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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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The Korea Contents Association
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 10, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 10, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 10, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 10, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 10, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 10, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
Ant Colony Optimization for Feature Selection in Pattern Recognition
Oh, Il-Seok ; Lee, Jin-Seon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.001
This paper propose a novel scheme called selective evaluation to improve convergence of ACO (ant colony optimization) for feature selection. The scheme cutdown the computational load by excluding the evaluation of unnecessary or less promising candidate solutions. The scheme is realizable in ACO due to the valuable information, pheromone trail which helps identify those solutions. With the aim of checking applicability of algorithms according to problem size, we analyze the timing requirements of three popular feature selection algorithms, greedy algorithm, genetic algorithm, and ant colony optimization. For a rigorous timing analysis, we adopt the concept of atomic operation. Experimental results showed that the ACO with selective evaluation was promising both in timing requirement and recognition performance.
Word Spacing Consistency Check using Syllable and Morpheme Information
Lee, Jae-Sung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 10~19
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.010
Korean word spacing rules have exceptional cases which permit both spacing and no-spacing between words. The exceptional cases, however, do not mean that inconsistent spacing between words or word-phrases is legitimate in a document proof reading. This paper proposes a word spacing consistency check method using syllable and morpheme information, and evaluated it through experiment.
Hand Gesture Interface for Manipulating 3D Objects in Augmented Reality
Park, Keon-Hee ; Lee, Guee-Sang ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 20~28
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.020
In this paper, we propose a hand gesture interface for the manipulation of augmented objects in 3D space using a camera. Generally a marker is used for the detection of 3D movement in 2D images. However marker based system has obvious defects since markers are always to be included in the image or we need additional equipments for controling objects, which results in reduced immersion. To overcome this problem, we replace marker by planar hand shape by estimating the hand pose. Kalman filter is for robust tracking of the hand shape. The experimental result indicates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm for hand based AR interfaces.
Topic based Web Document Clustering using Named Entities
Sung, Ki-Youn ; Yun, Bo-Hyun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 29~36
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.029
Past clustering researches are focused on extraction of keyword for word similarity grouping. However, too many candidates to compare and compute bring high complexity, low speed and low accuracy. To overcome these weaknesses, this paper proposed a topical web document clustering model using not only keyword but also named entities such as person name, organization, location, and so on. By several experiments, we prove effects of our model compared with traditional model based on only keyword and analyze how different effects show according to characteristics of document collection.
Analysis of Mobility and Security Requirements for Mobile IPTV
Lee, Sun-Young ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.037
The mobility is one of the most important factor for mobile IPTV. However, mobility is highly vulnerable to eavesdropping and unauthorized access. Generally mobility of mobile services is based on handover techniques. But we showed that mobile IPTV must use other techniques to confirm mobility. In this paper, we analyzed security of wibro mobile IPTV from the viewpoint of mobility. We considered DCAS host must include new addresses of mobile devices. We analyzed total number of authentication for the proposed method. So we showed that proposed method was more efficient than wibro-mobile IPTV. We compared the security of our proposal to the security requirements of TTA.
Detecting and Isolating a Cloned Access Point IEEE 802.11
Go, Yun-Mi ; Kwon, Kyung-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.045
Appearance of a cloned AP(Access Point) causes MS(Mobile Station) to break an association with a normal AP(Access Point). If signal power of the cloned AP is stronger than that of the normal AP, MS associates with the cloned AP. Therefore, MS is easily exposed to attackers who installed the cloned AP. In this paper, we distinguish cloned AP from normal AP by using the association time and frame sequence number between normal AP and MS, then isolates the cloned AP. The simulation by NS-2 shows that our mechanism isolates efficiently a cloned AP and builds safer wireless LAN environment.
Design and Implementation of Private Folder Management Systems for the Security of User Data on Multi-user Environments
Park, Yong-Hun ; Park, Hyeong-Soon ; Kim, Hak-Chul ; Lee, Hyo-Joon ; Jang, Yong-Jin ; Lim, Jong-Tae ; Jang, Su-Min ; Seo, Won-Seok ; Yoo, Jae-Soo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 52~61
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.052
In recent, the interests of multi-user systems have been increased. Multi-user systems allow a number of users to access the system simultaneously. Security is one of the key issues to be addressed in a multi-user environment. We propose a solution based on the NTFS file system that provides the personal data security and considers the convenience of users. The system increases the convenience of users by simplifying the complexity of the security setting on NTFS. We also propose a variety of policies that prevent from the conflicts incurring when different users set up the personal folders simultaneously and do not set up the important folders such as the window system folders as personal folders. In addition, our system supports the function of setting up the prohibition folder lists so that no one can not set the folder to their personal folders.
Development of a LED BLU Tester Detecting the Errors of LCD Panels
Kouh, Hoon-Joon ; Jang, Kyung-Soo ; Oh, Ju-Young ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 62~69
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.062
LCD panel need BLU(Back Light Unit) that is outside source of light because can not emit light voluntarily. BLU is used in LCD module and is used in tester that examine LCD panel's badness. Lately, BLU had changed from CCFL(Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp) to LED(Light-Emitting Diode) fast. CCFL need extra-high tension power and produce much heat and is difficult to keep fixed brightness. LED is few electric power wastage and keeps fixed brightness. But, BLU that is used to detector that examine the LCD module is using CCFL until recently. This paper develops LED BLU that can examine LCD panel's badness. Also, this manufactures LED BLU to 24 inch size to examine all LCD panels(12~24 inch), and develops so that LED BLU may operate according to LCD panel's size.
