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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Sep 1993
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Apr 1993
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THE EFFECT OF ACID ETCHING ON GLASS IONOMER CEMENT SURFACES
Han, Seung-Weon ; Park, Sang-Jin ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 1~26
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acid etching on the surface appearance and fracture toughness of five glass ionomer cements. Five kinds of commercially available glass ionomer cements including chemical curing filling type, chemical curing lining type, chemical curing metal reinforced type, light curing tilling type and light curing lining type were used for this study. The specimens for SEM study were fabricated by treating each glass ionomer cement with either visible light curing or self curing after being inserted into a rubber mold (diameter 4mm, depth 1mm). Some of the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 0, 15, 30, 60, go seconds, at 5 minutes, 1 hour and 1 day after mixing of powder and liquid. Unetched ones comprised the control group and the others were the experimental groups. The surface texture was examined by using scanning electron microscope at 20 kV. (S-2300, Hitachi Co., Japan). The specimens for fracture toughness were fabricated by curing of each glass ionomer cement previously inserted into a metal mold for the single edge notch specimen according to the ASTME399. They were subjected to a three-point bend test after etching for 0, 30, 60, and 90 seconds at 5 minutes-, 1 hour-and 1 day-lapse after the fabrication of the specimens. The plane strain fracture toughness (
) was determined by three-point bend test which was conducted with cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min using Instron universal testing machine (Model No. 1122) following seven days storage of the etched specimens under
, 100% humidity condition. Following conclusions were drawn. 1. In unetched control group, crack was present, but the surface was generally smooth. 2. Deterioration of the surface appearance such as serious dissolving of gel matrix and loss of glass particles occured as the etching time was increased beyond 15 s following Immediate etching of chemical curing type of glass ionomer cements. 3. Etching after 1 h, and 1 d reduced surface damage, 15 s, and 30s etch gave rough surface appearance without loss of glass particle of chemical curing type of glass ionomer cements. 4. Light curing type glass ionomer cement was etched by acid, but there was no difference in surface appearances according to various waiting periods. 5. It was found that the value of plane stram fracture toughness of glass ionomer cements was highest in the light curing filling type as
followed by the light curing lining type, chemical curing metal reinforced type, chemical curing filling type and chemical curing lining type. 6. The value of plane stram fracture toughness of the chemical curing lining type glass ionomer cement etched after 5 minutes was lower than those of the cement etched after 1 hour or day or unetched (P < 0.05). 7. Light curing glass ionomer cement showed Irregular fractured surface and chemical curing cement showed smooth fractured surface.
THE IN VITRO STUDY ON FLUORIDE RELEASE AND FLUORIDE UPTAKE TO DENTIN FROM FLUORIDE CONTAINING LINER / BASE CEMENTS
Ko, Hyo-Jee ; Chung, Hyun-Ju ; Oh, Won-Mann ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 27~37
The purpose of this study was to determine the fluroide release levels of new fluoride-containing liner/base cements and the fluoride uptake by dentin surfaces. Ten specimens of each brand (Fuji ionomer Type III, Fuji Lining LC, Timeline, Vitrebond and XR ionomer) were made, polymerized and placed in fluoride-free distilled water at
, 100% relative humidity for 24 hours. The extracting solution of specimen was exchanged and fluoride release was measured daily for the 30 days. For fluoride uptake study, twenty-five extracted human lower molars were sectioned longitudinally in the mesiodistal direction with a diamond disc. Five teeth were filled with each material and then stored at
, 100% humidity for 4 weeks. Fluoride uptake by dentin from the test materials was evaluated using electron probe micro X-ray analyzer. The following results were obtained : 1. The amounts of fluoride release showed no significant difference between Fuji ionomer Type III and Fuji Lining LC, but showed significant difference between other groups. XR ionomer released significantly greater fluoride than any other group(P<.001). 2. All the materials have a burst effect which more fluoride released in then first 3 day and showed significant decrease over the test period (P<0.001). 3. XR ionomer group showed fluoride penetration to approximately
deep in dentin. But other material groups showed very little fluoride uptake by dentin.
