Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Contents Association
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
The Use of Calligraphy for Attention and Liking : Focusing on Interaction Effects of Emotion and Involvement
Ahn, Hee Ran ; Shin, Hyung-Deok ; Chung, Taeyoung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.001
Calligraphy has become popular in recent years. Designers use calligraphy to draw consumer visual attention and liking by delivering friendly and gentle images. This paper analyzes the effects of calligraphy on consumer response to advertisement design. Regression analyses show calligraphy has a positive effect on consumer visual attention and liking, particularly in sensible product/service. In low involvement product/service, however, calligraphy has a negative effect. These results imply that designers should be careful when they use calligraphy.
Content Analysis of Smartphone Addiction Management Applications: Self-Determination Theory Perspective
Lee, Sook-Jung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 12~22
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.012
The present study aims to evaluate the self-determined motivational features of smartphone addiction management apps. This study analyzed whether smartphone addiction management apps have features to support adolescent users' basic needs, that is, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. 26 apps were analyzed. Among them, 8 apps were parental management apps installed on a parent's phone and a child's phone, and 18 apps were self-management apps installed on a child's phone. According to a content analysis, only 3 of 26 apps addressed all three basic needs. Overall, the functions to support users' competence and relatedness were rarely found. Particularly, parental management apps had a high level of controlingness. The results suggest that the addiction management apps have limitations in stimulating adolescent users' self-determined motivation to manage their phone use.
Effects of Authentic Leadership and Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Jin, Yun-Hee ; Kim, Sung-Jong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 23~35
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.023
This study investigates the effects of authentic leadership and organizational supports on the organizational citizens behavior of public welfare facility employee. Structural equation model with four latent variables were constructed to test the hypothetical relationships between variables. Out of 230 people from welfare facilities in Yong-in City were sampled and 216 were answered the questionnaire. Results suggests that authentic leadership and organizational support perceptions were shown to have a positive(+) significant effects on the job engagement and organizational citizenship behavior. Authentic leadership and perceived organizational support are effected as a direct positive effect on job engagement, and the influence of perceived organizational support was recognized as greater fact than the authentic leadership. Variable 'job engagement' took a intermediating role between two independent variables and organizational citizenship behavior. Based on the hypothesis test results we might conclude that welfare facility employee whose task require emotional engagement need to be supported by systematic plan of material resources.
A Research on Derivation of Strategic Brain Research Areas by the AHP Approach
Kim, Junhuck ; Suh, Dukrok ; Choi, Jee Hyun ; Kim, Han-Gook ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 36~44
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.036
This article serves as a guideline to the policy on Korea brain science program. Given limited resources within Korea, setting priorities in brain science topics is important in science policy. In this study, we determined the priorities of important brain science topics based on the frontier properties, innovativeness, and prospective outcome. Firstly, the significant topics were chosen after the interview with the top nationwide brain scientists, which were neuroglia, brain precision medicine, neuromorphic engineering, neuroepigenetics, and brain oscillation. Secondly, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) survey were conducted to prioritize and assign the important weight for not only the criteria but also the research topics in pair choice evaluation. In regards to the importance among the criteria, prospects of the topic was determined to be the top criterion to ranked criterion to consider in the government investment. The priority of the research topics was determined by the order for the project to be considered in national science policy in a comparative way.
Mobile Phone Use Pattern and Visual Display Terminal Syndrome Symptom Experience in Female Adolescents
Park, Soonjoo ; Yang, Sumin ; Yoon, Jihye ; Choi, Hannha ; Han, Jayeon ; Kwon, Sooyeon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 45~55
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.045
The purpose of this study was to identify the relation between mobile phone use and visual display terminal syndrome symptom experience in female students from middle school and high school. The convenience sample consisted of 349 female students in four schools. The data were collected from May to June in 2013 using VDTS Subjective Symptom Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data using SPSS 21.0. Almost all (96.3%) female students use mobile phone. Among them, 87.7% of the subjects experienced more than one VDTS symptom and the average score was
in VDTS symptom experience. Eye related symptom was most experienced and musculoskeletal symptom was the highest in severity among five subdomain of VDTS symptoms. There were significant differences in VDTS symptom scores in accordance with posture, hours of use, and break type during mobile phone use. These findings suggest that the education program for adolescents would be necessary, and the development of checklist would be useful for adolescents to check themselves.
Friend Recommendation Scheme Using Moving Patterns of Mobile Users in Social Networks
Bok, Kyoungsoo ; Seo, Kiwon ; Lim, Jongtae ; Yoo, Jaesoo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 56~64
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.056
With the development of information technologies and the wide spread of smart devices, the number of users of social network services has increased exponentially. Studies that identify user preferences and recommend similar users in these social network services have been actively done. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to recommend social network friends with similar preferences through the moving pattern analysis of mobile users. The proposed scheme removes the meaningless trajectories via companions, short time trajectories, and repeated trajectories to determine the correct user preference. The proposed scheme calculates user similarity using the meaningful trajectories and recommends users with similar preferences as friends. It is shown through performance evaluation that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes.
Analysis of Risk Factor for Sinkhole Formation by using Delphi
Lee, Kyung-Su ; Kim, Tae-Hyeong ; Kim, Tai-Hoon ; Park, Sang-Hyuk ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 65~75
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.065
This research was started in order to recognize the necessity of systematic and scientific approach to sinkholes, and to imply from an empirical point of view that a detailed evaluation method and measure for technique should be devised. As the result drew the risk factors that cause sinkholes by reflecting the opinions of water resources and ground experts, this research is expected to contribute to the development of a more systematic and pre-preventive evaluation index by preparing a countermeasure against sinkholes. In the future, it is necessary to develop an evaluation index toward the risk factors of sinkholes, in order to establish a scientific basis and objectivity that can determine priority, by subdividing the decision-making process that is required for preparing a countermeasure against sinkholes. In addition, a detailed methodology and related technique to measure each evaluation index should be continued to be discussed, in order to review the applicability of evaluation indices on actual sites.
Graphic Design Curricula to Improve Practical Skills Contents
Kim, Hee-Jun ; Park, Seong-Hyoen ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 76~87
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.076
The purpose of this study is to examine university graphic design curricula to cultivate creative specialized manpower equipped with practical skills. To attain the goal, this author investigated the curricula of four-year, three-year, and two-year universities located in the capital area including Seoul and interviewed those working in 10 specialized design companies located in Seoul and Incheon. According to the findings of analyzing the curricula, four-year, three-year, and two-year universities all emphasize practices based on projects and inquiries more rather than the mastery of basic design. Among the areas, publication graphic designs are emphasized the most, and the next are visual multimedia designs. However, advertising marketing designs are not or hardly emphasized in the curricula. But specialized university education demanded by those specialized design companies is the education emphasizing the mastery of basic design more rather than practices based on projects and inquiries. Concerning the cultivation of specialized graphic designers having central roles as the pillars of knowledge industry or creative industry demanded in this age, it is needed to have a new perspective to reorganize specialized education grounded on close cooperation and favorable relationship between universities in charge of specialized education and those specialized companies.
Study on Strategic Plan for Ensuring the Global Competitiveness of Traditional Performing Arts Industry
Lim, Young-Soon ; Meng, Hai-Yang ; Bae, Ki-Hyung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 88~99
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.088
Traditional Performing Arts is a key element of national competitiveness that represents the identity of a country. Preserving traditional performing arts such as traditional culture overall aggregate such as literature, art, music, dance, theater and enable it to meet future national culture is to secure a competitive brand. Meanwhile, it shrouded in advance global success of K-pop and TV content, such as our popular culture, but our traditional performing arts sector, there has been a steady effort to receive the attention of the world and expanding capacity and performance. Now, this point will be a new policy approach needed to expand more popular in both domestic and world demand in traditional performing arts. In this study, we propose a strategic plan to raise the popularization and industrialization of our own needs and unique traditional performing arts opportunities for successful overseas expansion and promotion of the content of traditional performing arts.With the help of information technology.
