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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Dec 1984
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A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PULP REACTION OF ADHESIVE RESINS AS PHOSPHORIC ESTER SYSTEM
Kim, Chul-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 7~16
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pulpal responses to adhesive resins as phosphoric ester system: "Clearfil F II" (Composite filling material), "Panavia EX" (Composite cementing Material) and "Silar" (Microfilled Compsoite resin) comparing with Zinc-Oxide-Eugenol cement. Total 70 cavities of the permanent healthy teeth from 5 dogs were prepared and placed with experimental resins and Zinc-Oxide-Eugenol cement as control. The dogs were sarificed at 5 intervals of 3 days, one, two, four, six weeks. The specimens were routinely prepared and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin. Followings were the results obtained through microscopic examination. 1. In cases of Clearfil F II and Panavia EX without etching and lining, pulp response in the early stage showed more severe vascular congestion and hemorrhage than that of Zinc-Oxide-Engenol cement. 2. The pulp response of totally etched cases was similar to that of unetched cases in the groups of Clearfil F II and Panavia EX. 3. The cases of Clearfil F II and Panavia EX with enamel etching showed no significant histologic change compared to that of total cavity etching. 4. The Silar case with total etching showed retarded tendency of histologic recovery compared to Clearfil F II and Panavia EX group. 5. Generally, pulp responses of experimental groups were not severe and the six week case showed the evidence of a histologic recovery.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SOME PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITE RESINS - A study of the hardness, water sorption and solubility
Park, Sang-Duk ; Park, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Chan-Young ; Lee, Chung-Suck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 17~30
This study was done to evaluate the hardness, water sorption and solubility values of twelve well known composite resins, and to compare each other. For the hardness test, the specimens were made in cylinder form with 4mm in diameter and 2mm in thickness as a modification of the American Society for Testing and New Materials, 1966, and for water sorption and solubility tests, the specimens were prepared in same shape of 20mm in diameter and 0.5mm in thickness as a modification of the ADA Specification No. 12. The results were obtained as follow: 1. The hardness range were from 17.9 to 87.5 respectively. As time passed by, the noticable change was evident in early 12 hours. 2. Of the water sorption. the range was from 0.38 to 0.93. The significant change was appeared within 12 hours and on 3 day by 1 week except four brands. 3. Of the water solubility, the range was 0.06 to 0.16. The highest value was found within early 24 hours. 4. Generally, four brands could be chosen as preferable products of hardness. water sorption and solubility tests according to the ADA Specification No. 12.
TOXIC EFFECT OF ADHESIVE RESINS ON THE DOG'S PULP TISSUE
Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 31~42
The toxic effect of adhesive resins on the dog's pulp tissue was studied with 70 teeth from 5 dogs. The experimental materials were Clearfil, a mixture of Clearfil with calcium hydroxide powder, Panavia-EX, and a mixture of Panavia-EX with calcium hydroxide powder. As a control group, calcium hydroxide powder was used. Each material was placed on the pulpotomized tissue surface. After 3 days, 1, 2,4, and 6 weeks, the teeth and apical tissue were processed routinly and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Pathological tissue changes due to the toxicity of adhesive resins were observed by light microscope, and the pH of Panavia-EX and the Bonding agent of Clearfil were measured. Following were the results; 1. In the group of calcium hydroxide powder, slight inflammatory change was observed in the pulpotomized surface and adjacent pulp tissue on 3 day. 1 week case showed incomplete dentin bridge. The remaining pulp tissue was normalized according to the days elapsed. 2. In the group of Clearfil, early inflammatory change revealed in the superificial portion of the remaining pulp tissue on 3 day. The inflammation spreaded over the total pulp tissue and partial necrosis was observed in 1 week and 2 week cases. Total necrosis of pulp tissue and moderate inflammatory change at the apical tissue was noticed in 4 week and 6 week cases. 3. In the group of Panavia-EX, moderate inflammatory change appeared in the superficial pulp tissue on 3 day, and severe inflammatory change over all pulp tissue found in 1 week case. Pulp necrosis was obvious in 2 week case. 4 week and 6 week cases were totally necrotized up to the periapical tissue. 4. In the groups of mixtures with calcium hydroxide powder, the pulp tissue destruction was retarded, compared with the groups of Clearfil and Panavia-EX. 5. Panavia-EX was more destructive than Clearfil. 6. The acidity of freshly mixed Bonding agent of Cleafil was pH 4.0, and that of Panavia-EX was pH 2.0.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE TEMPERATURE CHANGE OF THE PULP CHAMBER INDECED BY THE CO