Static Control Flow Analysis of Binary Codes
Kim, Ki-Tae ; Kim, Je-Min ; Yoo, Weon-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 70~79
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.070
We perform static program analysis for the binary code. The reason you want to analyze at the level of binary code, installed on your local computer, run the executable file without source code. And the reason we want to perform static analysis, static program analysis is to understand what actions to perform on your local computer. In this paper, execution flow graph representing information such as the execution order among functions and the flow of control is generated. Using graph, User can find execution flow of binary file and calls of insecure functions at the same time, and the graph should facilitate the analysis of binary files. In addition, program to be run is ensured the safety by providing an automated way to search the flow of execution, and program to be downloaded and installed from outside is determined whether safe before running.
Reliability Model for u-Health SW's BMT
Chung, Sam-Sool ; Yang, Hae-Sool ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 80~89
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.080
u-Health refers to "Always, ubiquitously" prevention against disease, diagnosis, medical treatment service that can receive treatment even if patient does not visit hospital as abbreviated word of ubiquitous and health. U-Health transmits in individual's living body sign and measuring of health information and health information system that is consisted of process of analysis and feedback transmiting and measure individual's living body signal and health information and health proprietary company or medical institution operates. If analyze pattern to information that health information system is transmited, health care officer or chief physician means that offer healthcare and medical treatment service to remote about target customer. Wish to present authoritativeness model for u-Health's inside and outside of the country same native place and u-Health's BMT in this research.
Facial Expression Animation which Applies a Motion Data in the Vector based Caricature
Kim, Sung-Ho ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 90~98
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.090
This paper describes methodology which enables user in order to generate facial expression animation of caricature which applies a facial motion data in the vector based caricature. This method which sees was embodied with the plug-in of illustrator. And It is equipping the user interface of separate way. The data which is used in experiment attaches 28 small-sized markers in important muscular part of the actor face and captured the multiple many expression which is various with Facial Tracker. The caricature was produced in the bezier curve form which has a respectively control point from location of the important marker which attaches in the face of the actor when motion capturing to connection with motion data and the region which is identical. The facial motion data compares in the caricature and the spatial scale went through a motion calibration process too because of size. And with the user letting the control did possibly at any time. In order connecting the caricature and the markers also, we did possibly with the click the corresponding region of the caricature, after the user selects each name of the face region from the menu. Finally, this paper used a user interface of illustrator and in order for the caricature facial expression animation generation which applies a facial motion data in the vector based caricature to be possible.
Design of Multilayer Perceptrons for Pattern Classifications
Oh, Sang-Hoon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 99~106
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.099
Multilayer perceptrons(MLPs) or feed-forward neural networks are widely applied to many areas based on their function approximation capabilities. When implementing MLPs for application problems, we should determine various parameters and training methods. In this paper, we discuss the design of MLPs especially for pattern classification problems. This discussion includes how to decide the number of nodes in each layer, how to initialize the weights of MLPs, how to train MLPs among various error functions, the imbalanced data problems, and deep architecture.
Creating Simultaneous Story Arcs Using Constraint Based Narrative Structure
Moon, Sung-Hyun ; Kim, Seok-Kyoo ; Hong, Euy-Seok ; Han, Sang-Yong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 107~114
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.107
A nonlinear story is generated through the interactivity with users using the interactive storytelling system. In a play or movie, audiences can watch one scene at a time, and in order to watch next scene, they should wait for the end of current scene. In the real world, however, various events can simultaneously happen at different places, and even those events performed by characters may dramatically affect the flow of the story. This paper suggests Constraint Based narrative structure to create such story, known as "Simultaneous Story Arcs", and "Multi Viewpoint" to simultaneously lead the direction of the stories in each place.
Production Techniques for Mobile Motion Pictures base on Smart Phone
Choi, Eun-Young ; Choi, Hun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 115~123
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.115
Because of development of information technology, moving picture can run various platforms. We should consider and apply users' attitude as well as production technique because convergence between mobile and media technology may be increased full-browsing service using mobile device. Previous research related to production technique in various platforms only focus on video quality and adjustment of screen size. However, besides of technical side, production techniques should be changed such as image production as well as image editing by point of view aesthetic. Mise-en-scene such as camera angle, composition, and lighting is changed due to HD image. Also image production should be changed to a suitable full-browsing service using mobile device. Therefore, we would explore a new suitable production techniques and image editing for smart phone. To propose production techniques for smart phone, we used E-learning production system, which are transition, editing technique for suitable converting system. Such as new attempts are leading to new paradigm and establishing their position by applying characteries such as openness, timeliness to mobile. Also it can be extended individual area and established as expression and play tool.
Significance of Developing an Analog Contents Design as a Part of Digital Contents Design Education
You, Si-Cheon ; Han, Ji-Ae ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 124~134
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.124
This study has began to develop a method for the student major in visual communication and media design to allow them approach to digital contents design developing process in easier and more effective way. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential significance of developing analogue contents design as one of the preliminary works in the digital contents design developing process. The results revealed that designing analogue contents as one of the preliminary works of the digital contents design is: Firstly, it reduces students' mental pressure in organizing the structure of overall information clusters at the phase of information architecture. Secondly, it helps students to find out the object and the preferable form of information design intuitively in the process of information design. Lastly, it is helpful for students to understand the characteristics of digital contents design through clarifying the differences between analogue contents design and digital contents design.