The Influence of Job Characteristics and Job Stress on Children's Hospital Nurses' Turnover Intention
Kim, Se-Young ; Back, Seong-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 100~113
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.100
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the influence of children's hospital nurses' job characteristics and job stress on turnover intention. Method: The subjects were 148 nurses who have been working in 6 children's hospitals located in G city. Measurement tools used for this study included job characteristics were created by Lee, and modified by Hong, and job stress tool developed Kim & Ku and modified by Choi. And the tools used for assessing turnover intention were created by Mobley and Becker and modified by Kim. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, the independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson' Correlation and regression on SPSS 21.0 program. Result: Job challenge and job fitness among the sub-areas of job characteristics, job stress and salary were identified as factors influencing turnover intention. These factors explained 36.5% of variance of turnover intention. Conclusion: In conclusion, this results can be used to help the children's hospitals creates an environment where nurses can enhance Job challenge and job fitness also, reduce job stress which lead to turnover rate and turnover intention.
Analysis for Chloride Penetration in Concrete under Deicing Agent using Multi Layer Diffusion
Seo, Ji-Seok ; Kwon, Seung-Jun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 114~122
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.114
Concrete is cost-benefit and high-durable construction material, however durability problem can be caused due to steel corrosion under chloride attack. Recently deicing salt has been widely spread in snowing season, which accelerates micro-cracks and scaling in surface concrete and the melted deicing salt causes corrosion in embedded steel. The previous governing equation of Fick's 2nd Law cannot evaluate the deteriorated surface concrete so that another technique is needed for the surface effect. This paper presents chloride penetration analysis technique for concrete subjected to deicing salt utilizing multi-layer diffusion model and time-dependent diffusion behavior. For the work, field investigation results of concrete pavement exposed deicing salt for 18 years are adopted. Through reverse analysis, deteriorated depth and increased diffusion coefficient in the depth are evaluated, which shows 12.5~15.0mm of deteriorated depth and increased diffusion coefficient by 2.0 times. The proposed technique can be effectively applied to concrete with two different diffusion coefficients considering enhanced or deteriorated surface conditions.
The Impact of Art Gallery Visitors' Motivation and Perceived Quality of Experience on Satisfaction
Park, Jowon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.123
The present study attempted to explore the impact of art gallery visitors' motivation and perceived quality of experience on satisfaction. For this purpose surveys were conducted at art galleries. The factor analyses identified four dimensions (knowledge, leisure, yearn for culture and art, and relationship) of motivations and another four dimensions (esthetic/entertainment, education, escapist, and sense of belonging) of perceived quality of experience. Subsequently, regression analyses revealed the influence of motivations and perceived quality of experience on satisfaction. Based on the findings, managerial implications and suggestions for further studies were discussed.
The Impact of Self-control of Adolescence on the Teacher Attachment
Kang, Dong-Hoon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 132~143
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.132
The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of self-control of adolescence on the teacher attachment. In addition to this, it is to verify the mediating effects of self-esteem and self-confidence of adolescence. For this reason, we analyzed the data of 2,854 students in the second grade of the middle school in 2010 by a model of Structural Equation. The main findings were as follows. First, self-control of adolescence was found to give a significant positive effect in teacher attachment. In this case, the self-control of adolescence was found to be significant indirect effect and direct effect, and total effect. Second, self-esteem and self-confidence of adolescence, it was found that self-control of adolescence has a significant meditating effect in the process of a significant positive effect in teacher attachment. Based on the results of these studies, we have proposed the importance of the self-control training of adolescence.
Case Study on Osteology Practice at Human Anatomy Course: Focused on the Students in the Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science
Kim, Jin-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 144~152
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.144
This study was conducted for the first time based on the evidence that cadaver practice is not easy in the university without medical school where cadaver dissection is not easy to look for. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of osteology practice at human anatomy course for students at the freshman stage in college of health science without medical school. Both self report questionnaires and evaluation paper were analyzed depending on the course of higher education and gender. As a result of analysis, most students thought that osteology practice was interesting and it helped to understand of anatomy lecture. But students from liberal arts had poor understanding of bone's direction compared with students from natural sciences. And most students wanted to do cadaver dissectionafter osteology practice. In conclusion, osteology practice was recommended to student's expectation as well as education of gross anatomy in department of biomedical laboratory science, collage of health science without medical school. This study suggested that practice of gross anatomy should run parallel with lecture.
The Characteristics of Reception of Hallyu in the Philippines
Hur, Yoon Jung ; Song, Jung Eun ; Jang, Wonho ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 153~169
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.153
This study aims to understand the background and characteristics of receiving Hallyu based on the cognitions and attitudes toward Korea and Korean culture in the Philippines. With the background of Business Hallyu and Cultural Hallyu between the two countries, this study conducted the Focus Group Discussion(FGI) research, literature research and analyzed the statistical resources. The economic and cultural exchanges between Korea and the Philippines have been increased by the effect of Hallyu, but the socio-cultural conflicts, such as Kopino issue, crimes related to Koreans have been also grown. Thus, the Hallyu research focused on the Philippines is necessary, and it will be a cruical variable to forecast the socio-cultural relationship between Korea and the Philippines. The FGI research recruited participants in both undergraduates in the Phillippines and the Filippino migrants in Korea. The FGI participants of each group shows the differences of cognitions, attitudes, and actions to consume Hallyu, and the participants of both groups agrees that experiences of contacting Koreans influence on understanding Korea and its culture. The FGI participants have tried to watching Korean dramas, learning Korean languages, and building relationships with Koreans in order to adjust Korean culture. In order to improve the relations between Korea and the Philipines, Hallyu needs to promote its values as the unique culture and also universal culture in the world. Korea should increase understanding of the Filippino culture to overcome cultural differences and make efforts on localize the Hallyu 3.0 in the Phillippines.
Difference Analysis of Life Satisfaction and Successful Aging on Difference in National Pension Receipt
Yu, Ji-Yeon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 170~178
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.170
This study analyzed difference in national pension receipt on life satisfaction and successful aging in people aged 60 or over, and then analyzed influence factors on them. As a result, The difference of receipt affected life satisfaction and successful aging. This means a large receipt is related to high life satisfaction and successful aging. The regression analysis result also showed the difference of receipt was significant in life satisfaction, but wasn't significant in successful aging. National pension receipt can increase life satisfaction by providing financial security, but for successful aging, social supports like good use of spare time are needed. Also, currently satisfaction with national pension receipt was low and receipt wasn't enough to stabilize their lives. Therefore, a political plan for improving receipt satisfaction and living a stable life through good use of spare time will be required in future.
Analysis of Teaching and Learning Results in Mathematics using Reconstructed Textbook -Focusing on Vocational High School-
So, Jae Hong ; Jeon, Young Ju ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 179~194
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.179
The purpose of this study is to find out how the reconstructed textbook for vocational high school students influences on students' scholastic achievement and affective domain when it is used in the class of vocational high school. To tackle the study problems, the researcher chose two classes of the first grade in G commercial high school and gave lessons to each of the two classes; one class, as an experimental group, was taught with the reconstructed textbook and the other, as a comparative group, was taught with the original textbook. The following results are derived from the study. First, it turned out in the post academic achievement test result, there is no significant difference between the experimental group and the comparison group, by significant level; .05. However, the prior academic achievement test result shows that the average of the comparison group is 0.44 points higher than the average of the experimental group, while the post test result shows that the average of the experimental group is 1.96 points higher than the average of the comparison group. Second, it turned out by the post affective domain test result, there is no significant difference between the experimental group and the comparison group, by significant level; .05, and any significant difference did not occur in all five areas. However, the whole point of the affective domain and the points of each area of experimental group are higher than those of the comparison group, and the degree of improvement in experimental group is also greater than that of the comparison group. In conclusion, the effectiveness of utilizing a reconstructed textbook in vocational high school math class can be expected in the long term.