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY ON RESIN INFILTRATIONS AFTER DENTIN TREATMENTS
Kwon, Gyun-Won ; Park, Sang-Jin ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 38~53
The purpose of this study was to observe the resin infiltration pattern into dentin by various dentin bonding agents. Freshley extracted 36 sound human molars were used in this study. They were stored at
physiologic saline solution before experiment. All the teeth were cross-sectioned to expose dentin below about 3.0mm at the cusp tip and above 2.0mm at the cemento-enamel junction with Crystal Cutter (MC411 D, Maruto Co., Japan), and were made into specimens for this study (Fig. 1). The specimen experimental groups were divided into 9 groups by dentin surface treatment as following procedures: Group I: Treated with Gluma Cleanser followed by Gluma Primer and Sealer Group 2. Treated with Gluma Cleanser followed by Scotch bond 2 Adhesive Group 3: Treated with Gluma Cleanser followed by Tenure Solution A, Band Visar Seal Group 4: Treated with Scotchprep followed by Scotch bond 2 Adhesive Group 5: Treated with Scotchprep followed by Gluma Primer and Sealer Group 6: Treated with Scotch prep followed by Tenure Solution A, Band Visar Seal Group 7: Treated with Tenure Conditioner followed by Tenure Solution A, Band Visar Seal Group 8: Treated with Tenure Conditioner followed by Scotchbond 2 Adhesive Group 9: Treated with Tenure Conditioner followed by Gluma Primer and Sealer 27 specimens of 36 specimens were divided into 9 groups (Group 1-9), and were used for observation of resin tags. Remaining 9 specimens were divided into 3 groups (Group 1,4 and 7), and were used for observation of fractured dentin surfaces. Specimens to observe the resin tag were demineralized with 20% HCl for 14 hours, specimens to observe the fractured dentin surfaces were demineralized with 10% HCl for 3 minutes. All the specimens were gold-coated with Eiko ion coater (Eiko-engineering Co.), and observed under Scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-2300) at 20 KV. The following results were obtained: 1. In group 1 treated with Gluma Cleanser, Gluma Primer, and Sealer, most resin tags were more than
. 2. In group 4 treated with Scotch prep and Scotchbond 2 Adhesive, most resin tags were about
. 3. In group 7 treated with Tenure conditioner, Tenure Solution A, B, and Visar Seal, most resin tags were about
but occasionally resin tags were more than
. 4. In groups 2,3,5,6,8 and 9, the lengths of resin tags were inconsistent and the amount of resin tags were reduced.
A STUDY ON THE MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF CLASS II LIGHT CURING COMPOSITE RESIN RESTORATION ACCORDING TO FILLING METHODS
Kim, Kyung-Hyun ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 55~72
The aim of this study was to compare the marginal leakage of class II light curing composite resin restoration according to filling methods. With using acid etching technique and dentin bonding agent, various methods were suggested to eliminate or reduce the marginal leakage. In this study, class II cavities were prepared in 100 extracted human premolars with cementum margin(1mm below the CEJ) and the teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 20 teeth each. The teeth in group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were restored by direct filling methods using P-50 and Clearfil Photoposterior of 10 teeth each, but the method of insertion of the restorative materials varied with each group. And the teeth in group 5 were restored by inlay method using Kulzer Inlay and CR Inlay. Filling methods are as follows : Group 1 : The composite resin was inserted in one layer in the proximal box and one layer in the occlusal portion. Group 2 : Insertion was in two equally thick horizontal layers in the proximal box. Group 3 : Insertion was in two diagonally placed layers in the proximal box. Group 4 : The composite resin was inserted in the same way as in group 3 except that a glass ionomer liner was first placed on the axial wall and gingival floor. Group 5 : The teeth were restored by Inlay technique using dure cure resin cement. All the teeth were thermocycled, stained with 1 % methylene blue solution, sectioned mesiodistally, and scored for marginal leakage. To compare the marginal leakage, ANOVA and T-test were used in analysis. The following results were obtained : 1. In direct filling methods, there was no significant difference in marginal leakage at both occlusal and cervical margins. 2. In all groups, occlusal margin showed significantly less leakage than cervical margin. 3. In group using glass ionomer liner, there was no significant reduction of marginal leakage at the cervical margin. 4. The group restored by inlay method showed significantly less marginal leakage than groups restored by direct filling methods at both occlusal and gingival margins. 5. There was no significant difference in each group according to filling materials.