Development of User's Evaluation Criteria for VJ Broadcasting Program
Lee, Jong-Tak ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 135~143
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.135
As the broadcasting programs produced by VJ are increasing, every broadcasting company has doubts as to how their program evaluations derive the objective evaluation results and proposes their own tailored program evaluation methods considering the change of the production system. The proposed quality evaluation items represent a new model in terms of the perfectness of VJ broadcasting program production and are used as a way to revise the current evaluation methods of the broadcasting companies. To derive the items which help to find the problems of VJ broadcasting programs, 30 specialists, such as PDs, VJs, and professors, are chosen as a specialist group, and the first experiment is performed to select the evaluation items of VJ broadcasting programs. Based on the result of the degree of importance of the evaluation items, 9 VJ program evaluation items are made. Also, the second experiment is performed in order to verify the proposed evaluation criteria. As a result of the experiment, the reliability of the proposed evaluation method is .939, which is proved to be significant. The selection of the quality evaluation items considering only the VJ broadcasting programs turns out to be significant as a new quality evaluation criterion.
Making an Emotional Design Book with 5 Senses and Inspiration -Focused on the Art Book 5+1(Five Plus One)-
Hong, Dong-Sik ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 144~151
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.144
Five Plus One' is a result of visual expressions on five senses such as the sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Although I searched for the data on five senses, there were only information which was quoted in various languages and scientific bases, and also most of the books written were far from artistic expressions including visual pleasure and emotional expressions. In addition, most materials were mainly textbooks for children's intellectual development, academic papers, and medical publications. Therefore, I made this book that makes us to communicate about five senses and an inspiration even though we have a problem to read writings in both Korean and English. I arranged visual elements using illustrations and typography in various ways based on the scientific evidence.
Influential Factors on the Interactivity in the Interactive Space I ; Focus on the Analysis of Intersubject & Interaction Factors
Lee, Jeong-min ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 152~164
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.152
Drawing Lines in Clothing on the 20th Century Fashion Illustration
Yun, Eul-Yo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 165~172
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.165
The development of photography technology has changed the domain of fashion illustration that once prospered while the improvement of computer technology can now reedit the limits of photos. Presently, the border between photography and illustration has been collapsed through a medium of computer. And this phenomenon tends to be encouraged by expressive features that traditional fashion illustration was characterized by. Thereupon, this study aims to investigate the expressive features of drawing lines in clothing on the 20th century fashion illustration based on such periodic demand. Therefore, this paper deals with the followings: the first is to understand the concept of the drawing line in clothing ; the second is to consider the features of drawing lines in clothing on the Eastern and Western paintings; the third is to figure out the flow of the 20th century fashion illustration; the fourth is to analytically study the features of drawing lines in clothing shown on the 20th fashion illustration.
Effects of Clothing Involvement on Brand Attachment and Brand Loyalty -With Special Reference to Chinese College Students in Busan-
Chen, Chang ; Lee, Young-Sook ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 173~184
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.173
The living standards of Chinese people are gradually rising, which has led more Chinese students to come to Korea for their academic career. In this respect, it seems significant to find out how clothing involvement affects brand attachment and brand loyalty of Chinese college students in Busan. In this study, we attempt to identify factors of clothing involvement that influence Chinese students' turn of mind towards brand attachment and brand loyalty. The results of our analysis are as follows: 1. Five factors of clothing involvement have been derived: fashion trend, favorable impression, planning, indifference and choice. For brand attachment, three factors of brand show-off, brand gravity and brand pride have been derived. 2. Factors of clothing involvement have positive effects on factors of brand attachment, and brand attachment also have significant effects on brand loyalty. 3. Clothing involvement significantly affects brand loyalty indirectly via brand attachment.
Influential Factors on the Interactivity in the Interactive Space II ; Focus on Interface Factors' Attributes for Supporting Behavioral Participation
Lee, Jeong-Min ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 185~201
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.185
Interactive space became one of the major design paradigms. For elevating the interactive effect in this, we need user-centered design methodology which uses the influential factors on the interactivity. As the second paper of three-linked studies for the interactivity in the interactive space, this research analyzed the interface factors' specific attributes for supporting behavioral participation. 'Interface' is one of three main factors on the interactivity(Intersubject/Interface/Interaction). Its role in the interactive space is to induce or support user's participations which bring the interactive changes into the designs. Qualitative case analysis was the main method and 30 cases were investigated. 'Individual analysis-Transitional description-Generalization' were the progressive steps for case analysis. As final results, 17 attributes for supporting behavioral participation were analyzed.
Contents Composition of Domestic Licensed Men's Magazines
Yun, Eul-Yo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 202~209
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.202
Today, we are living in an information era during which we are flooded with information, and it is not an exception also in the magazine field. This study aimed to identify the unique characteristics of magazines by men's magazine companies as research into the big three men's magazines licensed in Korea. Accordingly, concerning a detailed research method, a practical study was carried out on the basis of statistics about the proportion of the contents composition in those magazines. This is because all magazines realize a target point to which their companies aspire, through the contents composition using articles or a pictorial magazine. As a result of thestudy, in the big three licensed men's magazines (Esquire, Arena, and GQ) in Korea, the highest proportion of the contents composition was the proportion of advertising, posting 37.5% on average, which was followed by the proportion of articles or a pictorial concerning fashion, marking 26.8% on average. Therefore, the domestic licensed men's magazines, which were identified by the proportion of the contents composition, were discovered to have thecharacteristics of a fashion magazine. Furthermore, they were found to be published with as lightly different contents composition based on a magazine concept pursued by each magazine company.