Effect of Perceived Value on Customer's Repurchase Intention in a Coffee Chain Context: Focused on Utilitarian, Hedonic, and Social Value
Kim, Byoungsoo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 195~203
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.195
This study examined customer's purchase decision-making processes in a coffee chain context. We posit customer satisfaction, brand image, and perceive value as key drivers of forming customer's repurchase intention. From the perspective of multidimensional perceived value concept, the effects of utilitarian, hedonic, and social value on customer's decision-making processes were investigated. The proposed model was empirically tested by using survey data collected from 232 university students who often visit several coffee chains. LISREL has been used to perform these analysis. The proposed theoretical model accounts for 67% of the variance in repurchase intention and 73% of the variance in customer satisfaction. The analysis results indicate that customer satisfaction and brand image play an important role in forming customer's repurchase intention. Further, utilitarian and hedonic values significantly affect customer's repurchase intention, whereas social value negatively influences it.
Perspective of Juvenile Problems by Musical
Kim, Hye-Jin ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 204~210
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.204
The reason to research the musical
is it has a lot of useful things for the various studies department not only Korea Musical Theatre own although it has been a successful musical theater on the Off-Broadway by Reboot culture era. Even though
does not release on Korea, the popular of the show and powerful results of environments have delivered through the international magazines and Youtube channels to Korea. To study of Musical
will be lead us to the world which adopted to the social problems as the youth school violence, family communication hurdle, and religion missing by script not only the musical drama but the interpretation for Teen-agers social problem. There are many kinds of Neo educations are proved by smart learning as STEAM. The students who have been studied with the smartphone, I-pad, personal computer, or laptop as smart tools for class are familliar as feedback processing speedly. It would make them learn the skill for their knowledge of a digital age, but it should not let them how to understand other people's emotion as real although STEAM has emtion part. Besides they have communicated on the social network not the ordinary man but the special ego by themselves, as mention or retweet as like their amusements and make the gossip group. This study would show the perspective for understanding Teen-agers Social Problem and who is the victims today's juvenile problems though the musical
based on Jim Taulli's directing.
An Exploratory Study on Pro Bono Sustainability
Shim, Mi-Seung ; Park, Ji-Hyun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 211~223
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.211
Pro bono, a type of voluntary activity, has been considered important in enhancing desirable voluntary activities in our society. This study conducts research on the concept and sustainability of pro bono activities. In doing that, the study conducts focus group interviews with the pro bono activists who have been doing voluntary works for at least six months. Particularly, the study focuses on how to stimulate the participation of people with expertise in probono voluntary activities. The findings suggest that hub-centers be established in managing and connecting probono activities among probono volunteers and keep them motivated. Even though probono activism assume the principles of voluntarism and no-salary, it is necessary to provide potential probono volunteers with several incentives such as tax break and income tax deduction.
Numerical Analysis of Caching Performance in Content Centric Networks Using Markov Chain
Yang, Won Seok ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 224~230
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.224
Recently, CCN(Content Centric Network) has been extensively interested in the literature to transfer data traffic efficiently according to the rapid growth of multimedia services on the Internet. CCN is a new networking paradigm to deliver contents efficiently based on the named content not the named or addressed host. This paper presents a mathematical approach for analyzing CCN-caching systems with two routers. Considering the stochastic characteristics of communication networks, the caching system is modeled as a two dimensional Markov chain. This paper analyzes the structural feature of the transition rate matrix in the Markov chain and presents a numerical solution for the CCN-caching performance of the two router system. In addition, various numerical examples are presented.
Fatigue, Personality Traits, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement in Graduate-entry Medical Students
Hwang, In Cheol ; Park, Kwi Hwa ; Yim, Jun ; Kim, Jin Joo ; Ko, Kwang Pil ; Bae, Seung Min ; Kyung, Sun Young ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 231~240
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.231
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among fatigue, personality, learning strategies, and academic achievement of medical students. 146 students from year 1 to year 4 at one medical school participated in this study. Students completed the fatigue, Big Five personality traits(Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness), learning, strategies. The academic achievement of students measured by GPA. The data were analyzed by t-test and stepwise multiple regression. The student's fatigue differed by grade, and the students of low grade had higher scores than high grade. But personality traits and learning strategies were not significantly different by grade. The factors that affect on academic achievement differ by grade. In low grade, neuroticism, extraversion, and rehearsal affected students' academic achievement. In high grade, conscientiousness and extraversion had an effect on the academic achievement of students. These results could guide the design of medical education improvement, and be useful in developing a supporting program for medical students.
Prostitution and Social Power in Korean Independent Documentary Unnie
Ghe, Woon-Gyoung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 241~249
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.241
This study focuses on Korean independent documentary Unnie dealing with prostitution in Korean society. Not only does it discuss profuse discourse about Unnie such as politics of the film, Korean independent documentary as a tool of struggle, an organized narrative for anti-prostitution and social power of the film but also it deals with prostitution matters related with the film such as prostitute rights, anti-prostitution and pro-prostitution. And it diagnoses possibilities of modifying audiences' recognition and participatory spectatorship with Unnie, conducting a survey of 202 undergraduates.
The Mediation Model Verification of Private Self-consciousness on Game Addiction and Aggression
Lim, Jeeyoung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 250~261
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.250
This study was conducted to verify the mediation model of private self-consciousness on game addiction and aggression. Data from 439 boys were included in the analysis. The results are as follows. First, correlation analyses revealed that game addiction was positively correlated with aggression and private self-consciousness. Private self-consciousness was also positively correlated with aggression. Considering two factors of private self-consciousness, game addiction showed a significant positive correlation only with self-reflectiveness factor. Although two factors of private self-consciousness showed positive correlations with game addiction, regression analyses revealed that self-reflectiveness was the significant predictor of aggression. Second, the structural equation analyses showed that private self-consciousness, especially self-reflectiveness was found to partially mediate the influence of game addiction on aggression. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for further study were discussed.
Evaluation of the Life and Job Satisfaction of Indie Musicians
Chung, Yoon-Kyung ; Jeon, Gyongran ; Kim, Jongha Bell ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 262~274
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.262
Academic interests have long left from the field of indie musicians, despite of their social and cultural values. This also means indie musician policies have enjoyed lack of evaluation. Main purpose of this study is to understand the indie musicians' environment, music activities and their job satisfaction by employing online survey method which were conducted over 105 Korean indie musicians. Survey results show that indie musicians feel the lack of performing facilities that can hold over 50 seats. Indie musician group with experience of 6 years and more has more chances of performing at big facilities. This group also tends to play more often, and earn more money from music activities. Also, analysis shows that satisfaction level of Indie musicians is affected by two factors - music activities and social reputation. From the results, we can conclude that indie musician policy needs to build grounds to harmonize supports from various field rather than play as a single supporter. Patriarchal attitude that government should do and can do everything is no more in effective at least in indie music field.
The Creativity Forecasting of Design Idea Sketches According to the Ambiguity of Visual Stimuli and Idea-Sharing Situations
Jang, Sun Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 275~288
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.275
A decision tree analysis was performed by categorizing the idea sketches produced in the group environment into three different levels of visual stimuli ambiguity (vague, ambiguous, and definite) and two idea-sharing situations (before and after). We then examined the predicted values for the creativity of each group's idea sketches, the factors that led to high creativity scores, and their standards. The results of the analyses indicated that the Resistance to Premature Closure, Originality, Elaboration, ness, and Similarity represented important predictors of the creativity of design idea sketches according to the level of ambiguity of the visual stimuli used and whether ideas were shared or not. The group presented with vague stimuli after sharing ideas scored the highest predicted creativity value and the group presented with definite stimuli after sharing ideas scored the lowest predicted creativity value.
The Effects of Early Childhood Teacher's Self-differentiation and Self-efficacy on Psychological Well-being
Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Sun-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 289~300
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.289
This research purposed to verify early childhood teacher's self-differentiation and self-efficacy on psychological well-being. The subjects were 293 teachers in 39 early childhood education institutions in K city and J province.The research tools for measurement have been used to self-differentiation (Je Seokbong, 1989) self-efficacy(Park Seonyeong, 2012) and psychological well-being(Ko Kyungae, 2010). The data is analyzed through t test, one-way analysis of variance, correlation, regression analysis. In conclusion, their ages of general background that have a distinction betweeen self-differentiation and self- efficacy as well as psychological well-being, these two self-defferenciation and self- efficacy have a correlation and for being affected by psychological well-being as a fluctuation. That is, teachers who have psychological struggle and anxiety are insufficient to teach young children warmly and comfortably, therefore, they should accept self and young children positively, maintain warm relationship, and develop their own ability or talent, and achieve self matureness as professionals.
