Chul ; Lee, Jin-Gon ; Ha, Tae-Hun ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 275~283
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.275
Steel Plate for Rebar Connection was recently developed to splice rebars in delayed slab-wall joints in high-rise building, slurry wall-slab joints, temporary openings, etc. It consists of several couplers and a thin steel plate with shear key. Cyclic loading tests on slab-wall joints were conducted to verify structural behavior of the joints having Steel Plate for Rebar Connection. For comparison, joints with Rebend Connection and without splices were also tested. The joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection showed typical flexural behavior in the sequence of tension re-bar yielding, sufficient flexural deformation, crushing of compression concrete, and compression rebar buckling. However, the joints with Rebend Connection had more bond cracks in slabs faces and spalling in side cover-concrete, even though elastic behavior of the joints was similar to that of the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. Consequently, the joints with Rebend Connection had less strengths and deformation capacities than the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. In addition, stiffness of the joints with Rebend Connection degraded more rapidly than the other joints as cyclic loads were applied. This may be caused by low elastic modulus of re-straightened rebars and restraightening of kinked bar. For two types of diameters (13mm and 16mm) and two types of grades (SD300 and SD400) of rebars, the joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection had higher strength than nominal strength calculated from actual material properties. On the contrary, strengths of the joints with Rebend Connection decreased as bar diameter increased and as grade becames higher. Therefore, Rebend Connection should be used with caution in design and construction.
Nonlinear Lateral Behavior and Cross-Sectional Stress Distribution of Concrete Rocking Columns
Roh, Hwa-Sung ; Hwang, Woong-Ik ; Lee, Hu-Seok ; Lee, Jong-Seh ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 285~292
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.285
Fixed connection is generally used for beam and column connections of concrete structures, but significant damages at the connection due to severe earthquakes have been reported. In order to reduce damages of the connection and improve seismic performance of the connection, several innovative connections have been suggested. One newly proposed connection type allows a rotation of the connection for applications in rotating or rocking beams, columns, and shear walls. Such structural elements would provide a nonlinear lateral force-displacement response since their contact depth developed during rotation is gradually reduced and the stress across the sections of the elements is non-linearly distributed around a contact area, which is called an elastic hinge region in the present study. The purpose of the present study is to define the elastic hinge region or length for the rocking columns, through investigating the cross-sectional stress distribution during their lateral behavior. Performing a finite element analysis (FEA), several parameters are considered including axial load levels (5% and 10% of nominal strength), different boundary conditions (confined-ends and cantilever types), and slenderness ratios (length/depth
Evaluating Impact Resistance of Externally Strengthened Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slab with Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Yoo, Doo-Yeol ; Min, Kyung-Hwan ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Yoon, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 293~303
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.293
Recently, as construction technology improved, concrete structures not only became larger, taller and longer but were able to perform various functions. However, if extreme loads such as impact, blast, and fire are applied to those structures, it would cause severe property damages and human casualties. Especially, the structural responses from extreme loading are totally different than that from quasi-static loading, because large pressure is applied to structures from mass acceleration effect of impact and blast loads. Therefore, the strain rate effect and damage levels should be considered when concrete structure is designed. In this study, the low velocity impact loading test of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs including 0%~1.5% (by volume) of steel fibers, and strengthened with two types of FRP sheets was performed to develop an impact resistant structural member. From the test results, the maximum impact load, dissipated energy and the number of drop to failure increased, whereas the maximum displacement and support rotation were reduced by strengthening SFRC slab with FRP sheets in tensile zone. The test results showed that the impact resistance of concrete slab can be substantially improved by externally strengthening using FRP sheets. This result can be used in designing of primary facilities exposed to such extreme loads. The dynamic responses of SFRC slab strengthened with FRP sheets under low velocity impact load were also analyzed using LS-DYNA, a finite element analysis program with an explicit time integration scheme. The comparison of test and analytical results showed that they were within 5% of error with respect to maximum displacements.
Evaluation of Shear Strength of Unreinforced Masonry Walls Retrofitted by Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheet
Bae, Baek-Il ; Yun, Hyo-Jin ; Choi, Chang-Sik ; Choi, Hyun-Ki ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 305~313
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.305
Unreinforced masonry buildings represent a significant portion of the existing and historical buildings around the world. Recent earthquakes have shown the need for seismic retrofitting for these types of buildings. Various types of retrofitting materials (i.e., shotcrete, ECC and Fiber Reinforced Polymer sheets (FRPs)) for unreinforced masonry buildings (URM) have been developed. Engineers prefer to use FRPs, because these materials enhance the shear strength of the wall without expansion of wall sectional area and adding weight to the total structure. However, the complexity of the mechanical behavior of the masonry wall and the lack of experimental data from walls retrofitted by FRPs may cause problems for engineers to determine an appropriate retrofitting level. This paper investigate in-plane behavior of URM and retrofitted masonry walls using two different types of FRP materials to determine and provide information for the retrofitting effect of FRPs on masonry shear walls. Specimens were designed to idealize the wall of a low-rise apartment which was built in 1970s in Korea with no seismic reinforcements with an aspect ratio of 1. Retrofitting materials were carbon FRP and Hybrid sheets which have different elastic modulus and ultimate strain capacities. Consequently, this study evaluated the structural capacity of masonry shear walls and the retrofitting effect of an FRP sheet for in-plane behavior. Also, the results were compared to the results obtained from the evaluation method for a reinforced concrete beam retrofitted with FRPs.
Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar
Song, Keum-Il ; Yang, Keun-Hyeok ; Lee, Bang-Yeon ; Song, Jin-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 315~322
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.315
Alkali-activated slag (AAS) is the most obvious alternative materials that can replace OPC. But, AAS industrial usage as a structural material should be evaluated for its durability. Carbonation resistance is one of the most important factors in durability evaluation. Test results for 18 slag-based mortars activated by sodium silicate and 6 OPC mortars were obtained in this study to verify the carbonation property. Main variables considered in the study were flow, compressive strength before and after carbonation, and carbonation depth. Mineralogical and micro-structural analysis of OPC and AAS specimens prior to and after carbonation was conducted using XRD, TGA, FTIR FE-SEM. Test results showed that CHS was major hydration products of AAS and, unlike OPC, no other hydration products were found. After carbonation, CSH of hydration product in AAS turned into an amorphous silica gel, and alumina compounds was not detected. From the analysis of the results, it was estimated that the micro-structures of CSH in AAS easily collapsed during carbonation. Also, the results showed that this collapse of chemical chain of CSH lowered the compressive strength of concrete after carbonation. By increasing the dosage of activators, carbonation resistance and compressive strength were effectively improved.
Retrofitting Effects and Structural Behavior of RC Columns Strengthened with X-Bracing Using Carbon Fiber Anchor
Sim, Jong-Sung ; Lee, Kang-Seok ; Kwon, Hyuck-Woo ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 323~331
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.323
This paper presents a new strengthening method on concrete column against seismic loads for structural performance tests. An X-bracing using high performance carbon fiber threads called the "Carbon fiber anchor X-bracing system" is used to connect RC frames internally. The carbon fiber sheet is wrapped around the column to fix the top and bottom of the column after Super anchor was installed by drilling hole on the column. The structural performance was evaluated experimentally and analytically. Two types of columns specimens were made; flexure fracture scaled model and shear fracture scaled model. For the performance evaluation, cyclic loading tests were conducted on moment and shear resisting columns with and without X bracing. Test results confirmed that the bracing system installed on RC columns enhanced the strength capacity and provided adequate ductility.
Influence of Specimen Geometries on the Compressive Strength of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete
Sim, Jae-Il ; Yang, Keun-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 333~340
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.333
The current study prepared 9 laboratorial concrete mixes and 3 ready-mixed concrete batches to examine the size and shape effects in compression failure of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWC). The concrete mixes were classified into three groups: normal-weight, all-lightweight and sand-lightweight concrete groups. For each concrete mix, the aspect ratio of circular or square specimens was 1.0 and 2.0. The lateral dimension of specimens varied between 50 and 150 mm for each laboratorial concrete mix, whereas it ranged from 50 to 400 mm with an incremental variation of 50 mm for each ready-mixed concrete batch. Test observations revealed that the crack propagation and width of the localized failure zone developed in lightweight concrete specimens were considerably different than those of normal-weight concrete (NWC). In LWC specimens, the cracks mainly passed through the coarse aggregate particles and the crack distribution performance was very poor. As a result, a stronger size effect was developed in LWC than in NWC. Especially, this trend was more notable in specimens with aspect ratio of 2.0 than in specimens with that of 1.0. The prediction model derived by Kim et al. overestimated the size effect of LWC when lateral dimension of specimen is above 150 mm. On the other hand, the modification factors specified in ASTM and CEB-FIP provisions, which are used to compensate for the shape effect of specimen on compressive strength, were still conservative in LWC.
Improvement and Evaluation of Seismic Performance of Flat Plate Slab-Column Joint Using High Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Mortar
Ha, Gee-Joo ; Yi, Dong-Ryul ;
Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, volume 24, issue 3, 2012, Pages 341~349
DOI : 10.4334/JKCI.2012.24.3.341
Recently, as structures in Korea and other countries become much taller, larger, and more specialized, concrete used for constructions of these structures is required to have high performance characteristics. Especially, seismic performance of concrete must be improved to resist cyclic loading from earthquakes. Consequently, this study was performed to focus on developing optimal mixtures of high ductile fiber reinforced mortar with high ductility and durability, which have good serviceability, stability and reliability performances. Eventually, this material is expected to improve seismic performance of concrete structures such as load carrying capacity, ductility capacity, and energy dissipation capacity when applied to critical regions of flat plate slab-column joint. Ultimately, this research is intended to develop a material for basic designs and practical constructions of reinforced concrete structures. Test results showed that the maximum load carrying capacity, the ductility capacity, and the energy dissipation capacity of the test specimens titled RCFPP series were increased by 15%~34%, by 33%~37%, and by 2.14 times, respectively, compared to those of the standard specimen titled SRCFP.