Dynamics of Consumer Preference in Binary Probit Model
Joo, Young-Jin ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 210~219
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.210
Consumers differ in both horizontally and vertically. Market segmentation aims to divide horizontally different (or heterogeneous) consumers into more similar (or homogeneous) small segments. A specific consumer, however, may differ in vertically. He (or she) may belong to a different market segment from another one where he (or she) belonged to before. In consumer panel data, the vertical difference can be observed by his (or her) choice among brand alternatives are changing over time. The consumer's vertical difference has been defined as 'dynamics'. In this research, we have developed a binary probit model with random-walk coefficients to capture the consumer's dynamics. With an application to a consumer panel data, we have examined how have the random-walk coefficients changed over time.
Application of the Concept of Reincarnation in the Visual Arts Education
Oh, Chi-Gyu ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 220~228
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.220
Reincarnation, literally means "to be made flesh again". It is a mystical belief that the soul lives again in a new body after death. In this study, both material and spiritual elements are reincarnated in the form of the formative art in our life. This is similar to the notion of transmigration of the souls in Buddhism and Taoism. The concept "reincarnation"has a functional values as it provides a new tool in the education in the field. Especially in the digital design, the concept has become an essential contents as a text. The education employed the concept has a feature of edutainment which has been considered as an innovative method of education. The edutainment stimulates students' inner motivation and interests. This eventually leads them to use their own creativity in their study and achieve their goals. The education adopting the concept of reincarnation is more than the recycling of the used materials. It presupposes the understanding of the essence as well as the philosophical value of the materials. The creativity in the Visual Arts can be achieved with these educational foundations.
Analysis of Program Providers(PP) in Terms of Theory of Industrial Organization in Korea
Yeo, Hyun-Chul ; Kim, Young-Soo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 229~240
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.229
Most of all researchs and analyses in the field of television industry of Korea were related to Cable Television SO(System Operator), but few about PP(Program Provider) from the viewpoint of Industrial Theory in Korea. However, there wasn't a comprehensive research analysis in terms of the co-relationship of the market structure, market conduct and market performance of PP. This research analyzes co-relationship and dynamics of the market structure of PP, its market conduct and market performance in a comprehensive way in Cable TV industry. Especially this paper focuses on the analysis of 1)relationship and its influence between market structure and market conduct, 2) relationship and its influence between their market conducts and market performances and 3) relationship and its influence between market structure and market performance among 40 commercial PPs in terms of the theory of Industrial Organization in Korea. This paper is delated and reported as follows in conclusion : 1)the type of horizontal integration has an effect on the price and scale in the relationship between the structure and its conduct. 2)the price has effect on the revenue and viewing rate between the conduct and performance. And high dependency of the Cable TV license fee has an effect on viewing rate and revenue per subscribers(ARPU) between the conduct and performance. 3)The horizontal integration between the structure and performance had a positive effect on viewing rate and its product differentiation has an effect on the revenue per subscribers. Net cost of the product had a negative effect on the rate of profit.
Research on Job Stress of Hospital Workers in Busan
Jung, Yong-Mo ; Jang, Hyo-Kang ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 241~251
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.241
The purpose of this study is to identify the difference of stress amount depending on the characteristics of hospital workers and job-stress's influence on the stress-measurement fields. For this purpose, the study surveyed 475 workers in 9 hospitals (2 general hospitals and 7hospitals) in Busan and empirically analyzed the data collected from them. In terms of theory and practice, the result of this study suggests as follows: First, there is significant difference in the stress amount depending on worker'scharacteristics.Second, the stress-measurement field with the largest influence on the job-stress is the job requirement, and the lowest field is the hospital culture. Third, at comparing the job stress amount with those of average Koreans, the stress-requirement field occupies the upper 50% zone for male, and the job-instability forfemale. As the result of this study, it is recognized that the structure management of medical institutions must consider the different stress factors according to the workers characteristics.
Factors Affecting the Sexual Behavior of a College Students
Kim, Mi-Sook ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 252~258
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.252
The purpose of this study was to configure a model geared toward predicting factors affecting the sexual behavior of college students and the path of their influence. The standardized path coefficients of factors that might affect their sexual behavior were calculated, and the total effects of the factors were checked when the path of their influence turned out significant. As for the path of the factors affecting the sexual behavior of college students in a firsthand manner, dating exerted a firsthand influence on sexual knowledge. That had the greatest total effect on sexual knowledge, and those with dating experiences had a better sexual knowledge. Sexual knowledge exercised a firsthand influence on sexual attitude, and that had the largest total effect on sexual attitude, as the students who had a better sexual knowledge took a more positive sexual attitude. Sexual roles affected sexual attitude and sexual behavior in a firsthand way, and sexual roles had the biggest total effect on sexual behavior. Androcentric and open sexual attitudes were permissive, distorted and led to more sexual behavior.