The Effects of Experiential Consumption Characteristics in the Hotel Business on Customers' Revisiting and Switching Intention
Lim, Hyunjeong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 301~312
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.301
The purpose of this study is the findings of the effects of the experiential consumption characteristics in the hotel business on customers' revisiting and switching Intention. Also, this study is to examine revisiting and switching intention in accordance with visit frequency. For this study, the author analyzed empirically 534 copies of questionnaires. The first finding of this study discovered that playfulness, symbolism, usefulness and aesthetics had positive effects on revisiting intention. Second, symbolism, usefulness and aesthetics had negative effects on switching intention. Especially, symbolism had more significant effect on revisiting and switching intention than other variables. And finally, visit frequency had moderating effects between the experiential consumption characteristics and revisiting intention, switching intention. The hotel companies are possible to obtain several strategic implications on the basis of this empirical results.
The Influence of CSR Beneficiary Appeals on the Attractiveness of Corporate Identity
Kim, Moon Seop ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 313~323
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.313
Companies are investing in CSR activities as a way to fulfill their societal obligations. It is expected that companies' CSR activities would be an effective investment to enhance corporate image, leading to consumers' purchase behavior. However, sometimes, CSR activities have a null or negative effect on the evaluation of company. The purpose of this research is to find ways to solve these problems and it reviews some research concerning donation and introduce these research into CSR. Specifically, this study examines the effect of CSR beneficiary appeals on the attractiveness of corporate identity and the mediating role of the inferred motives of CSR. The results show that consumers evaluate the corporate identity less attractive which employ the self-benefit CSR appeal. In addition, the findings also suggest that the effect of the CSR beneficiary appeal on the attractiveness of corporate identity is mediated by the inferred motives. These results suggest some managerial implications concerning communication guidelines of CSR. Specifically, companies need to communicate sincere motives of CSR rather than business.
The Effects of Fairness on Abusive Supervision and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Focusing on the Mediating Effect of Abusive Supervision
Nam, Keong-Suk ; Yoo, Young-Jin ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 324~334
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.324
The purposes of this study were to identify the causal effects of distributive fairness, procedural fairness and interactional fairness on abusive supervision and the causal ones of abusive supervision on organizational citizenship behavior(OCB). Also this study aimed to investigate the mediating effects of abusive supervision on the causal relationships between three fairnesses and organizational citizenship behavior. The sample of this study were customer-contact employees of restaurants among Youngnam province. 376 questionnaires were used for the empirical analyses. According to the research findings, distributive fairness and interactional fairness had negative influences to abusive supervision and abusive supervision had a negative influence to OCB. Another research findings were that abusive supervision had the mediating effects on the causal relationships between two fairnesses(distributive and interactional) and organizational citizenship behavior. Managerial implications of the research findings are that restaurant managers should set up the organizational culture of respecting employees each other and provide training for the level of supervisor to foster the organizational culture. In the field of restaurant industry, training is very important for employees to foster this organizational culture as this industry has the environment of becoming abusive supervisor for the reason of supervisors' being exposed to lots of physical and psychological burden of works.
The Use of Music for Healthy Elderly : Literature Review
Lee, Yea-Bit-Na ; Kim, Soo Ji ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 335~346
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.335
This study aimed to review Korean-written and English-written studies on music intervention for older adults in terms of research variables and type of music application. Electronic databases and music-related journals were searched and a total of 40 studies, 19 Korean-written and 21 English-written studies, were included for analysis. The results showed that music intervention studies for older adults began to be conducted in Korea in the late 1990s and have continuously increased thus far, which is similar to studies overseas. Emotional area, especially depression, was targeted the most frequently in both studies in Korea and overseas. While singing of traditional folk song or popular music were applied the most in Korean studies, listening to classical music or relaxing music was primarily observed in studies overseas. While both studies in Korea and overseas used original music frequently, Korean-written studies used live music and showed tendency to select music based on preferences of participants more than studies overseas. These results indicate that growing population of older adults and increased needs for successful aging have been sufficiently reflected in studies on music-based intervention. Cultural and societal factors might affect the differences between studies in Korea and studies overseas. Future studies on music intervention considering cultural and societal needs of this population from multidimensional approach were also suggested.
Study on the Impact from the Concentration of Technological Innovation Activity to the Management Achievement : Focused in Listed ICT Companies
Ko, Young-kwon ; Park, Jong-woo ; Jo, Dong-hyuk ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 347~358
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.347
ICT sector has been made a great deal of achievements for past 20 or more years in the aspects of the industrial promotion and the efficiency improvement under the strong leadership by the government for the informatization and still leads the Korean industries. However, the previous studies are mostly on how the quantitative growth of patents impacts a company's management achievements while being insufficient on the qualitative level. In this study, an analysis is attempted on the impact from the qualitative level of patents held by a ICT company leading Korean industry to its management achievements. In other words, if the concentration of technological innovation activities, a scale to measure the qualitative level of possessed patents is influential to the growth and the profit of a company is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the current time technological superiority index, RTA and the concentration index, CRn of the technological innovation activities significantly impact to the growth and the profit of company. This study demonstrates the positive impact from a highly qualitative level of patents to the growth and the profit of a company in ICT sector in the current circumstance of insufficient researches on the qualitative level of patents. Therefore, this study is expected to present a new start point for the future studies.
Factors Affecting Self-efficacy, Health Belief, and Knowledge on Vaccination against Cervical Cancer among Nursing Students
Shin, Mi-A ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 359~367
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.359
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing on human papillomavirus vaccination among the nursing students. The subjects of this study were 354 university students majoring in nursing in J province. Vaccination rate was 34.2%. There were significant differences of age, grade, religion, intercourse experience, and experience of gynecology care. Self-efficacy, health belief, and knowledge of vaccinated students were higher than non-vaccinated students. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors influencing on vaccination were grade and self-efficacy. Through this result, it could be suggested there is a need for education strategies to increase self-efficacy considering grade in order to improve vaccination rate.
Effect on Changes of Perceptions and Consumption of Kimchi in Children with Kimchi Experience Contents Employing Scientific Experimental Activity
Choi, Eun-ok ; Kwon, Yong-min ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 368~376
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.368
Kimchi is a traditional food in Korea and its function in health is globally recognized. However, as the westernization and simplification of dietary habits, kimchi consumption has decreased. In order to promote Kimchi consumption in children, the kimchi educational contents, "Exploring Kimchi", which employs the scientific experimental activity, was developed. This contents was evaluated on its educational effect through a test trial in an elementary school. A total of 137 5th grade students in one elementary school located in Gwangju Metropolitan City, participated in 3 programs that were carried out for 3 weeks and performed a pre-post survey. As a result, the Kimchi Experience Contents employing the scientific experimental activity showed statistically significant positive effects regarding the benefits of Kimchi consumption, the recognition behavior for expressing the familiarity to Kimchi and Kimchi eating intention. In addition, the amount of Kimchi consumption after applying the contents showed a significant increase compared to before applying the contents.
Vocal Range of Older Adults in Comparison with Young Adults Depending on the Presence of Pitch Cues
Hong, Hyejin ; Kim, Soo Ji ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 377~386
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.377
The purpose of this study was to compare the vocal range between the older and young adults depending on the absence and presence of pitch cues. Participants were 44 older adults aged from 60 to 85 years and 59 college students aged from 19 to 25 years. Each participant was instructed to vocalize for examining the possible highest pitch to the lowest pitch in two conditions; with and without pitch cues. Without pitch cues, the maximum and minimum pitch of male participants was higher in the older adults than in the young adults group, while the minimum pitch of females was lower in the older adults group than in the young adults group. When presented with pitch cues, young adults could expand their vocal range, but the older adults showed no significant changes in produced vocal ranges. The results indicate that the range of voice in older adults may be affected by aging and these results can be beneficial when selecting the appropriate range of song for singing activities with older adults.