Lee, Jong-Man ; Park, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Chang-Young ; Lee, Chung-Suck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 43~53
The purpose of this study was to suggest the use of laser energy in the the field of operative dentistry without considerable pulpal damage and significant effects on the dental hard tissue, additionally to find out the methods which could control the temperature rise. The laser beam (CW
laser, output: 6W, beam diameter: 1.5mm) was focused on the center of the occlusal surface of extracted lower molars. A Ge lens (focal length 200mm) was used to focus the primary laser beam. In order to vary the total amount of the same irradiated energy, experimental subjects were devided into three groups: continuously irradiated group, intermittently irradiated group, and water-cooled group after continuous laser irradiation. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber after laser irradiation were measured and recorded by the digital thermometer and recorder. The following results were obtained: 1. Temperatures in the pulp chamber were raised up in the order of the continuously irradiated group, intermittently irradiated group, water-cooled group after continuous laser irradiation. 2. In the continuously irradiated group, the temperature was raised up
after 2, 4, 8, 16 seconds of the irradiation of laser. In the intermittently irradiated group, the changes were
, respectively. In the water-cooled group after continuous laser irradiation, the changes were
, respectively. 3. The starting time of temperature rise in the pulp chamber had no connection with laser irradiation time.
EFFICACY OF HAND REAMER AND ENGINE REAMER TO PREPARE ROOT CANAL
Kim, Sung-Kyo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 55~62
This experimental study was made to evaluate the efficacy of root canal preparation of engine reamer versus hand reamer. Eighty extracted human teeth were prepared with the following treatments and devided into 4 groups; Group 1: Canal preparation with hand reamer, and irrigation with normal saline solution. Group 2: Canal preparation with engine reamer, and irrigation with normal saline solution. Group 3: Canal preparation with hand reamer, and irrigation with 3% hydrogen peroxide and 3.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Group 4: Canal preparation with engine reamer, and irrigation with 3% hydrogen peroxide and irrigation with 3% hydrogen peroxide and 3.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. After decalcification, 5p. sections at levels 1-, 3-, and 5-mm from the apex were evaluated microscopically. The results were as follows; The effectiveness of hand reamer and engine reamer were equal in preparing the root canal at all levels from the apex, and were equal in normal saline solution groups, and 3%
and 3.5% NaOCl solution groups. Both in hand reaming groups and in engine reaming groups, some canal walls had still untouched portion, and canal irregularities and debris were still remained.
A STUDY ON THE GALVANIC CURRENT BETWEEN GOLD AND AMALGAM
Kim, Yeoung-Nam ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 63~70
It was the purpose of this study to determine the galvanic current between a gold alloy inlay and four types of amalgam using the circuit through pulp chambers when the freshly extracted teeth with those restorations were brought into contact in a physiologic saline solution, and to investigate the effectiveness of cavity varnish or ammonated silver-nitrate on the surface of amalgam restoration in reducing galvanic current. The current was measured with current-to-voltage converter and recored on a physiograph 6630-257. The following results were obtained. 1. Generally, galvanic current decreased as the time elapsed. 2. Galvainc current decreased significantly in the first day and after then minimal change was observed until 30th day. 3. Initial galvanic current was 29.6
in the cut amalgam and 24.5
in Dispersalloy amalgam and after then the current was significantly decreased. 4. Initial galvanic current was 12.6
in spherical amalgam (low copper amalgam) and 13.8
in Tytin amalgam and the amount of change was lower in sperical amalgam and Tytin amalgam than that in lathe cut amalgam and Dispersalloy amalgam. 5. Painting ammoniated silver-nitrate or Copalite on the surface of amalgam resotration decreased initial galvanic current and ammoniated silver-nitrate is more effective in decreasing galvanic current than Copalite. 6. Galvanic current by contact between amalgam restoration and gold restoration increased abruptly and dropped rapidly becoming almost.
