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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Sep 1994
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 1994
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DISSOLUTION COMPONENTS AND CORROSION PRODUCTS OF SEVERAL AMALGAMS IN ARTIFICIAL SALIVA
Cho, Seung-Joo ; Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 1~26
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dissolution components during corrosion of amalgams and to identify surface corrosion products in the modified Fusayama artificial saliva. Four type of amalgam alloys were used: low copper lathe cut amalgam alloy (Cavex 68), low copper spherical amalgam alloy (Caulk Spherical Alloy), high copper admixed amalgam alloy (Dispersalloy) and high copper single composition amalgam alloy (Tytin). Each amalgam alloy and Hg were triturated according to the manufacturer's direction by means of mechanical amalgamator (Capmaster, S.S.White), and then the triturated mass was inserted into the cylindrical metal mold which was 10mm in diameter and 2.0mm in height and condensed with compression of 150kg/
using oil pressor. The specimens were removed from the mold and stored at room temperature for 7 days and cleansed with distiled water for 30 minutes in an ultrasonic cleaner. The specimens were immersed in the modified Fusayama artificial saliva for the periods of 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. The amounts of Hg, Cu, Sn and Zn dissolved from each amalgam specimen immersed in the artificial saliva for the periods of 1 month, 3 months and 6 months were measured using Inductivity Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICPQ-1000, Shimadzu, Japan) and amount of Ag dissolved from amalgam specimen was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (Atomic Absorption/Flame emission spectrophotometer M-670, Shimadzu, Japan). A surface corrosion products of specimens were analysed using Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analyser (ESCA PHI-558, PERKIN ELMER, U.S.A.). The secondary image and back scattered image of corroded surface of specimens was observed under the SEM, and the corroded surface of specimens was analysed with the EDX. The following results were obtained. 1. The dissolution amount of Cu was the most in high copper admixed amalgam(Dispersalloy) and the least in high copper single composition amalgam(Tytin). 2. Sn and Zn were dissolved during all the experiment periods, and dissolution amounts were decreased as the time elapsed. 3. Initial surface corrosion products were ZnO and SnO. 4. Corrosion of
phase in low copper amalgams was observed and Ag-Cu eutectic alloy phase was corroded in low copper spherical amalgam(Caulk Sperical Alloy). 5. Corrosion of
' phase in high copper amalgams was observed and Ag-Cu eutectic alloy phase was corroded in high copper admixed amalgam(Dispersalloy). 6. Sn-Cl was produced in the subsurface of low copper amalgams and high copper admixed amalgam.
THE EFFECTS OF pH, TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON THE SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXYAPATITE
Lee, Hee-Joo ; Hur, Bock ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 27~44
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pH, temperature and time on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite(HAP) by spontaneous precipitation under relatively physiologic condition. Specimens were obtained from aqueous system with various pH, temperature and experimental time. Chemical composition, crystallographic structure and crystallinity of the synthetic HAP were evaluated by Infrared spectroscopy and powdered X-ray diffraction method. The following results were obtained. 1. No precipitate was obtained under pH 5.5. 2. All the specimens were concluded as HAP except one that was obtained under the condition of pH 6.5,
and 1 day. It was concluded as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate(DCPD). 3. The crystallinity of HAP was enhanced by increases in pH, temperature and time of the preparation. But, the crystallinity of the synthetic HAP was lower than that of the mineral HAP. 4. Intermediates such as DCPD and octacalcium phosphate were formed on the process of the synthesis of HAP.