Childcare Teacher's Cognition of Human Right Awareness for Handicapped Children and Consciousness of Social Integration
Lee, Mi-Na ; Kim, Young-Chun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 387~398
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.387
The purpose of this research is to examine childcare teacher's cognition of human right awareness for handicapped children and consciousness of social integration. The subjects were 209 kindergarten teachers in G city. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis with SPSS ver. 14.0. The results are as follows: Among the childcare teacher's awareness about children with disabilities human right, awareness of right to survive, right to be protected, right to participate, and right to development had direct effects on their consciousness of social integration. Among the social supports influenced by childcare teacher's awareness of human right, informational support and material support had both direct and indirect effects on their consciousness of social integration. Therefore, as childcare teachers' awareness of human right is an important factor for their consciousness of social integration, a systemic human right education for human right awareness should be provided, the necessity of establishing various social support system should be recognized to foster the social environment of respecting young children's human right, and human right awareness should be practiced into action in daily life, in order to help childcare teachers to develop as the main agents of children's human right.
The Development and Application of the Indices of Evaluation for the Cultural Tourism Development Project Using AHP -focusing on Cultural and Ecological Tourism Infrastructure Project in Three Cultural Areas of Andong City-
Kwon, Gi-Chang ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 399~407
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.399
This study is about setting the weighed value of evaluation items for cultural tourism development project using AHP and it analyzed the cultural and ecological tourism infrastructure project in three cultural areas of Andong City. As a result of examining the reliability of evaluation items, it turned out to be 0.9, an appropriate level. In the analysis of weighed value, the items valued highly were in the order of validity of the plan, economic validity, validity of the policy. As for the detailed indices for the three that showed the highest weighed value, for validity of the plan, distinction of contents; for validity of the policy, compatibility of regional characteristics; for economic validity, sustainability were given high values. In the end, it could be concluded that as the cultural and ecological tourism infrastructure project in three cultural areas was delayed a lot more than previously planned, in order to flexibly respond to changing environment, it would be desirable to change parts of the previous plan before pushing ahead with it.
Police Response Measures in accordance with Xenophobia Spread
Kim, Sang-Woon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 408~417
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.408
This study researched about problem of Xenophobia and proposed countermeasures of the police. This study utilized previous studies and statistical of Xenophobia. Xenophobia was negative reaction about foreign stranger joined area of native people. and native hated stranger. Xenophobia has not yet big trouble in Korean society. But small trouble will prospect be big trouble. Xenophobia in Korea society was influenced by increase of migrant worker, increase of foreigner, negatude of foreigner from low income countries, native troubled immigrant, receptivity of multi-cultural. Accordingly, This Situation will be big social problem. and we need active counteract. Active counteract plan utilized police of public power. So. This study suggest plan of police. Plan of police stretch the criminal justice by Xenophobia crime, active response of media and SNS negative about foreigner, crash-prevention native, foreign crime prevention.
Efficient Part-of-Speech Set for Knowledge-based Word Sense Disambiguation of Korean Nouns
Kwak, Chul-Heon ; Seo, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Chung-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 418~425
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.418
This paper presents the part-of-speech set which is highly efficient at knowledge-based word sense disambiguation for Korean nouns. 174,000 sentences extracted for test set from Sejong semantic tagged corpus whose sense is based on Standard korean dictionary. We disambiguate selected nouns in test set using glosses and examples in Standard Korean dictionary. 15 part-of-speeches which give the best performance for all test set and 17 part-of-speeches which give the best performance for accuracy average of selected nouns are selected. We obtain 12% more performance by those part-of-speech sets than by full 45 part-of-speech set.
The Effects of Entrepreneurship and Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance
Seo, Joohwan ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 426~433
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.426
This study investigates the effects of entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on firm performance. I use the conditional quantile regression as well as the ordinary least square (OLS) with 300 samples, only medium and small size companies. I found firstly, entrepreneurship affected overall positively firm performance in the all quantile levels. Secondly, CSR also have a positive impact on firm performance in the overall all quantile levels. By these results, I recommend that entrepreneurship and CSR should a positive impact on the firm performance for the small and medium business companies.
Self-Disclosure and Boundary Impermeability among Languages of Twitter Users
Jang, Phil-Sik ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 434~441
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.434
Using bigdata analysis procedures, the present study sought to review and explore the various aspects of self-disclosure and boundary impermeability of worldwide twitter users. A total of 415 million tweets issued by 54 million users were collected during 6 months and the users of top 10 languages were investigated. And the effect of languages of twitter users on the boundary impermeability, disclosure rate of user profile, profile image, geographical information, URL in profile and user description were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the boundary impermeability and all the self-disclosure rates of twitter users (profile, profile image, geographical information, URL in profile, user description) were significantly (p<0.001) different among language groups of users. The self-disclosure rates and the average points of Portuguese, Indonesian and Spanish users were higher than those of Arabic, Japanese, Turkish and Korean users. The results also showed a positive relationship between boundary impermeability and the number of tweets (including retweets) issued by each users.
Development of Smart Phone Application for the Safe Operation of Inland Vessels
Jo, Byung-Wan ; Lee, Yun-Sung ; Kim, Do-Keun ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Kim, Kil-Yong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 442~454
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.442
Recently, due to the increment of national income and the living standard of citizens, the leasure business has been dramatically expanded. Among the business, inland water activities such as cruise tour or water taxi have drawn attention from the people. As more people come for a new pleasure, the frequency and the number of services continues to rise yet the safety of people values less recently. In fact, the number of relating accidents also has risen accordingly. In order to prevent such accidents in inland waters, the vessels' real time voyage data, the advanced warning system and the emergency rescuing system are required. In this paper, we have developed navigation guiding application for safety of passengers and vessels in inland waters. Navigation guiding applications not only provide Inland Electronic Navigational Chart(IENC) and vessel information but also allows communication between traffic service center and nearby vessels in case of an emergency situation. In order to implement Navigation guiding applications, developing Inland Electronic Navigational Chart was inevitable. Therefore, IENC of Han River, has developed based on measuring the water depth using multi-beam echo sounder system.
The Effect of Opinion Congruency with Twitter Influentials on Opinion Expression: The Interaction Effect of Influential Type
Jin, So-Yeon ; Lee, Sook-Jung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 455~465
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.455
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of twitter influenctials on users' willingness on express opinions. Based on the spiral of silence and corrective action hypothesis, the contradictory hypotheses were drawn. The online expeiment was conducted to verify which hypothesis is valid. Participant were assigned to the four experimenatal conditons: a famous influential's twit which agrees with the issue; a famous influential's twit which disagrees with the issue; an ordinary influential's twit to agree with the issue; an ordinary influential's twit to disagree with the issue. Results showed that opinion congruency with a twitter influential did not influence participants' willingness to express opinion online and offline, but the interaction effect with the type of influentials was found. Opinion dissonance with an ordinary tiwtterian increased willingness to express opinion. The findings suggest that twitter influentials, particulary an ordinary influentials with differnet opinions, can motivate users to express their own opinion.
A Proposal on the Business Model of Technology Holding Company Focused on the Case Study of Venture Capital in Korea
Lee, Hyun-Keun ; Jang, Jae Hyuk ; Han, Kwan Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 466~476
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.466
Technology-holding company was introduced in 2008 according to the Korean related law. In the end of 2014, technology holding company of university amounts to 39 companies, and ETRI Holdings is only the company belonging to the research institute among these companies. The technology holding company was launched to support a technology transfer from university or research institute to companies, and to boost up start-ups. Though 7 years has passed after the first technology-holding company was launched, there is no success model until now. Holding company is basically an investment company, which earns a profit from subsidiary company. The business model of a holding company is similar to venture capital that invests in start-ups. A direction of desirable business model of technology-holding company was suggested in this paper based on the case study on 2 Korean venture capital company. Holding company is generally categorized into two types. One is a pure holding company that only get a profit from subsidiary company, and the second is a operating holding company that creates an extra business revenue in addition to the role of pure holding company. In this paper, it is suggested that a technology holding company is recommended to be a operating holding company rather than a pure holding company.