EFFECT OF ACID-TREATMENT ON DENTIN BONDING
Kim, Young-Kyong ; Kim, Sung-Kyo ; Park, Jin-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 73~83
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various acid treatments on dentin bonding. Freshly extracted human teeth were uprightly embedded in self curing acrylic resin, and their occlusal surfaces were grinded to expose flat dentin surfaces. The specimens were divided into 4 groups. Specimens of one group were not treated so as to be a control and those of the other three groups were threated with 10% polyacrylic acid, 10% phosphoric acid, and 10-3 solution(10% citric acid/3% ferric chloride) respectively. Primer, bonding resin and composite resin were applied over the treated dentin surfaces sequentially. All specimens were stored in
distilled water for 24 hours, then the tensile bond strength was measured and the treated dentin surfaces and fracured dentin surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows: Bond strengths of acid-treated groups were higher than those of the untreated group. In the acid-treated groups, bond strength was found to be the highest in the 10-3 solution group followed by the 10% phosphoric acid group and the 10% polyacrylic acid group(P<0.01). On SEM examination of dentin surfaces, the untreated dentin surface showed a remaining smear layer and closed dentinal tubules. Dentin surfaces treated with 10 % polyacrylic acid showed a clean dentin surface without the smear layer, but showed remaining smear plugs in dentinal tubules. A dentin surface treated with 10% phosphoric acid or 10-3 solution showed open dentinal tubules without the smear layer or smear plugs. On SEM observation of the fractured dentin-resin interface, the untreated group showed that failure occurred in the smear layer. The group treated with 10% polyacrylic acid showed no resin tag remained in the dentinal tubules, but resin tags in the dentinal tubules were observed in the group treated with the 10% phosphoric acid or the 10-3 solution. On the failure mode examination, the higher the bond strength of the group, the higher the frequency of cohesive failure. The coefficient between bond strength and cohesive failure rate was 0.71.
A STUDY ON FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN INLAY ACCORDING TO HEAT TREATMENT
Kim, Yong-Seong ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Park, Sang-Jin ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 84~94
The purpose of this study was to evaluate flexure strength of composite resin inlay according to heat treatment and duration in comparasion with visible light-cured resin. In this study, materials were used 1 visible light-cured resin and 3 kinds of composite resin inlays. Control group was visible light cured resin (Photo Clearfil Posterior) and experimental groups were composite resin inlays (Brilliant Dentin, Brilliant Enamel and Clearfil CR Inlay). Experimental groups were divided 3 groups: First group was Brilliant Dentin and second group was Brilliant Enamel and -third group was Clearfil CR Inlay. Used experimental groups were calculated flexural strength according to heat treatment and duration. The following results were obtained: 1. Experimental groups were higher flexural strength than control group. 2. At
when heat treatment carried out 7 minutes flexural strength elevated third group, second group, first group in turn and when heat treatment carried out 15 minutes flexural strength elevated third group, second group, first group in turn but no difference was showed between first and second group. 3. At
when heat treatment was carried out 7 minutes flexural strength elevated third group, second group, first group in turn and when heat treatment was carried out 15 minutes flexural strength elevated third group, first group, second group in turn but no difference was showed between first and second group. 4. In spite of heat treatment and duration the third group was highest flexural strength in the others groups.
A STUDY ON THE CYTOTOXICITY OF ROOT CANAL ANTISEPTIC SOLUTIONS
Kim, Jae-Gu ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 95~102
Two functions of root canal medicaments and irrigants are to reduce microorganisms and to encourge the repair of apical tissues. The biocompatibility of endodontic materials has been tested using in vitro cell culture techniques. The purpose of this study Was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of 2 root canal irrigation solutions and 4 antiseptics on HEp-2 and McCoy cells. Two irrigation solutions were sodium hypochlorite.
and 4 antiseptics were povidone, ethanol, glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride. Each solutions were serially diluted to 1:1, 1:10, 1:
. And each diluted solutions were added to the cells and cytotoxic effects were measured with the absorbance of formazan formed cells by ELISA READER. The results were as follows : 1. Benzalkonium chloride was the most cytotoxic on HEp-2 cell. (P<0.05) 2.
was the most cytotoxic on McCoy cell. (P<.05) 3. Povidone and ethanol showed mild cytotoxic effect on HEp-2 and McCoy cell. (P<0.05).