Analysis of Clostridium Difficile Toxin Value in Diarrhea Patients
Kwon, Se-Young ; Yoon, In-Sook ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 259~266
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.259
Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is an important nosocomial infectious diarrhea and is associated with antibiotic use. Recently, incidence of C. difficile has been increasing in hospitals. A total of 1,329 stool specimens were examined from January, 2005 to December, 2008. This study analyzed the incidence and clinical characteristics of C. difficile infections on them. Out of 1,329 stool specimens, 283 specimens showed toxin A/B positive, using EIA. The positive rate was 21.2%; with the highest incidence among and above the 70years old. On endoscopy, psedo membranous colitis was found in 57.7%, and 19.5% of patients were normal. Pathologic finding showed PMC in 26.8% of patients, AAC in 52.2%. C. difficile was associated with PMC, however, endoscopic and pathologic findings tests showed normal to PMC.
Change in Gait Parameters by Arm Sling Types in Healthy Adults
Lee, Ok-Kyoung ; An, Duk-Hyun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 267~276
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.267
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variations in gait parameters according to arm slings used in healthy adults. Twenty healthy adults (9 males, 11 females) participated in this study and walked at self-selected speeds on a GAITRite-instrumented carpet. They were randomly assigned conditions: without an arm sling, a care sling, a Harris hemi arm sling, a CVA sling, and a Rolyan humeral cuff sling. The following gait parameters were analyzed: the temporo-spatial parameters of gait velocity, swing phase, single support, cadence. In the comparison of parameters in each trial, step length was statistically significantly changed(p=.002). The right step length was significantly decreased in the Harris hemi arm sling and increased in the Rolyan humeral cuff sling when compared with no sling. This study found that several different types arm slings varied gait pattern in healthy adults.
Effects of Horseback Riding Simulation Machine Training on Gross Motor Function for the Children with Cerebral Palsy
Kang, Kwon-Young ; Song, Byung-Ho ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 268~284
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.268
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of horseback riding simulation training(HRST) on gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-four children with cerebral palsy participated were divided into two groups randomly. Control group and experimental group both received 30 minutes of regular neuro-rehab exercises for three times a week per twelve weeks, but experimental group received additional 15 minutes of the HRST. Gross Motor Function Measure(GMFM) was used to evaluate the changes before and after HRST. Normalized GMFM scores were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, statistical significance was set at a=.05. The results were as followings: First, in each compared before and after the experiment, the control group showed significantly increased GMFM score in dimensions A and B. The experimental group showed significant increasing in all dimensions of GMFM test. Second, the experimental group showed significant differences comparing to control group in dimensions C, D and E of GMFM test. Consequently, HRST should be considered as a therapeutic method for physical therapy for the children with cerebral palsy to improve the functional movements.
Acoustic Analysis of the Differences of Fricatives and Affricates between Normal Children and Cleft Palate Children
You, Young-Sin ; Jang, Seung-Jin ; Bak, Seung-Jae ; Choi, Yae-Lin ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 285~295
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.285
The frequency in which noise energy is generated, that is, the point where the preceding vowel ends is the cut-off frequency. Thereupon, this study intends to examine the correlations between, cut-off frequencies, cut-off frequencies changed by the following vowel, and cut-off frequencies and nasalance score, of fricatives and affricates with the subjects of children with the cleft palate and normal children. The subjects of this study are total 12 children residing in Seoul and Gyeonggi area. Six are the children diagnosed to have the cleft palate and whose chronological age are more than six, and another six are the normal children who are also more than six and whose chronological age and sex correspond to those of the former. Each subject was presented with nonsyllable environment and sentence environment(50 environment) of fricatives and affricates. Regarding meaningless syllable environment and sentence environment of fricatives and affricates, children with the cleft palate had lower cut-off frequencies than normal children. As a result of comparative study on correlations between cut-off frequencies and nasalance score of children with the cleft palate and normal children, it doesn't show statistically significant correlations in both meaningless syllable environment and sentence environment of normal children, but it has statistically significant correlations in sentence environment of children with the cleft palate.
Use of Mouth Guards among Sport Players
Guk, Jeong-Suk ; Woo, Seung-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 296~302
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.296
The purpose of this study was to examine the oral injury experiences of sport players in a bid to raise awareness of the gravity of problems related to oral injuries and the necessity of mouth guards geared toward preventing mental, physical and economic loss triggered by oral injuries. The subjects in this study were 290 sport players. After their oral injury experiences and use of mouth guards were checked, the following findings were given: 28.6 percent had suffered an oral injury. But just 33.8 percent received education about how to cope with an oral injury. 93.4 percent had never used a mouth guard, and only 25.9 percent felt the need for that. And just 28.3 percent had an intention to use it. felt the need for that. And just 28.3 percent had an intention to use it. Concerning the impact of gender, the female players used more mouth guards. The players didn't use mouth guards a lot regardless of oral injury experiences and education about that, and there was no change in the way they looked at mouth guards, either. The findings of the study illustrated that sport players as well as non-players weren't aware of the importance of mouth guards, though sport players were exposed to the danger of an oral injury all the time. Not only players but non-players should learn about the seriousness of an oral injury, and the necessity of oral guards should be stressed to prevent it.