AN INFRA-RED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE REACTION IN CALCIUM HYDROXIDE DENTAL CEMENT
Kim, Choong-Jong ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 71~83
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the transmission spectrum of the set calcium hydroxide dental cement (Dycal, L.D. Caulk Co. Milford, Del.) Cement was prepared for A T R spectra at a low powder-to-liquid ratio of 3.0gm/ml in order to retard the reaction and facilitate the manipulation of loading the cement into the cell. Spectra were recorded on an I R Spectrophotometer (MX-1, FT) at an agle of incidence of 55. The A T R cell was a RIIc Model TR5 with a hemisperical KRS-5 (Thallium-Bromide-Iodide). A spectrum was recorded within 3 minutes. Further spectra were recorded after 5,10,30 minutes and 1,5,24, 72 hours. The results were as follows; 1. The setting reaction between acid paste and base past would take place fastly within 10 minutes after mix, and that would be slow until 72 hours after mix. 2. In the set cements, some methyl salicylate and calcium hydroxide remained unreacted until 72 hours after mix. 3. The setting reaction and the reaction rate occuring at the surface and in the bulk cements were similar. 4. The chelates were bound together between calcium hydroxide and methyl salicylate.
A STUDY OF THE MERCURY VAPOR MEASUREMENT DURING AMALGAM REMOVAL
Na, Keung-Kyun ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 85~92
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the speed of grinding and coolants on mercury vaporization during amalgam removal. Forty amalgam filled stone dies were stored at
and 100% relative humidity for 7 days prior to the beginning of the mercury vapor experiment and were divided into 4 different groups; In Group I; Used by high speed without coolant & evacuator during amalgam removal. In Group II; Used by high speed with coolant & evacuator during amalgam removal. In Group III; Used by low speed without coolant & evacuator during amalgam removal. In Group IV; Used by low speed with coolant & evacuator during amalgam removal. The amalgam specimens were removed in a 30-second time period and mercury vapor was collected with membrane filter at 27mm from the site of removal and 45 degree above there. Samples in Group II, IV were removed with coolant spray at a flow rate of 30 ml/min with high-velocity evacuator. Mercury vapor collected membrane filter was analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer using cold vapor method. The results were as follows; 1. The mercury vapor levels were obtained all of the Groups. 2. The mercury vapor levels of the Group II, IV (with coolant & evacuator) were less than that of the Group I, III (without coolant & evacuator). 3. The highest mercury vapor level recorded during amalgam removal procedure was Group I (used by high speed without coolant & evacuator) and its record was
, which exceed the T.L.V. by 15 times. 4. The mercury vapor level of the Group IV (used by low speed with coolant & evacuator) was more than that of the Group II (used by high speed with coolant & evacuator), but its difference was not significant, statistically. (p > 0.05)
An Experimental Study on the Effect of the "Heliosit" Composite Resin to Pulp Tissue
Maing, Hyung-Yul ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 93~101
The experimental study was made to investigate the effect of the "Heliosit" composite resin on the dental pulp. The 36 class V cavities were prepared on the healthy permanent teeth of 3 days, and were divided into 5 groups and filled with the experimental filling materials. Control group: Zinc Oxide-Eugenol cement filling Experimental groups: Group 1: Dentin Adhesit application & Heliosit filling with or without dycal base Group 2: Heliosit filling with or without dycal base Group 3: Durafill filling with dycal base Group 4: Hipol filling with dycal base Animals were sacrificed after 1 weeks, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks following operation. The teeth were decalcified, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The results obtained form this study were as follows: 1. All experimental group showed slight pulp response. 2. Dentin Adhesit group showed minimal pulp response in both dycal bases and no base cases. 3. In group 2, mild pulp response was found in early stage and repairing process was found as the time elapsed. In no base cases, healing process was delayed slightly. 4. There was little difference in the result among Heliosit group, Durafill group and Hipol group.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SURFACE POLISHING EFFECTS OF VARIOUS RESTORATIVE MATERIALS