A STUDY ON THE TENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN INLAYS ACCORDING TO THEIR INTERNAL SURFACE TREATMENT AND TYPES OF LUTING CEMENT
Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 103~113
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of composite resin inlays according to the their internal surface treatment and types of luting cement and compared them with the conventional direct resin filling thchnique. Class II cavities were prepared in 50 extracted human molar teeth, and then equally divided into five groups. Group 1 : Cavities of control group were directly filled with P-50. Group 2 : Cavities of resin inlay group were luted with resin cement. Group 3 : Cavities of resin inlay group were luted with luting G-I cement. Group 4 : Cavities of resin inlay group were luted with resin cement after sandblasting. Group 5 : Cavities of resin inlay group were luted with luting G-I cement after sandblasting. All specimens were polished with same method and stored in normal saline for 24 hours before testing. An Universal Testing machine(Model No. AGS-100A, Shimadzu, Japan) was used to apply tensile loads in the vertical direction, and the force required for separation was recorded with a cross-head speed of 5mm/min and 100kg in full scale. The results were as follows : 1. The mean tensile bond strength was lowest in group luted with luting G-I cement, with measurements of
and highest in group luted with resin cement after sandblasting, with measurements of
. 2. The tensile bond strength was greater in resin inlay groups luted with resin cement than in control group and resin inlay groups luted with luting G-I cement(P<0.05). 3. The tensile bond strength was lower in resin inlay groups luted with luting G-I cement than in control group(P<0.05). 4. The tensile bond strength was greater in resin inlay groups luted with resin cement or luting G-I cement after sandblasting than without that(P<0.05).
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THE COMPOSITE RESIN TO AMALGAM ACCORDING TO AMALGAM SURFACE TREATMENT METHODS
Park, Mun-Hee ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 114~121
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on treatment methods to shear bond strength between composite resin and amalgam when the alloy surface was finished with a diamond wheel or an sandblaster. Forty round acrylic cylinders were fabricated with a diameter of 33mm and a height of 20mm to fit into the device used during shear bond strength testing. A round undercut cavity (diameter, 8mm: depth, 2.5mm) was prepared in the center of the acrylic surface and the cavity was restored using a amalgam. A total of 40 acrylic cylinders with amalgam were divided into 4 groups according to treatment method. The group treatment were as follows : Group 1 : acid etching after finishing the amalgam with diamond wheel Group 2 : no acid etching after finishing the amalgam with diamond wheel Group 3 : acid etching after sandblasting the amalgam Group 4 : no acid etching after sandblasting the amalgam The shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to amalgam of each specimen was tested with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and 500kg in full scale. The results were as follow: 1. After diamond finishing, the non-acid etching group had highest shear bond strength with 7.29kg/
and after sandblasting, the acidetching group had lowest shear bond strength with 4.49kg/
. 2. In both diamond finishing and sandblasting group, acid etching of the roughened amalgam surface decreased the shear bond strength. 3. The group treated with a diamond wheel had higher shear bond strength those treated with an sandblaster but there was not significanat.
A STUDY ON THE RADIOPACITY OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS
Park, Soo-Kyeong ; Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 122~132
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of radiopacity of glass ionomer cements and to determine the optimum level of radiopacity that is the most compatible with the radiographic diagnosis of secondary caries. The experiments were performed in two parts. In the first part, the radiopacities of 9 glass ionomer cements (FI, FII, FI-LC, FII-LC, SI, SII, Vit, B-VLC, AC) and base materials(Ultra-Blend, Zinc phoaphate cements, Cavitec, Dycal) were measured by densitometer. Then all experimental materials were divided into 5 groups based on the level of radiopacity of enamel and dentin. In the second part, class III cavities with or without secondary caries were prepared in extracted anterior teeth. The representative materials of each group with different radiopacities were inserted into each cavity. The radiographs were interpreted by 15 dentists and seconsary caries were diagnosed according to a five-point confidence rating. Sensitivity and ROC analysis were used to compare observer performance. The following results were obtained : 1. The radipacity of glass ionomer cements varied between 1.111mm Al and 6.011mm Al equivalent. 2. Among experimental materials, three materials in group I had lower radiopacity than that of dentin. The radiopacity of two materials in group II slightly exeeded that of dentin. Three materials in group III had slightly lower radiopacity than that on enamel. The radiopacity of one material in group W was slightly higher than that of enamel. Four materals in group V had the radiopacity that exeeded over 2.0mm AI equivalent to that of enamel. 3. The group IV was the highest for sensitivity and the group V was the highest for ROC area. However, no significant differences were obtained among group II, III, IV and V (P<0.05) but only group I was significantly lower(P<0.01). 4. In comparison with the observer performance for the radiographic diagnosis of secondary caries, the group II, III, IV, and V were superior to the group I (P<0.01). And so the optimum level of radiopacity to detect the secondary caries was the radiopacity that is higher than that of dentin.