An Empirical study on Relationship between the Entrepreneurship of Undergraduate Student and Entrepreneurial Intention: Focused on the Motivation for Participating in the Start-up Idea Contest as a Mediator
Kim, Jung-Gon ; Yang, Dong-Woo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 477~487
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.477
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the entrepreneurship of undergraduate students and the entrepreneurial intention focused on the mediating effect of the motivation for participating in the start-up idea contest. The results of the study were as followed; First, it was found that the factors of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking in the entrepreneurship had significant influence on the entrepreneurial intention. Second, the effect of the factors between the innovativeness in the entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial intention was significant influence by mediating effect of the motivation for participating in the start-up idea contest. Last, the factors of financial reward, career reward of the motivation were not effected by entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention. Based on these findings, students with high entrepreneurship have high entrepreneurial intention. And students were intended to feel a sense of achievement through challenging than getting financial rewards and career rewards. Therefore, it was shown that in order to encourage undergraduate's establish of a new business, the environment to develop innovative ideas and inspiring the confidence of participating in the start-up contest are needed to be invigorated.
A Study on Psychotherapy Supervisor's Education and Training Components
Chang, Semi ; Chang, Sung-Sook ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 488~502
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.488
Psychotherapy supervision has long been regarded as a crucial component of psychotherapy education. Supervisory role is very important in supervision outcomes but the absence of and need for supervisor's education and training have continued to be emphasized. Supervisor's education and training can be used to better prepare and strengthen new professionals who serve in the supervisory role. This study reviewed on the literatures of supervisor's education and training, psychotherapy supervisor's development, and core competencies in supervision. As a result of this study, it introduced what supervisor should be trained. There were supervisor identity, ability to build supervisory relationship/alliance, ability to provide effective and summative feedback, knowledge of professional supervision and value of commitment to lifelong learning and professional growth. Also consensus has converged on the superordinate value of now crucial components in educating and training supervisors: didactic instruction and experiential practice. In conclusion, I discussed what should be considered in Korean supervisor's education and training and future research directions.
The Study about Narrative Structure of Branded Contents -Focused on the Mobile Applications for Food Delivery Service
Lee, Young-Soo ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 503~515
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.503
The branded contents include various advertisements showing brand storytelling. A new mobile application service market for food delivery uses branded contents to become familiar with consumer in the beginning and built unique brand image in comparison with a rival company in the time of elaboration. This study analyzed the narrative type and structure of brand storytelling in branded contents of the three representative applications, 'Baedal Tong', 'The ethnic of Baedal', and 'Yogiyo'. Still a few study has researched the narrative type and structure of brand storytelling though different effects as narrative type. This paper divided four types of brand storytelling as the roll of brand through typology of Northrop Frye, romance, comedy, tragedy, and irony & satire. And it analyzed the narrative type and structure of branded contents of the three applications using these types and researched strategy in each time. The various narrative types beyond classical romance type are effective for brand positioning though market enter moment. This study will be helpful for the research about narrative strategy of branded contents.
Effects of the Lasater's Clinical Rubric of Debriefing in Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Training
Eun, Young ; Bang, Sul-yeong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 516~527
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.516
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the Lasater's debriefing on critical thinking disposition, problem- solving skills and clinical judgement of nursing students. The study design was a nonequivalent control group non synchronized design. The subjects were 60 students for 12 groups. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=30) or control group (n=30). Critical thinking and problem-solving skills were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical judgement was measured by a Lasater's clinical judgement rubric. The Results of the study was : After Lasater's debriefing, the level of students' critical thinking, problem-solving skills and clinical judgment in experimental group were higher than the level of control group. Through this experiment the rubric of Lasater debriefing is an effective tool for clinical judgment, therefore we know that the future of simulation training is needed to use the Lasater's clinical judgement rubric of debriefing in simulation training.
Empowerment Program Development and Effects for Internationally Married Women in Social Enterprises
Kim, Hyo-soon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 528~543
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.528
This study is aimed to develop and apply the empowerment program for Internationally married women working in social enterprises. Empowerment program consisted of six main construct factors such as job or child, being acknowledged as a family member, enduring for economic work, developing myself, getting to know company culture, living a meaningful life for a korean. According to research analysis, self-identity, self-efficacy, coping ability and social problem solving has significant effects on the program. Based on the results of this study, some discussion and suggestions were proposed for the empowerment program for internationally married women in social enterprises.
Subjectivity on Weight Control of College Women
Jung, Yeon-Sun ; Kwon, Hae-Jin ; Baek, Kyoung-Ah ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 544~554
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.544
The purpose of this research is to compare and contrast the structural types and the patterned characteristics on the weight management of female college students by making subjective and interpretative approaches based on Q methodology, which identifies the subjectivity regarding the weight management of female college students. Subjects are categorized into three different types after the forceful classification of the forty-one Q samples selected as P samples from the thirty-nine female college students. They are as follows: the first is 'the negative body image type that attempts compusive weight control, the second is 'the health-care-seeking type that maintains consistent weight management', and the third is 'the ego-certain type that can self-control weigh management'. As a result of this research, structural differences were found among the three different types, which can be utilized as basic resources for the behavior of desirable and righteous weight management.
A Study of the Cultural Characteristics and Meanings of the Encounter between Malaysian Migration Policy and Korean Retirement Migration in Malaysia
Hong, Suk-Joon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 555~568
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.555
This study aims to examine the characteristics and meanings of the encounter between Malaysian migration policy and Korean retirement migration in contemporary Malaysia. For this purpose, I describe and analyze the features and implications of migration policy in Malaysia, and understand the cultural characteristics and meanings of migration policy, especially Malaysian migration policy in Malaysia, and examine and explore the characteristics and meanings of retirement migration, especially Korean retirement migration to Malaysia in contemporary Malaysia, in the socio-cultural context. The research outcomes of this study are followings. Firstly, because of the misunderstanding and misuse of MM2H(Malaysia My 2nd Home) program and Malaysian migration policy among Korean retirement migrants in contemporary Malaysia, Korean retirement migration in Malaysia cannot be regarded one of the appropiate and effective migration policy for Koreans. It has been utilized as an instrument of their children's education among Koreans in Malaysia. Secondly, in this regard, it has been increased the number of Koreans to return to Korea without any constructive results in their children's education and their successful retirement lives in Malaysia. It is noted to understand that Korean retirement migration to Malaysia is the movement and migration of the special forms of human migration or human exchange and cooperation in the socio-cultural context. The cultural characteristics and meanings of Korean retirement migration to Malaysia has been one of the important cultural phenomena between Korea and Malaysia in contemporary Malaysia. In this sense, it is expected that this study can be contributed to understand the cultural characteristics and meanings of the encounter and exchange between Malaysian migration policy and Korean retirement migration to Malaysia in contemporary Malaysia, and to enhance the exchange and cooperation between Korea and Malaysia through human exchange and migration, especially Korean retirement migration to Malaysia in contemporary Malaysia.
Study on the Concept of Intersubjectivity in Psychotherapy
Choi, Lee-Seon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 569~581
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.569
The purpose of this study is to explore the theoretical research on the tendency of Intersubjectivity. To this end, this paper is how intersubjectivity in psychotherapy was exploring the theoretical concept of the importance. Looking specifically, was undertaken to examine closely divided as follows : first, the concept of and theoretical research on the tendency of Intersubjectivity, and second, the intersubjectivity as development process and the third, attachment and intersubjectivity, fourth, intersubjectivity in Psychotherapy. Through this study, Intersubjectivity, whether how is having an impact in the human development, how it can be applied in the psychotherapy field, could be utilized to provide a rationale and its theoretical basis.
Predictors of Successful Aging in Community-dwelling Elders and Mediation Effect of Transcendence
An, Ji Won ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 582~593
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.582
The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors of successful aging and to determine mediating effect of transcendence between successful aging and influencing factors of community-dwelling elders in Korea. 162 elders were participated in this study who visited seniors welfare center and senior citizen center. Data were analyzed by PASW 18.0 for t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficients and hierarchical regression analysis. Transcendence, parent-child relationship, depression, spirituality and perceived economic status were statistically significant influencing factors, explained 77% of successful aging in community-dwelling elderly. The mediating role of transcendence was identified about parent-child relationship, depression, spirituality and perceived economic condition. The study findings demonstrated that transcendence was significant variable affecting successful aging. The variables affecting successful aging such as transcendence, parent-child relationship, depression, spirituality, perceived economic status can be utilized for nursing strategies to successful aging in community-dwelling elders.