Park, Young-Ho ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 103~114
The purpose of this study was to compare the polished surfaces of two composite resins (Clearfil F and Durafill) with those of glass ionomer cement (Fuji ionomer cement) and to observe what types of polishing devices are valuable, and then to establish a clinically satisfactory procedures. Studies have been undertaken to determine the effects of glass plate matrix and finishing instruments (Carborundum point, White point and Sof-Lex medium) on the surface finish of three restorative materials. The results were examined with profilometer (Kosaka laboratory LTD. Tokyo, Japan) and scanning electron microscopy (JSM-T20: JEOL). The results were as follows: 1. The most satisfactory surface finishes were produced against glass matrix. 2. Coarser finishes were obtained with use of carborundum point. 3. Generally Fuji ionomer cement were left surfaces with higher roughness values. 4. The smoothest finishes were obtained with Sof-lex medium. 5. Clearfil-F was showed more smoother than the other restorative materials.
A CLINICAL STUDY ON THE PROGNOSIS AND SUCCESS IN CONVENTIONAL ENDODONTIC TREATMENT
Baek, Seung-Ho ; Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 115~126
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and the degree of interappointment pain and post obturation pain associated with the pretreated clinical factors or conditions, and to examine the correlation between the success or failure and the pretreated clinical factors or conditions and postoperative pain. The author experienced the conventional root canal therapy in one hundred fifty-one teeth after recording the following clinical factors or conditions - sex, age, pulp vitality status, presence or absence of periapical rarefaction, single or multirooted teeth, pretreatment pain, and investigated the pain during and after treatment for seven days. After six months all the cases were re-evaluated through the clinical sign, symptom, and the recalled radiograph. The following results were obtained; 1. Of the 151 teeth (73.5%) had no interappointment pain, 31 teeth (20.5%) slight pain; and 9 teeth (6.0%) moderate to severe pain. 2. The presence of the pretreatment pain significantly increased the incidence and degree of interappointment, and there were no significant relationship between interappointment pain and other clinical factors or conditions. 3. Of the 151 teeth, 142 teeth (4.0%) experienced no post obturation pain, 3 teeth (2.0%) slight pain, 6 teeth (4.0%) moderate to severe pain. 4. There were no statistical correlation between postobturation pain and any of the clinical factor or conditions. 5. 141 teeth (3.4%) of 151 teeth were evaluated as success in this study, and success rate was decreased significantly in the cases of periapical rarefaction before treatment and postobturation pain. But there were no significant relationship between success or failure and other clinical factors or conditions.
A STUDY ON THE SEALING ABILITY OF McSpadden TECHNIQUE
Lee, Sang-Tag ; Lee, Jung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 127~134
This study was conducted to evaluate the sealing ability of McSpadden technique compared with lateral condensation and Engine reamer technique, and according to the degree of canal enlargement and the use and nonuse of sealer. Seventy single-rooted teeth were divided into 14 groups and each tooth was enlarged and obturated according to the purpose of this study. Obturated teeth were infiltrated by Indian ink and decalcified and cleared. The apical sealing ability was evaluated by measuring the degree of ink penetration into the canal. The results were as follows: 1. All the teeth filled by lateral condensation using gutta-percha cone and sealer proved better in canal sealing ability than McSpadden technique and Engine reamer technique, showing less ink penetration. 2. In the McSpadden technique, there was less ink penetration detected in using the sealer than not. 3. In all of the experimental methods, the difference of the degree of ink penetration according the degree of canal enlargement could not be accepted. 4. There was no significant difference in ink penetration degree between Engine reamer technique using sealer and McSpadden technique without sealer.