A STUDY ON THE RADIOPACITY OF ROOT CANAL SEALERS
Bae, Kwang-Shik ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 133~143
The aim of this study was to establish reproducible method for measurements of radiopacity and to investigate the level of radiopacity of root canal sealers. The experiments were performed in two parts. In the first part, densitometric readings were performed using an aluminum step wedge as a reference at variable voltages and exposure times. Then standard curves for the aluminum step wedge were compared to comprehend the effect of voltage and exposure time. In the second part, on the basis of these results, appropriate conditions for exposure were adopted for standardized measurements of radiopacity. Under standardized set of conditions, densitometric measurements of ten root canal sealers and one gutta-percha point were performed and the levels of radiopacity referable to an equivalent thickness of aluminum were compared. The following results were obtained : 1. At 50 and 60 kVp, increasing the exposure time caused a decrease in the slope of the standard curve for the aluminum step wedge. However, at 70 kVp increasing the exposure time causing a parallel shift of the standard curve to the right. 2. At constant exposure time, increasing the voltage caused a decrease in the slope of the standard curve. 3. The radiopacity of root canal sealers and a gutta-percha point varied between 2.43 mm Al and 9.20 mm Al equivalent. 4. All the root canal sealers had radiopacities more than dentin, and the radiopacity of the gutta-percha point was approximately 5 times as much as that of dentin in terms of equivalent thickness of aluminum. 5. The AH26 had radiopacity more than the gutta-percha point, and the radiopacities of ZOE, Vitapex, Canals, Kerr PCS, Nogenol were similar to that of the gutta-percha point, and Tubliseal, Apatite II, Apatite III, Silapex were less radiopaque than the gutta-percha point.
A STUDY ON THE BLEACHING EFFECTIVENESS OF BLEACHING AGENTS AND THE APICAL LEAKAGE ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION OF THE INTRACORONAL BASE
Shin, Jea-Hyun ; Kim, Yang-Kee ; Hong, Chan-Ui ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 145~155
The purposes of this study were to compare the bleaching efficacy of sodium perborate when mixed either with Superoxol or distilled water and to evaluate the efficacy of different location of intracoronal base on the presence of apical leakage of tested bleaching agents. Forty eight extracted human permanent incisors were stained via whole blood and canal fillings with conventional gutta percha were performed after routine biomechanical perparations. The experimental intracoronal base was placed either at the cementoenamel junction(group 3, 4) or 2mm below cementoenamel junction(group 1, 2). Walking bleaching was performed by two different combinations of bleaching agents : sodium perborate with distilled water in group 1, 3 and sodium perbrate with Superoxol in group 2, 4. The roots of the teeth were evaluated for the presence of color change to assess the leakage of bleaching agnets and the cervical one-thirds of the crown were evaluated for bleaching effect from the whiteness Indea calculated by spectrophotometer. The results were as follows : 1. At the end of 12 days, all the sample teeth demonstrated the increase of Whiteness Index at cervical 1/3 of crown although there were some minor differences among groups. 2. Regardless of location of the base, sodium perborate with superoxol)group 2, 4) showed better results in bleaching than the sodium perborate with distilled water(group 1, 3). 3. Bleaching agent leaked into the root area when the base was placed 2mm below cementoenamel junction but no leakage was found when the base was placed at the cementoenamel junction.
THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ROOT CANAL SEALERS ON FIBROBLASTS IN HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT
Lee, Gwang-Hee ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Park, Sang-Jin ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 156~172
The purpose of this study was to evaluate for the cytotoxicity of root canal sealers - Tubliseal, N2, AH26, and Sealapex - on fibroblasts cultivated from human periodontal ligament. Succinate dehydrogenase activity test and
release test were performed to evaluate the shortterm cytotoxicity. According to l,3 and 6 days vital cell count and
-leucine incorporation rate to fibroblasts were evaluated. The results of this study were as follows: 1. In the test of SDH activity by millipore filter method, Sealapex showed mild cytotoxicity but Tubliseal, N2 and AH26 showed severe cytotoxicity. 2. In
release test, Tubliseal was the most cytotoxic sealer tested, and rank ordered the relative cytotoxicity of the other sealers tested as follows: AH26, N2, Sealapex. 3. In the test of viable cell count, cytotoxicity in Tubliseal was continued because vital cell number reduced with time. Because vital cell was not showed in N2 and AH26 at 1 day, it was recognized that N2 and AH26 exhibited severe cytotoxicity. In Sealapex, vital cell number increased remarkably with time, so it showed that cytotoxicity decreased with time. 4. In
-leucine incorporation rate test, protein sythesis was not produced in Tubliseal, N2 and AH26 after 3 days, it showed that cytotoxicity in Tubliseal, N2 and AH26 was severe. Although protein synthesis in Sealapex decreased with time, it continued after 6 days. Therefore Sealapex has been exhibited mild cytotoxicity.