The Structural Relationship between Area Activation and Complex Development of Railway Station Area
Choi, Soo-Beom ; Lee, Joo-Hyung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 594~603
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.594
This study analyzed that introduction function and program how influence about quality of life local resident and development of region according to real development. Also, it suggested policy implications of area activation plan through complex development of railway station area. In research method, the factor and structure affecting area activation in complex development of railway station area analyzed positively using the PLS structural equation focused on citizen near station area. As a result of study, in regional economic vitalization, the factors of software(marketing support, transfer system support, plan and design support, complex development support, law institution improvement, etc) and the factors of hardware(traffic function, information exchange function, commercial business function, housing features, amenity function, etc) are represented to influence significantly and then, in quality of life of local resident, the factor of hardware analyzed to influence significantly, but the factor of software and network did not. In comparison, the factor of network is represented that it did not contributed in regional economic vitalization and quality of life of local resident. So, political supplementations are needed.
A Study on the Decision for External Water Level of a River Considering Sea Level Rise
Choo, Tai Ho ; Yun, Gwan Seon ; Kwon, Yong Been ; Ahn, Si Hyung ; Kim, Jong Gu ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 604~613
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.604
The sea level of the Earth is rising approximately 2.0mm per year (global average value) due to thermal expansion of sea water, melting of glaciers and other causes by global warming. However, when it comes to design a river, the standard of design water level is decided by analyzing four largeness tide value and harmonic constant with observed tidal water level. Therefore, it seems the external water level needs to consider an increasing speed of the seawater level which corresponds to a design frequency. In the present study, the hourly observed tidal water level targeting 47 tidal stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) from beginning of observation to 2015 per hour has been collected. The variation of monthly and yearly and increasing ratio have been performed divided 4 seas such as the Southern, East, Western, and Jeju Sea. Also, the external water level existing design for rivers nearby a coast was been reviewed. The current study could be used to figure out the cause of local seawater rise and reflect the external water level as basic data.
The Estimation of Friction Velocity by Hydraulic Parameters Reflecting Turbulent Flow Characteristics in a Smooth Pipe Line
Choo, Tai Ho ; Son, Jong Keun ; Kwon, Yong Been ; Ahn, Si Hyung ; Yun, Gwan Seon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 614~623
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.614
Grid(pipe network) design is an important element of Smart Water Grid, which essential to estimate hydraulic parameters such as the pressure, friction factor, friction velocity, head loss and energy slope. Especially, friction velocity in a grid is an important factor in conjunction with energy gradient, friction coefficient, pressure and head loss. However, accurate estimation friction head loss, friction velocity and friction factor are very difficult. The empirical friction factor is still estimated by using theory and equation which were developed one hundred years ago. Therefore, in this paper, new equation from maximum velocity and friction velocity is developed by using integration relationship between Darcy-Weisbach's friction head loss equation and Schlichting equation and regression analysis. To prove the developed equation, smooth pipe data areis used. Proposed equation shows high accuracy compared to observed data. Study results are expected to be used in stability improvements and design in a grid.
A Study on the Effective Visual Form Following the Numerical Information Types
Kim, Jae-Young ; Kim, Duk-Yong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 624~633
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.624
Although a number of information is emerging in the big data era and studies on the infographic studies for delivering it effectively are becoming an issue, the visualization study on the numerical information delivered through the credit card statement is very poor compared to its importance. The effective visualization method following each information characteristics was by analyzing the numerical information types focusing on the credit card statement. The type of the figure information classified into the comparative analysis, progress of time change, proportion, relationship, scope, and distribution, and it was made into the graph form proper to the nature of each information to study the most effective and ideal visual form. Therefore, this study is significant because it suggests a control point of the visualization by pointing out an effective visual form for delivering the numerical information that appears on the credit card statement with the figure characteristics.
Qualitative Analysis of Using Self-Assessment for EFL Students
Rha, Kyeong-Hee ; Pyo, Kyong-Hyon ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 634~643
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.634
Achieving a certain degree of objectivity is one of main assessment priniciples to meet and self-assessment has been under-used as a formal instrument for assessing students' achievement due to lack of objectivity. Now, this research attempted to look into how students perceived self-assessment and how they engaged in the assessment process. Self-assessments and in-depth interviews with students were collected as main data sources. The results of data analysis are as follows. First, a student' perceptions of self-assessment have been observed to change over a course of a semester. Furthermore, changes in perceptions might have led students to get ownership of their learning. Conclusively, this research proposes that the research of self-assessment be accommodated into the socio-cultural context to demonstrate its desirable influence on students' learning.
The Effects of Social Capital on Social Enterprise Performance
Lee, Jun-Hee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 644~654
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.644
The purpose of this study was to identify the elements of virtuous cycle to lay a foundation for the coevolution of corporations(organizations) and communities through corporate growth and distribution based on the social capital of social enterprises. The study aimed to categorize social capital into structural, cognitive, and relational capital and examine their effects on the economic and social performance of social enterprises. The subject companies include 250 of social enterprises registered at and certified by the Korea Social Enterprise Promotion Agency through random sampling. The study set two hypotheses and 6 particular hypotheses and performed correlation and regression analysis to empirically analyze the effects of social capital on social enterprise performance. The findings were summarized as follows: First, the study looked into the effects of social capital on economic performance and found that relational capital was proper for it. Second, the study also looked into the effects of social capital on social performance and found that relational capital was proper for it.
Relationships among Mental Health, Internet Addiction, and Smartphone Addiction in University Students
Jeong, Goo-Churl ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 655~665
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.655
This research was conducted to verify the relationships among clinical scale of MMPI-2, Internet Addiction, and Smartphone Addiction. Participants were 190 college students(male: 95, female: 95) in an university in Seoul. Data were processed SPSS 22.0, using ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. As a result of analysis, first, MMPI-2 clinical scales which showed significant differences between a higher risk group of internet addiction and a non-higher risk group as follows: Hs, D, Pd, Pt, Sc, Si. Second, MMPI-2 clinical scales which showed significant differences between a higher risk group of smartphone addiction and a non-higher risk group as follows: Hs, Pa, Pt, Sc. Third, Logistic regression analysis revealed that Hs and Si among clinical scales of MMPI-2 were associated with internet addiction. Firth, Hs and Si among clinical scales of MMPI-2 were associated with smartphone addiction. Based on the results some implications and importances of mental health are discussed for reducing internet and smartphone addiction of college students.
The Influence of Consumption Level on Life Satisfaction in Baby-Boom Generation -Mediating Effect of Subjective Expectation-
Park, Seo-Young ; Choi, Hee-Jeoung ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 666~674
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.666
This study examines the effect of consumption level on the life satisfaction of baby-boom generation and further examines the mediating effect of subjective expectation(standard of living and government policy). This research uses the panel survey to explore ageing society in 2012 made by Korean Labor Institute, which studied 1,756(born in 1955~1961). SPSS 21.0 Package was applied to analyze the date and multi-regression analysis was conducted. As a result, first, the findings show that as the consumption level increases, the life satisfaction of the baby-boom generation goes up. Second, the findings reveal that subjective expectation partially mediates the influences of consumption level on the life satisfaction of baby-boom generation. This study further discusses the theoretical and political implication of the direction properties on baby-boomer based upon the results of the study.