IN VITRO STUDY ON THE MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF THE CLASS V COMPOSITE RESTORATION WITH DENTAL ADHESIVE
Chung, Gun-Chul ; Park, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Chan-Young ; Lee, Chung-Suck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 135~144
This study was undertaken to evaluate the degree of the marginal leakage of composite restoration with 3 brands of dental adhesives by means of the dye penetration at the enamel and dentinal margins. 150 cavities of class V were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 75 extracted anterior and premolar teeth, which were devided into 3 groups. The cavities were filled with composite resin, Silar
(3M) and Heliosit
(Vivadent) after application of the dental adhesives, specifically Scotchbond
(3M) which is essentially composed with halophosphorus ester of Bis-GMA, Dentin Adhesit
(Vivadent) which is polyurethane resin, and Enamel Bond
(3M) which is a product of Bis-GMA with low viscosity at internal surfaces and margins of the cavities. All specimens were immersed in
, 0.5% methylene blue solution for 24 hours after thermocycling at
, embedded in acrylic resin, and sectioned with diamond disk into two parts. The sectioned specimens observed with the light microscope. The following results were obtained: 1. The group filled with Scotchbond
the other two groups at the enamel margins. 2. No significant difference in the degree of the marginal leakage had appeared between Dentin Adhesit
group an d Enamel Bond
group at the enamel margins. 3. Severe marginal leakage with penetration of dye to the floor of cavity had appeared from the all three groups and no significant difference in the degree of marginal leakage existed between the three groups at the dentinal margins.
A STUDY ON THE DEPTH OF POLYMERIZATION OF VISIBLE LIGHT ACTIVATED COMPOSITE RESINS
Chung, Sae-Joon ; Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 145~152
The purpose of this study was to compare combinations of the four visible light irradiating appliances (Translux, Heliomat, Pluraflex HL 150, Omega) and the four visible light activated composite resins (Durafil, Heliosit, Plurafil-super, Silux) to determine the depth of polymerization of each combination. Twenty samples were made with Durafil. Five samples were polymerized for 20 seconds using Translux, five with Heliomat, five with Pluraflex HL 150, five with Omega. Twenty samples were made with Heliosit, twenty with Plurafil-super, and twenty samples with Silux. A 20-second polymerization time was applied with each of 4 visible light irradiating appliances to 5 samples of each material. Eighty samples were treated in a like manner, but polymerization was extended to 40 seconds. Depth of polymerization were measured with caliper. The results were as follows. 1) Of the two time exposures, 40-second exposure provided a significantly greater depth of polymerization than 20-second for each light with each material. 2) Durafill-Translux system showed minimum depth of polymerization, and Plurafil-Pluraflex system showed maximum depth of polymerization. 3) Visible light irradiating appliances were able to harden the resins cured by tire visible lights of other makers' apparatuses. 4) In all circumstances, depth of polymerization was between 3.0-3.8mm.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BONDING STRENGTH OF THE JOINED AMALGAM RESTORATION
Chung, In-Young ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 153~160
The purpose of this study was to observe the tensile and bonding strength of the joined amalgam restoration. Amalgam alloys of fine-cut (F-type), spherical (S-type), and dispersed type (D-type) were selected in this study, and all specimens were divided into three groups according to the condensation methods as follows. Group I : the control group which condense the same kinds of mixed amalgam into the whole part of the mold respectively. Group II : the group which condense a mix of amalgam into one half of the mold, and then condense a new mix of amalgam into the rest half of the mold 15 minutes later. Group III : the group which condense a mixed amalgam into one half of the mold, and then condense a new mix of amalgam into the rest half of the mold 7 days later. All specimens were stored in incubator at
for seven days with immersing in saline solution before testing. The tensile and bonding strength of them were measured with Instron Universal Testing machine. The results were as follows: 1. In Group I, the order of tensile strength was F-type, S-type, and D-type. 2. In case of bonding of S-type + S-type, the difference of the bonding strength between Group II and III was not significant. (P> 0.05) 3. The bonding strength of F-type + S-type of Group II was marked the highest in value, and the lowest bonding strength was showed in bonded D-type + D-type of Group III. 4. In case of bonding with the different kinds of amalgam alloy in Group II, the specimen bonded to F-type was marked the highest bonding strength, and the specimen bonded with F-type was marked the lowest one. In Group II, the bonding strength of the specimens bonded with the same kinds of amalgam alloy was presented as the same order as that of Group I. 5. In Group III, the specimen connected with D-type marked the lowest bonding strength of all specimens. In Group III, the bonding strength of the specimens connected with the same kinds of amalgam alloy was the order of S-type + S-type, F-type + F-type, and D-type + D-type.