Analyzing Regional Public Hospitals' Efficiency and Productivity Change
Jeon, Jin-hwan ; Kim, Jong-Ki ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 303~313
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.303
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance efficiency and productivity change of the regional public hospital in Korea. We use DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis) for CCR, BCC model, and MPI(Malmquist Productivity Index). DEA is a useful nonparametric technique for measurement of efficiency of a DMU(Decision Making Unit) and MPI is a evaluation method to measure DMU's productivity change. We utilize 34 regional public hospital's time-series data over 6 years from 2003 to 2008.The results of this study were as follows. First, technical efficiency(TE) shows that approximately 3.6% of inefficiency exists on the regional public hospitals and it reveals that the cause for technical inefficiency is due to scale inefficiency. Second, MPI's results show that regional public hospital made effort to improve total factor productivity change to raise technical efficiency. In order to raise efficiency, the regional public hospitals should deploy internal innovation and the government should support welfare policies.
Revitalization Solutions for Industrial Security Activities in Universities
Jeong, Duke-Young ; Jung, Byung-Soo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 314~324
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.314
As our nation's economy had grown in size and its possession of the cutting-edge science and technology had increased over the years, the damages received from the outflow of our industrial technology has become a serious issue. As of today, the outflow of Korea's industrial technology has reached a serious level, but in reality there were no adequate countermeasures carried out against it. Also, it is not too much to say that the effort to prevent the outflow of the university-developed industrial technology, which is one of the main pillars for the development of the nation's technological prowess, had been carried out in passive and lukewarm manner. Therefore, as a part of the industrial security activity, we have analyzed the overall situation and major cases related to industrial security activities that have been carried out so far, in order to emphasize the importance of those universities. Also, we tried to find appropriate solutions for the universities to invigorate the industrial security activities needed.
Relationship Between Pendulum Test Measurements of Post-Stroke Spasticity
Kim, Yong-Wook ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 325~332
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.325
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between three quantitative measures of the pendulum test for spasticity in strokes: The relaxation index, the number of oscillations, and the duration of oscillations. Twenty-six stroke subjects participated in the study. Correlations among these measures of spasticity used Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the relaxation index and number of oscillations in strokes (r=.881, p<.01). In addition there was significant positive correlation between the relaxation index and duration of oscillations (r=.896, p<.01), and between the number of oscillations and duration of oscillations (r=.938, p<.01). Thus, it is possible to use the number of oscillations and duration of oscillations as quantitative measures of spasticity, rather than the relaxation index, which is more complicated to obtain. According to the result of this study, the use of the simple and objective measurements of the number of oscillations and the duration of oscillations are required clinically in the quantitative measures of spasticity in the future.
Internal Marketing and Organization Effectiveness on the Hospitals
Lee, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Yong-Chul ; Jung, Yong-Mo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 333~342
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.333
Lately there is an increasing recognition about the significance of marketing activity towards the internal staff of a company as a group of customer. However, there has been little study on the marketing towards the internal staff of Hospitals. This study aims to provide basic information enabling the planning and implementation of internal marketing of hospitals by illuminating the impact of it on the management of staff. The conclusion of the study shows that the internal marketing and organization effectiveness, it was revealed that the higher the degree of recognition on the working environment, regulation on leave, participation into decision-making, education in the sphere of internal marketing, the higher the organization effectiveness, and that there is no meaningful association of compensation with the organization effectiveness.
Radiation Dose during Fluoroscopy at the Organ from Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Moon, Sung-Ho ; Jung, Hong-Ryang ; Lim, Cheong-Hwan ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 343~350
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.343
We measured the radiation exposure for 55 persons (male: 36, female: 19) who was diagnosed with kidney and ureter stones and received ESWL. The absorbed dose was measured at the organ which is expected to absorb relatively much radiation (kidney, bladder, liver). The radiation dose measurement voltage 80kVp, current of 5mA as a fixed model of the human body by using the Rando phantom with Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeter. Absorbed dose was measured for two times (5 minute and 10 minute, each) and converted to effective dose. Mean number of treatment was 1.8 times (1~4) per patient was the mean time of radiation exposure533 seconds (248-2516). For the treatment of right renal stone, the effective dose of right kidney, left kidney, liver and bladder was 2.458mSv, 0.152mSv, 1.404 mSv and 0.019mSv, respectively. For the treatment of left renal stone, the effective dose of right kidney, left kidney, liver and bladder was 2.496mSv, 0.252mSv, 0.178 mSv, and 0.017mSv, respectively. For the treatment of distal ureter stone, the effective dose of right kidney, left kidney and bladder was 0.009mSv, 0.01mSv and 3.742mSv, respectively.
Business Model of U-Intelligent Traffic Information and Control Services in U-City Environment
Choi, Hun ; Yu, Sung-Yeol ; Heo, Kap-Soo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 351~359
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.351
Recently, interesting of U-city with ubiquitous computing technologies has increased and u-city services can improve people's quality of life. Among the u-city services, traffice service is actively developed in our lives. In this paper, we propose the business model and business model process in u-intelligence traffic service. To propose the research purpose, we examined the prior business model and investigated u-intelligence traffic information and control services. And also, we draw scenario and used it to identify business model. To efficiently understand proposed business model, we built business model process of u-intelligence traffic information and control services. The results of study, we draw 4 representative U-intelligence traffic information and control service. Based on representative services, we proposed business model and business model process with stakeholder, benefiter and value model. This study concludes with implications of the study results as well as limitations and future research directions.