A STUDY ON MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES OF DENTINAL SURFACES BY DENTIN CONDITIONING AGENTS
Lee, Eung-Hoon ; Choi, Ho-Young ; Min, Byung-Soon ; Park, Sang-Jin ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 173~186
The purpose of this study is to observe the morphological changes of prepared dentin surfaces by 5 dentin conditioning agents. Freshly extracted 48 healthy human molars were used in this study. The teeth were stored at
physiologic saline solution befor experiment. The teeth were cross-sectioned to expose dentin below 3.0mm at the cusp tip and above 2.0mm at the cemento-enamel junction with Crystal Cutter (MC411 D, Maruto Co., Japan). The specimens were then divided into 12 groups. The sectioned dentin surfaces in group 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were prepared with No. 301 diamond point under air-water spray and those in group 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 were prepared with No. 700 carbide bur. The prepared dentin surfaces were conditioned with Nitric acid, Citric acid, Poly acrylic acid, EDTA, and Phosphoric acid. All the specimens were gold-coated with Eiko ion coater (Eiko-engineering Co.) and observed in Hitachi S-2300 Scanning electron microscope at 20 KV. The following results from this study were obtained; 1. The dentinal smear layers prepared with diamond point were compacted than those prepared with the carbide bur. 2. The dentinal smear layers prepared with diamond point or carbide bur were thick but after treatment of dentin conditioning agents smear layers were removed almost. 3. Irrespective of the uses of the diamond point or the carbide bur the morphological changes of dentin surfaces treated with the same conditioning agents were similar. 4. Treatment of nitric acid and EDTA was a little effect in removing dentinal smear layer. 5. Treatment of citric acid and phosphoric acid removed the smear layer very effectively and showed dissolution of peritubular dentin and opening of dentinal tubules.
A STUDY ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF RETROFILLED TEETH WITH VARIOUS MATERIALS AND INSTRUMENTS FOR CAVITY PREPARATION
Lee, Jae-Yong ; Cho, In-Ho ; Hong, Chan-Ui ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 187~196
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of retrofilled teeth with various materials [non-zinc Amalgam, IRM, Ketac-silver, CGP(cold-burnished, ultrafil)[and instruments for cavity preparation. Root apex were resected 2mm from apex horizontally and class I cavities were prepared in 2mm denpth, 1.5mm width and were filled with above mentioned materials. Root apex were resected 2mm from apex horizontally and class I cavities were prepared in 2mm depth, 1. 5mm width and were filled with above mentioned materials. 2% methylene blue dye solution was used for 4 days immersion and the linear leakage was measured with calipers and the volumetric leakage was determined with a spectrophotometer. The results were as follows : 1. Amalgam group showed the greatest amount of leakage and Ketac-silver group showed the least value. 2. By linear leakage test, the group retrofilled with Ketac-silver, or CGP showed better seal than the group of Amalgam or IRM. This was shown in both retrograde tip and Conventional method. 3. By volumetric leakage test, the group retrofilled with Ketac-silver showed significantly better seal than the group with IRM in retrograde tip method. 4. By volumetric leakage test, the group retrofilled with Ketac-silver showed significantly better seal than the group with Amalgam in the Conventional method.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE APICAL LEAKAGE OF RETROFILLING AFTER APICAL CAVITY PREPARATION WITH ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT
Lee, Hyeong-Il ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 197~204
This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the apical leakage in the following retrofilling techniques after apical resection; No apical cavity preparation and no retrofilling(control group), Amalgam(group I) or silver glass ionomer cement(group II) retrofilling after apical cavity preparation with mini contra-angle and bur, Amalgam(group III) or silver glass ionomer cement(group N) retrofilling after apical cavity preparation with ultrasonic micro endo tip. Extracted ninety upper anterior and lower canine teeth were fixed in skull simulators and root canals were prepared with step-back method and obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. Obturated roots were resected 2mm from apical ends and apical cavities of 1mm width and 2mm depth were prepared and retrofilled by above mentioned methods. After application of nail varnish on all surface except resected surface, apical 1/3 of the roots were placed in 1% methylene blue solution for 3 days. After longutudinal sectioning to expose central parts of filled materials, depths of penetrated dye were measured by measuring microscope and were analyzed statistically. The results were as follows. 