Effect of various cleaners and mordants to bond strength of light curing glass ionomer cements to dentin
Lee, Won-Seob ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 45~63
128 freshly extracted human molars were used to study the interaction between dentinal smear layer removal with various agents, and the shear bond strength of a light cured glass ionomer cement to dentin. It was proposed that the removal of smear layers using acidic cleaners followed by incorporation of Fe mordant with dentin could enhanced the infiltration of monomer component in light curing glass ionomer cement and resulted in a high bond strength. For the first treatment process for removal of smear layers on the surfaces of dentin, 50 % citric acid, 10% maleic acid and 10 % phosphoric acid were used, and for the second treatment process, 15% ferric chloride, 6.8% ferric oxalate or 30% potassium oxalate were used. Distilled water was used as a control. After double sequential treatment on dentin, a light curing glass ionomer cement was bonded to dentin. After being immersed in water at 31'C for 24 hours, shear bond strengths were measured Instron testing machine(Model No.4202, USA). Surface changes were also observed using SEM (Hitachi, S-2300, Japan) after treatment process with each agents. The following conclusions were drawn : 1. Dentin surface cleaned with maleic acid and treated with ferric oxalate showed the highest bond strength with light curing glass ionomer cement. 2. Bond strengths of glass ionomer cement to dentin treated with maleic acid or citric acid were the highest, and that treated with phosphoric acid showed the lowest. 3. The effect of ferric oxalate on shear bond strength to dentin was always higher than that of ferric chloride. 4. The smear layers were clearly removed and the orifices of dentinal tubules were opened widely by the citric acid, maleic acid and phosphoric acid. 5. The orifices of dentinal tubules opened after using the first solution were closed with the treatment of ferric chloride. 6. The precipitate like crystals were formed on dentin surfaces and tubules, but a significant decrease in bond strength of glass ionomer cement to dentin surface treated with potassium oxalate.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ADHESION PATTERN, ADHESION STRENGTH AND FRACTURE PATTERN OF THE ADHESIVE CAST GOLD INLAY
Han, Seoung-Ryul ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 64~72
Zinc Phosphate Cement hand been used for about more than 100 years in luting of cast gold inlay. But many scientists had been trying to develop the new form of luting agent because the ZPC hand shown the lack of adhesiveness on the tooth structure and the toxicity to the pulp tissue. Recently many researches about the surface treatment of the cast body are being done to increase the adhesion of cement to it. The conventional Class I gold inlays were fabricated in the 20 permanent molars. After the internal surface of the cast body was sandblasted with
particles and was tin-plated, the inlays were cemented with adhesive cement [G I cement and resin cement(Super-Bond &
)] and the evaluation on the adhesion pattern, adhesive strength and the fracture pattern of the adhesive cast gold inlay was compared to that of the cast gold inlay cemented conventionally with ZPC. The results were as follows : 1. The surface roughness of the cast body was increased significantly after sandblasting with the
particles and the tin oxide layer, which was consisted of round particles, came into being. 2. The bond strength was in the order of Super-Bond, ZPC, Fuji I,
group. The group cemented with Super-Bond showed statistically greater strength than the other groups(p<0.05). 3. The group cemented with ZPC was fallen apart by principal adhesion failure and that with Fuji I was by complete adhesion failure. But the group with Super-Bond showed pricncipal cohesive failure pattern and in the group with
, complete cohesive fracture pattern was shown and small protion of tooth structure was fractured out with cast body and the fractured surface showed the figure just as the enamel prism. 4. Various gaps were shown at the pulpal side regardless of little gap at the side walls of the cavity in all groups. Only the Super-Bond was attached to the tooth structure and the other cements were detached from both the tooth and the cast body.
STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN CANAL WALL THICKNESS AND THE AREA OF THE CROSS SECTION OF THE ROOT IN THE MESIAL ROOT OF THE MANDIBULAR MOLAR CANAL PREPARATION
Park, Jong-Gwan ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 73~84
Using a model system that can compare the before and after of canal preparation in the same tooth, we measured the area of the cross section, and canal wall thickness of the distal portion of the mesial root of the mandibular molar, and compared the amount of reduction in the canal using hand flared preparation the Gates-Glidden drill flared preparation according to the changes in the MAF. The results were as follows. 1. After canal preparation, the canal wall thickness had no significant difference between the hand flared preparation and Gates-Glidden drill flared preparation. 2. The canal wall thickness, after canal preparation, there was no significant difference between the sizes of the MAF. 3. The area variation range of each cross section of root had no significant difference between MAF size and methods of canal preparation. 4. After canal preparation, the frequency of the canal wall thickness under 0.5mm showed 3.5mm below the furcation to be the most frequent with statistical significance(p<0.05). 2mm below the furcation and 5mm below the furcation followed but there was no statistical significance. 5. The danger zone of the mesial root of the mandibular molar seems to be around 3.5mm.
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PREPARATION METHODS ON THE MORPHOLOGIC CHANGE OF SIMULATED ROOT CANALS IN RESIN BLOCK
Park, Mi-Hee ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 85~96
In this study, 24 curved resin blocks were prepared by one of the following four methods: 1) Conventional technique using K-flexo files 2) Step-back technique using K-flexo files 3) Crown-down technique using K-flexo files 4) Canal Master instrumentation using Canal Master Resin blocks were sectioned, photographed, and evaluated the mean centering ratio and the mean area of dentin removed before and after the instrumentation. The results were as follows : I. the mean centering ratio 1. In the level 1 and level 3, there was no significant difference in the mean centering ratio. 2. In the level 2, Step-back technique showed the worst mean centering ratio among the tested groups(p<0.001) and there was no significant difference between the other three groups. 3. In the level 4, Canal Master instrumentation and Step-back technique showed better mean centering ratio than the other two techniques(p<0.001) and there was no significant difference between the two techniques. II. the mean area of dentin removed 1. In the level l and level 3, there was no significant difference in the mean area of dentin removed. 2. In the level 2, Canal Master instrumentation removed less dentin than the other three techniques(P<0.01). 3. In the level 4, Crown-down technique removed less dentin than the other three techniques(P<0.05).