A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON DENTAL HARD TISSUE
Cho, Sung-Sik ; Kim, Yung-Hai ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 161~168
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of heat generated by rotating bur on the dental hard tissue in vitro. Freshly extracted molar teeth with normal appearance from early 20's male were collected and experimental teeth were divided into 4 groups and the teeth in each group were prepared class I cavity with different clinical procedures as follows. The four methods were. I. 20,000rpm without coolant II. 20,000rpm with coolant III. 500,000rpm without coolant IV. 500,000rpm with coolant Five teeth were reserved intact as a control group. These teeth were longitudinally split into two parts by means of chisel after class I cavity preparation. In a control group 5 parts were boiled in water for 20 minutes and the other 5 specimens were not boiled. All specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye solution and the image of dye penetration was examined and photographed under stereomicroscope. Followings were the results obtained through the study. 1. In control group, dye penetration of the unboiled specimens was increased than with the boiled group. 2. The specimens prepared cavity without coolant showed decreased dye penetration than with the coolant group. 3. 20,000rpm without coolant group showed the least dye penetration. 4. 500,000rpm with coolant group showed similar level of dye penetration to the unboiled specimens from the control group.
A STATISTICAL STUDY ON WORKING LENGTH OF UPPER AND LOWER ANTERIOR TEETH IN ENDODONTIC TREATMENT
Choe, Dong-Hun ; Park, Dong-Soo ; Lee, Chan-Young ; Lee, Chung-Suck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 169~175
This study was undertaken to obtain the average canal length of upper & lower anterior teeth which was important in canal length measuring procedure of endodontic treatment. It was based upon 827 out-patients who had endodontic treatment on their upper & lower anterior teeth at the Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental Infirmary, Yonsei Medical Center from February, 1978 to June, 1984. The 1249 teeth of these patients were devided into sex and age groups. The root canal length of these teeth were measured. The following results were obtained; 1. The mean root canal length of upper & lower anterior teeth were as follows; Upper central incisors : 21.8mm Upper lateral incisors : 21.0mm Upper canines : 24.1mm Lower central incisors : 18.6mm Lower lateral incisors : 19.9mm Lower canines : 22.6mm 2. There was no significant difference in root canal length between sex. (P > 0.05) 3. There was no significant difference in root canal length between age groups. (p > 0.05) 4. The distribution of upper central incisors showed the highest distribution followed by upper lateral incisors and lower central incisors between 10 to 40 year old age groups, and there was no signigicant difference in the rest of the age groups. There was no significant difference in sex distribution, which was 49.5% for males and 50.4% for females. The number of the upper anterior teeth was 74.3% of all the specimens and the lower anterior 25.7%, and 40.6% of all the specimens were upper central incisors.
THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUMENTATION IN THE CANAL ON THE EXTENSION OF INFECTION
Kim, Yung-Hai ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 177~181
This study was to confirm the influence of intracanal instrumentation whether the pulp infection could be extended to periapical tissue. Fifty three teeth (24 badly decayed and infected, 29 sound teeth) were employed for this experiment and grouped as follows; 1. The specimen taken from the tip of 12 infected pulp in which reamer was inserted to the canal up to apical 1/3 and cultured as long as 48 hours. After 24 hours culture 11 cases were positive and 1 ease was negative but the time of incubation elapsed as 48 hours a negative case turned to positive. 2. Broth immersed paper disc was placed for 1 minute on the tip of 12 infected teeth with a reamer inserted to the apical end and cultured as usual manner in the incubator. At 24 hour culture the growth was significant in 9 cases and after 48 hours total 12 cases were positive. 3. Reamer was inserted to apical 1/3 on 14 sterile pulp canals and specimens obtained from the root tip were cultured for 24 and 48 hours. The results on both group were negative. 4. Similar maner with No.3 except reamer tip was rest exactly at the apex revealed only 2 cases of positive at 48 hour culture. 5. The tip of 24 reamers which reached to apical 1/3 and apex of infected canal were cultured for 24 and 48 hours. At 24 hour culture the growth was evident. 6. The tip of 14 reamers which inserted to apical 1/3 of sterile canal showed negative at 24 hour culture. The 15 cases of the tip which reached to the apex of sterile canal were found negative except 3 positive cases at 48 hour culture.
A STUDY ON THE ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF HUMAN MAXILLARY LATERAL INCISOR WITH TRANSPARENT SPECIMENS
Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 183~186
Thirty maxillary lateral incisors were injected with china ink, decalcified, cleared and used in an in vitro study to determine the number of root canals, the frequency and location of lateral canals, the location of apical foramens, the frequency of apical deltas, and the curvature of root canals. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the teeth demonstrated single canal, but 6.7% of the teeth were found to have bifurcated canals. 2. Of the 32 canals studied, 37.5% of the canals were found to have lateral canals and these ramifications were usually located in the and apical third of the root. 3. 9 apical foramens were located directly on the root apex and 21 foramens laterally. 4. 3 canals showed mesial curvature, 20 canals distal curvature, 4 canals labial curvature, and 3 canals palatal curvature.
CLINICAL STUDY ON THE PAIN RESPONSE TO FR AFTER VITAL PULPOTOMY
Yoon, Soo-Han ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 187~191
Vital pulpotomies by conventional method were done in 120 male and female cases between the ages of 20 and 60 who visited to SNUDH. The pulpotomized surfaces were covered by FR paste and clinical symptoms were carefully examined 1 week and 4 weeks later. The results were as follows; 1. There was no distinct difference between male and female as a whole, and pain to cold and hot or percussion was increased by aging. 2. Incidence of pain to cold and hot or percussion in group examined 4 weeks later was slightly increased than in group examined 1 week later. 3. There was no case of pain to cold and hot or percussion over all ages after 1 week, but were 5 cases (male 2, female 3) in 40 age, and were 3 cases (male 1, female 2) in 50 age after 4 weeks. 4. In 20 and 30 age, there was no case of pain to cold and hot or percussion after 4 weeks, also.
A STUDY ON THE CLEANSING EFFECT OF THREE ROOT CANAL INSTRUMENTS
Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 10, issue 1, 1984, Pages 193~198
This study was conducted to compare the chip removal capability of root canal enlarging instruments. Fifty five buccal or mesial canals from upper and lower molar teeth were randomly selected and divided into three groups; Reamer, K-type file and K-flex file. Fifteen canals in each group were individually enlarged with one of three tested instruments and irrigated with 5cc of normal saline solution. After instrumentation, each canal was dried with paper point and the canal was splited longitudinally and the cleanness of root canal surface was evaluated under stereoscope by three observers. The results were as follows; 1. Most of the canals experimented showed varying degree of the presence of debris. 2. The canals prepared with reamers showed the most clean canal surface. 3. There was no significant difference in debridement effect between k-type file and k-flexfile.