1. Having no relation with instruments used in apical cavity preparation, amalgam retrofilling groups(group I and II) showed less apical leakage which was not significant statistically than no retrofilling group(control group) (P<0.05), but silver glass ionomer cement retrofilling gruoups(group II and IV) showed significantly less apical leakage than no retrofilling group(control group) (P<0.01). 2. In the groups retrofilled with the same material, the apical leakage in cavities prepared with ultrasonic micro endo tip (group III and IV) was less than that in cavities prepared with mini contra-angle and bur(group I and II), but not significant statistically(P>0.05). 3. When apical cavities were prepared with same instrument. the egroups retrofilled with silver glass ionomer cement(group II and IV) showed significantly less apical leakage than the groups retrofilled with amalgam(group I and III)(<0.01).
A STUDY ON THE MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF ESTHETIC RESTORATIVE MATERIALS ON ROOT CARIES RESTORATION
Han, Jin-Sun ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 205~213
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the degree of the marginal leakage of esthetic restorative materials on root caries restoration. 120 cavities were prepared to
butt joint on all margins on the crown and root portion, and divided into 4 groups. The four groups of cavity were filled with Amalgam(Dongmuyung Dental Alloy Co., Ltd, KOREA), Silux
(3M Co., USA)-Scotch Bond 2
(3M Co., USA), Silux
(BISCO USA), and GC Fuji II
(G-C Co., JAPAN) respectively. The apical margin of the preparation was finished to leave a flash of restorative material. The coronal margin of the preparation was finished not to leave a flash of restorative material. All specimens were sectioned longitudinally with Isomet Low speed saw(Buether Ltd, USA). The degree of dye penetration was evaluated as the parameter of marginal leakage under the stereoscope. The results were as follows. 1. At the enamel and dentin/cementum margins, the margin were finished to leave a flash of material showed less marginal leakage than that were finished not to leave a flash of material (P<0.001). 2. The enamel margins showed less marginal leakage than the dentin/cementum margins(P<0.001). 3. There was no significant difference in the degree of the marginal leakage between Silux
-Scotch Bond 2
group and Silux
AN ACCELERATED TEST FOR COLOR STABILITY AND OPACITY CHANGE OF LIGHT CURING COMPOSITE RESINS
Hwang, Inn-Nam ; Oh, Won-Mann ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 18, issue 1, 1993, Pages 215~226
Color stability of tooth colored restorative resins is an important factor, particularly in anterior teeth restoration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability and opacity change of several light curing composite resins. Specimens of eight composite resins(Prisma AP. H., Brilliant Enamel, Charisma, Durafil, Helio Progress, Herculite XR, P-50 and Silux Plus) were divided into two groups : In Group 1, the specimens were polymerized by visible light curing unit for 60 seconds on both sides and in Group 2, the post-cured specimens were heat tempered by light/heat curing unit for 45 units(about 18 min.). All specimens were stored in distilled water at
for 30 days. The color characteristics(
) and opacity of the specimens before and after immersion were measured by spectrocolorimetry and the total color difference(
) and opacity change (
) were computed. The results obtained were as follows : 1. SP and APH in both groups, DF, HP and HXR in Group 1 showed
-value above 2.0. 2. DF, HP, SP and HXR in Group 1 showed higher
-value than in Group 2, but the others had no significant difference. 3. The opacity of CH and HXR in Group 1, and of CH and BE in Group 2 decreased after immersion, while that of the others increased. 4. Opacity change of BE, P50 and HXR was significantly different between Group 1 and 2. These results suggest that color change in the post-cure heat tempered specimens by light/heat curing unit was smaller than that of the specimens polymerized by visible light curing unit. No clinically detectable opacity changes were noted for any materials in either goup.