Effect of Brand Personality Congruity between Student and College on Trust, Satisfaction, and Loyalty
Shin, Bong-Sup ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 360~369
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.360
Recently various types of college with different schooling years, different methods of providing education service and so forth, appeared whereas students as their customers also have various traits. This study aims to verify the brand personality congruity difference among college types as well as analyse the effect of congruity on trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study undertakes the following researches with five brand personality scale(BPS) which presented in the previous research. First research was rather exploratory to clarify the difference in the personality congruity between college-student according to different types of college. As result, 4-year university was highly congruent in competence, sophistication, and ruggedness, while 2-year college was highly congruent in sincerity and cyber university was high in excitement. The second part of the research analysed the effects of personality congruity on trust, satisfaction, and brand loyalty. Results support that brand personality congruity significantly affects trust, satisfaction, and brand loyalty.
Directions of the Work and Program based on the Supporting Law, Policy and System for Multicultural Family
Lee, Yoon-Jung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 370~378
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.370
The aims of this research are to grasp the supporting volition of the government as increasing multicultural family and discussing direction of the work and program for them. Therefore, this article inquired into the structure and the view through the supporting the law in 2008 and policy in 2009 of multicultural family and the contents of the work and program divided into the fields of essentiality and speciality for the multicultural family support center. As a result, this article implied three directions ; first, the practicality of contents based on the needs and requirement of multicultural family, second, the connection of multicultural family life cycle based on circumstances and resources, third, the mutual direction of effect based on promoting the character of a nation between multicultural family and others.
Effect of Leisure & Recreation Liberal Art Lecture in the University on Leisure Attitude
Lee, Yeon-Ju ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 379~386
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.379
The purpose of this study was to exam the effect of the leisure lecture on the class participants' leisure attitude. To achieve the purpose, a experiment method was performed. The167 subjects for this experiment were extracted from two leisure lectures of a university located in north Chungcheong province. With those subjects, a leisure lecture was operated for two hours in a week for fifteen weeks. To collect data, Ragheb & Beard's LAS(Leisure Attitude Scale) was used. The scale was used twice for the subjects. The first was tested at the beginning of first lecture and the second was at the last lecture. The collected data was analyzed with paired t-test by SPSS 12.0 program for Windows. The results proved that the leisure lecture affected on the subjects' all four sub-factors(cognitive, affective, intent, behavioral) of leisure attitude. Furthermore, the effect of the lecture was different by sex and grade.
Mediating Effects of Trusts on the Relationship between Human Capitals and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Hotel Firms
Kang, Sang-Muk ; Ha, Yong-Kyu ; Chung, Yeon-Hong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 387~397
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.387
The purpose of this study tried to reveal how human capitals of deluxe hotels located in Seoul affects corporate trust and organizational citizenship behaviors. In addition, it tries to find out the mediating effect that the trust among coworkers have contributed to human capital and organizational citizenship behaviors. The result of this study shows that Human capital have a great effect on the trust among employees and organizational citizenship behaviors. And it has been outed that the trust between the company and employees is a mediating effect between human capital and organizational citizenship behaviors. The results of this research shows that for competitive advantage under the competitive environment of the hotel industry, in addition to human resource management and organizational management, the management system which emphasizes the importance of human capital and the trust among company members should be built.
Structural Relationship among Self Leadership, Attitude and Customer Orientation of Employees in Travel Agency
Baek, Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Soon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 398~406
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.398
The purpose of this study was to research the relationships among self-leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and customer orientation one of the performance variables of employees in travel agency. As more and more travel agency organizations move toward competitive environments, organizational members at all levels are being encouraged to take greater responsibility for their own job tasks and work behaviors. Self-leadership involves the influence people exert over themselves to achieve the self-motivation and self-direction needed to accomplish desirable outcomes. To accomplish this study, it was determined that the analysis derived from a hypothesis and literature reviews and data collected from 206 employees in travel agency.The results of empirical analysis showed as follows. First, Self-leadership has a significant effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and customer orientation. Second, Job satisfaction has a significant effect on organizational commitment and customer orientation. Third, Organizational commitment has a significant effect on customer orientation. Based on these findings, the implications and limitations of the study were presented including some directions for future studies.
Preference and Feasibility Traditional Accommodation in Jae Cheon City
Lee, Sang-Mi ; Kim, Heung-Seob ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 407~415
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.407
This paper is to suggest direction for development, and to analysis feasibility and preference traditional hotel which will be build in Jae cheon city. The questionnaires are distributed each50 in local area (Jae cheon, Dan Yang, Cheong Ju, Won Ju) and 100 in seoul, then used for data analysis 248.The results are as followed. First, it was showed that architectural style which is mixed korean traditional style outside with modern style inside, 100,000 (won) lower room cost, Korean restaurant, and various facilities. Second, two main reasons for using traditional house are to proper room price, and good location which is tourist attraction near lodging. Third. accommodations which is compromise between Korean and Western style is closely related with lower room cost (100,000 won), and natural-oriented traditional facilities. Fourth, traditional accommodations which is blend Korean style with Western style are strongly connected proper room and food & beverage price, and sanitation.
Production and Usage of Korean Human Information in KISTI
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Bock ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 416~421
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.416
The KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information) began to produce the Korean human information called Visible Korean and Digital Korean since 2000 because there was no human information in Korea which could represent the physical characteristics of Korean human body. The Visible Korean consists of CT, MR, sectioned and segmented images of Korean human body. We obtained the serially sectioned images by grinding the Korean cadaver in horizontal direction and segmented these images by outlining the inner organs of human. We have produced the sectioned images of Korean male whole body, male head, and female pelvis in2008. The segmentation and 3D reconstruction of these images are now in proceeding. The Digital Korean consists of CT images of about 100 Korean cadavers. These CT images were segmented by individual bone, reconstructed to produce the 3D bone models and the skin surface model was also added. The mechanical properties of individual bones were obtained by measuring the property of individual bone sample. We have distributed these Korean human informations to users in domestic and abroad. About 70 institutes in domestic, and 20 institutes in abroad have used our data in research use and nearly 160 proceedings and articles were published since 2001. We think these human informations have a role of medical information infrastructure that could be used in the field of medical education, biomechanics, virtual reality etc.