Investigating a Theoretical Background of the Consumption of Korean TV Programs in China: Focused on Globalism, Proximity, and Modernity
Kim, Sojung ; He, Qijun ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 675~690
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.675
The current study attempts to empirically identify a theoretical background that effectively explains Korean pop-culture consumption in the Asian Pacific region; particularly, in China. Specifically, this study investigates how globalism, proximity, and modernity, which have been suggested in literature as key theoretical backgrounds for the Korean wave, influence China's motivation to consume the Korean wave and its subsequent consumption of Korean TV programs (e.g., dramas, variety shows, etc.). The findings suggest that the motivation to consume the Korean wave is positively related to globalism and proximity. Modernity, however, is found to have a negative influence on the motivation to consume the Korean wave. That is, the more one holds international values, the more one perceives Korea as similar to China, and the more one holds traditional values, the more motivation one shows to consume the Korean wave. The study also finds that the motivation to consume the Korean wave has a significant impact on the consumption of Korean TV programs. In the revised model, the study suggests that proximity, followed by globalism, has the strongest positive relationship with motivation. Such a finding suggests that a proximity approach could serve as a better theoretical perspective to explain the phenomenon of the Korean wave in China. Regarding the relationships of the demographic/socio-economic variables and the motivation to consume the Korean wave, females, rather than males, the higher the family income one gains, and the lower education level one has had, the more motivation one will show to consume the Korean wave.
A Study on the Improvement of Independent Loan Fund Business for low-income Disabled
Park, Ju-Young ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 691~704
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.691
This study aims to analyze the current situation of Independent loan fund business for disabled for independent and living stabilization of low-income disabled and presented a plan to support effectively. Methods were reanalyzed to obtain the data inside the Ministry of Health and Welfare and conducted a expert survey. The results of this study were First, The budget was 8.1 billion won and target households was 800, but the used budget was about 5.6 billion won(executive rate was 69.3%) and beneficiaries was 384 families. Second, the loan condition was gurantee is 58.5%, pawn is 23.3%, ungurantee is 18.2%. And, the loan type was occupation is 60.0%, car purchase is 35.3%, medical expenses is 2.6% and so on. In addition, 1,735 people apply for a loan fund but 904 people received a loan fund. So, loan rate was 52.1%. Third, business retention rate was 74.7% and close rate was 25.3%. Fourth, expert opinion was government support necessary for the in low-income disabled in social and economic situation of Korea. This study suggested that the loan purpose, loan amount, loan condition, simplified course were needed to consider when establishing policy for low-incone disabled.
The Effects of Prosocial PR Appeals on Policy Acceptance: a case of Environmental Policy
Ahn, Sa Yi ; Kim, Heejin ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 705~717
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.705
The objective of this study is to find out whether policy acceptance(attitude formation and intention of action) is affected by the message appeals(rational vs. emotional) when policy PR messages emphasize prosociality, and by various factors such as trust in government, involvement, and demographic factors as moderating variables. Although message appeals does not show any difference by itself, interaction effect is observed between trust in government and message appeals; the rational appeal is more effective to those with low trust in government while the emotional appeal is more effective to those with high trust. No other interaction effect is founded but involvement, gender, and age group show important main effect in policy acceptance; high-involvement group and female group are more favorable in attitude toward prosocial policy and behavior intention compare to the each of counterparts, whereas older group is more favorable in behavior intention.
Factors on Continuing Participation in the Eldrly Employment Program with the Semi-Elderly
Kim, Je-Sun ; Kim, Sun-Woong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 718~728
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.718
The purpose of this study is how the semi-elderly have been participated in the elderly employment program, and to find what are the factors influencing their keeping on the work since retired from the Lavor market. To convert the Row-data obtained from Korea Labor Force Development Institute for the aged, 13,370cases were used to analyze finally. The date analysis was applied with Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, correlation and Logistic regression using program of SPSS 18.0. The analysis is shows that semi-elderly who had participated in more than 270 days a year in elderly employment program formed 41.2%. The most important factor that the semi-elderly have been participated in working is payment, and others are gender, solitary life, motivation of working and type of elderly employment program. Based on the results of this study, We conducted policy suggestion to achieve the purposes of elderly employment program and to make income from it, for semi-elderly retiring from the labor market.
Consumer's Needs for Development of Smartphone Application for Self Care Performance of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Jeon, Jae-Hee ; Kim, Kyunghee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 729~740
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.729
This study was conducted to assess the needs of smartphone application development for self care performance of 374 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The mean age of the subjects was 46.2 years. The patients obtained information about chronic hepatitis B from the internet (41.3%), nurses or doctors (23.8%), television (15.6%), and smartphones (6.2%). The reason that the information about hepatitis B didn't come from a smartphone were 'Lack of useful applications' (75.9%), 'Could not believe the information' (15.0). If the application is developed, subjects replied 'Frequently use' (59.9%), 'When needed' (33.2%). The desired contents were 'Knowledge of disease' (27.1%), 'Drug calender' (16.8%), 'Reference of information' (15.5%), 'Record of lab data' (14.6%). Ability to use the smartphone, depended on age and level of education, however the needs for the development of the smartphone application, there were not differences. Also, there were different desired contents of application, depended on age and level of education. Therefore, when developing smartphone applications for self care performance of chronic hepatitis B patients considering educational level and age, it could be widely utilized as a tool which can help to the self care performance of chronic hepatitis B patients.
Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Reading Instruction Using English Literature for Children
Kim, Ji-Yeong ; Kim, Jeong-Ryeol ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 741~756
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.741
This study is to identify the effectiveness of English literature in reading instruction using meta-analysis of advanced researches. 80 studies published in Korea were selected for this research wherein the studies are in experimental nature on reading instruction using English literature. The result of the meta-analysis are as follows: Reading instruction with English literature for early children in kindergartens and primary schools showed statistically significant positive effects in both reading abilities and affective domains, in particular for younger children from kindergartners to 2nd graders of primary school. It was more effective when the instructor used top-down approach than bottom-up or balanced approach. No significant coorelation was found between the number of English stories and the students' linguistic ability. Diverse activities tailored to students' need are turned out to be more effective than using same old activities with more stories.
A Study on Effects of Preparation for Aging on Satisfaction of Life : Focusing on Comparison of Gender
Lee, Kyoung-Joon ; Song, Hee-Kyong ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 757~769
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.757
The purpose of this study on effect of preparation for aging on satisfaction of life by difference according to comparison of gender on the analysis. The 3th years additional research and 4th years of Korean Panel of retirement and longitudinal study was used. The sample size of this study was 2,970 for middle aged using based on over 50 years than 64 years. The explanation of the research results are as follows: First, the difference in preparation according to comparison of gender that a statistically significant difference in both men and women. Secondly, the difference in life satisfaction according to gender for both men and women showed that a statistically significant difference. Thirdly, the preparation was confirmed that the results for both men and women is significantly difference comparison of gender differences with respect to the effects preparation for aging on satisfaction of life. As a result, the based on gender through a comparison of the effects preparation for aging on satisfaction of life in accordance with middle-aged ready to raise the preparation and satisfaction of life.
The Effects of Pre-service English Teachers' Tutoring on the English Language Learning of North Korean Refugee College Students
Choe, Yoonhee ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 770~779
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.770
The study aimed to investigate what difficulties and needs North Korean refugee college students have in their college English programs and what they experience over an English tutoring program offered by pre-service English teachers. Before the tutoring started, a survey was conducted to examine the current difficulties and needs 100 NK refugee college students had. After the survey, six NK refugee college students and 12 pre-service English teachers participated in the tutoring on the voluntary basis. The survey questionnaires were analyzed statistically, and the effects of the tutoring program were analyzed qualitatively. The results show that NK refugee students reported the severe difficulties in learning English, their increased awareness of the slightly improved English skills over the tutoring program, the increased awareness of their affects, and the increased awareness of their linguistics development at the end of the tutoring. Pedagogical implications for supporting NK refugee college students are discussed.
Limits of Sports Films from the Perspective of Social Structural
Lee, Jung-Rae ; Kwon, Ki-Nam ;
The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, volume 16, issue 4, 2016, Pages 780~788
DOI : 10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.04.780
The purpose of this study was to research the limits of sports films from the perspective of social structural on the category, the material, the formulas and the mixture of the materials in the movie. The results were as follows: First, Sports films have been faced with the basic problem as to what a standards the category were classified with because of the conceptual confusion about what sports movie was. Second, sports movies could not catch up with a lot of changes in the movies. Third, sports movies were confined, without flexibility, within old fashioned formality of stories which prevails in modern sports. Lastly, they didn't have the mixture of the materials due to the fixed recognition on sports.