Protection and Utilization of Traditional Knowledge Resources through Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal(KTKP)
Shin, Jin-Seop ; Lee, Yu-Seon ; Lee, Myung-Sun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 422~426
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.422
In recent years, multinational companies' pirate cases for traditional knowledge and genetic resources are growing. Meeting of International Authorities(MIA) agreed that traditional knowledge documentation should be included in the non-patent literature part of the Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT) minimum documentation as a means of protection. In Korea, Korean Intellectual Property Office(KIPO) and Rural Development Administration(RDA) have played a leading role in traditional knowledge-related protection activities. KIPO's Korean Journal of Traditional Knowledge(KJTK) was selected as a PCT minimum documentation in 2008, and has been serviced through Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal(KTKP) since 2007. RDA has published several books which contain traditional agricultural knowledge and Korean local food information compiled from 1997 to now. Traditional knowledge of RDA is searchable in KTKP from 2010.In this paper, we introduce overview of activities for protection and utilization of traditional knowledge.
Analysis of Scientific Item Networks from Science and Biology Textbooks
Park, Byeol-Na ; Lee, Yoon-Kyeong ; Ku, Ja-Eul ; Hong, Young-Soo ; Kim, Hak-Yong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 427~435
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.427
We extracted core terms by constructing scientific item networks from textbooks, analyzing their structures, and investigating the connected information and their relationships. For this research, we chose three high-school textbooks from different publishers for each three subjects, i.e, Science, Biology I and Biology II, to construct networks by linking scientific items in each sentence, where used items were regarded as nodes. Scientific item networks from all textbooks showed scare-free character. When core networks were established by applying k-core algorithm which is one of generally used methods for removing lesser weighted nodes and links from complex network, they showed the modular structure. Science textbooks formed four main modules of physics, chemistry, biology and earth science, while Biology I and Biology II textbooks revealed core networks composed of more detailed specific items in each field. These findings demonstrate the structural characteristics of networks in textbooks, and suggest core scientific items helpful for students' understanding of concept in Science and Biology.
Perception and Attitude about Risk from Science & Technology-Focused on Risk from Electromagnetic Wave-
Song, Hae-Ryong ; Kim, Won-Je ; Jung, Se-Il ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 436~445
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.436
The purpose of this research is to know what factors have impacts on their risk perception and attitude in risk communications. This research shows the research findings that the determinant factors of risk perception are the possibility to control the risk, benefits of recognition, the specialty of risk management, and the usefulness of information about the risk. And also the results have shown that the determinant factors of risk attitudes are the possibility to control the risk, the understanding of science and technology, the familiarity with the risk, the usefulness information about the risk, the accuracy of information, and the initiative in the protection of citizens from the risk. As the results have indicated, common determinant factors are the usefulness of information about the risk and the possibility to control the risk. Both of them that affect risk perception and attitudes on electromagnetic waves are important factors in risk communication research. Therefore this study shows that what factors suppose to be considered important in risk communication process about risk of electromagnetic waves.
Analysis of Human Resources Practices and Career Path Movement In the Field of Convergence Technologies
Lee, Jung-mann ; Hur, Tae-Young ; Lee, Jung-Bae ; Hwang, Gue-Hee ; Om, Ki-Yong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 446~459
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.446
The technological convergence of IT, BT and NT is expected to drive technological revolution in the twenty first century, so a large amount of R&D expenditure is being concentrated on the development of fusion technology worldwide. Researches on how to direct and manage fusion technology development, however, are rare up to the present. This study investigates technology development and S&T human resources practices in the fusion technology are a focusing on the career path movement of researchers. On the basis of case study and a field survey of 209 scientists and engineers from academia, research institutes and industry, four strategic directions are recommended for improving human resources development in convergence technologies. The limitations and contributions of the study are also discussed.
Confusion in the Perception of English Anterior Coronal Consonants by Korean EFL Students
Cho, Mi-Hui ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 10, issue 5, 2010, Pages 460~466
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2010.10.5.460
It is well-known that Korean EFL learners have difficulties in producing English fricatives which are not in the inventory of Korean and consequently tend to replace English fricatives with stops. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether Korean students also have difficulties perceiving English anterior coronal consonants including fricatives. To this end, forty Korean college students participated in an identification test which consisted of 24 nonce words with English anterior coronal consonants in 4 different prosodic locations (CV, VC, VCVV,VVCV). It was shown that the mean accuracy rates were higher in strong position like CV and VCVV than in weak position like VC and VVCV, providing confusion matrices for each target consonant. It was also found that Korean participants had a great difficulty identifying English[
] and [
], which are novel in Korean. Importantly, the confusion patterns found in the perception test tended not to be identical with those found in the previous production studies in that both stops and fricatives were misperceived as fricatives while fricatives were misproduced as stops. Further, perceptual devoicing and intervocalic voicing were attested inVC and intervocalic position, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, pedagogical implications were drawn.