A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY ON THE REMOVING EFFICIENCY OF SMEAR LAYER BY K-FILE AND ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT
Lee, Su-Jong ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 97~105
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the smear layer removing efficiency of two root canal preparation techniques. Twelve single-rooted teeth were used in two groups of six each. Group 1 was biomechanically prepared by hand using a K-file with a high volume of normal saline irrigation. Group 2 was. prepared by using ultrasonically activated K-file with a constant high volume of normal saline irrigation. After the experimental procedures, each root was split saggitally. The removing efficiency of the preparation methods were assessed in terms of surface condition of the canal walls at three levels, those coronal, middle, and apical thirds. On the basis of remaining debris, presence of smear layer, and patency of dentinal tubules, each canal was evaluated according to a scale form 0 to 2. A statistical analysis was used to indicated any significant differences in surface condition between the two methods. There was no statistical significance between hand instrumentation and ultrasonic instrumentation at the cervical third but removing efficiency of ultrasonic instrumentation was superior. No statistically significant differences were obhserved for middle or apical third.
ANTIVIRAL EFFECT OF SEVERAL DISINFECTANT SOLUTIONS
Im, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Se-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 106~113
Dental professions are considered high risk for contracting hepatitis infection. In Korea, many patients are hepatitis B virus carriers. HBV are most efficiently transmitted by blood. Root canal treatment, as in cases of acute pulpitis always accompanied by contaminated blood. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to use irrigation solutions having strong antiviral effect for prophylaxis both dental personnel and patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiviral effect of seven root canal irrigation solutions by radioimmunometric test. The solutions were 5% sodium phyochlorite, 5% cresol, 2% glutaraldehyde, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 0.05% chlorohexidine, 10% iodine, and 70% isoprophyl alcohol. Each irrigation solutions was mixed with serum preparated from HBsAg positive patients and sera were diluted to 1:1. 1:4. 1:20 and 1:100. Percentage of radioactivity was assayed with AUK(Sorbin biomedica, Italy) and COBRA(Packwood Instrument company, USA). Sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde showed most strong antivral activity against HBsAg. Isoprophyl alcohol had moderate antiviral effect and the effect and the effect was increased especially in 1:4 solution. Hydrogen peroxide exihibited very weak aintivral activity. Cresol, chlorohexidine, and iodine exhibited little antiviral activity.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN TO BLEACHED ENAMEL
Yu, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Song, Kwang-Yeob ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 114~123
The purpose of this study was to examine the shear bond strength of resin-enamel bond formed at specific time intervals after the termination ov vital bleaching. A total of 72 human extracted maxillary premolars were divided into nine groups : untreated control (group 1) ; enamel treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide(group 2, 3, 4, 5) ; and enamel reated with 15% carbamide peroxide gel (group 6, 7, 8, 9). After the treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 2 hours and 15% carbamide peroxide for 24 hours, adhesion of a resin to bleached enamel was formed at 1 hour (group 2, 6) and 24 hours(group 3, 7) ; 3days(group 4, 8) and 7 days(group 5, 9) post-termination of bleaching treatment. A
mold was filled with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Z100. After 24 hours later, the specimens were shear-tested at crosshead speed 1mm/min and analyzed statistically. Fractured specimens from group 1,2, 6 were gold-coated with Eiko ion coater and observed under Scanning electron microscope at 25KV. The following results results were obtained : 1. Bonds formed at 1 hour post-termination of 35 % hydrogen peroxide(P<0.01) and 15 % carbamide peroxide bleaching treatment groups(P<0.05) showed significantly lower shear bond strength than untreated group. 2. Bonds formed at 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days post-termination of 35% hydrogen peroxide and 15 % carbamide peroxide bleaching treatment groups showed no significant differences in shear bond strength with untreated group(p>0.05). 3. SEM examinations of the untreated fracture specimen indicated cohesive fracture within enamel and exposed enamel prisms, but the bleached fracture specimens indicated adhesive fracture.
Effect of Early Waterproof on Color Stability and Translucency Change of Glass-ionomer Cement
Jeong, Seon-Wa ; Kim, Sun-Hun ; Oh, Won-Mann ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 124~134
The shade of restorative materials is very important for successful restoration esthetically harmonized with the natural tooth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability and the opacity change of conventional chemical setting and visible light curing glass-ionomer cements for restorative esthetic filling. Specimens of each brand (GC Fuji II and Fuji II LC) were uniformly prepared and divided into three groups: In group l(control group), the specimens received no surface treatment; in group 2, the specimens were coated with varnish and the excess gently blown off; and in group 3. the specimens were coated with light-cured bonding resin and irradiated by a visible light curing unit for 20 seconds on both sides. All specimens were stored in distilled water at
and checked after for 24 hours. 2 months. 4 months, 6 months. and 8 months. The color characteristics(
) and the opacity(Y%) of all the samples were measured by a spectrocolorimeter and the total color differences(
) and opacity changes(
) were computed. The following results were obtained : 1. The total tolor differences in all groups increased with time. 2. The total color differences of the LC groups after immersion for 8 months in distilled water at
were lower than those of GC groups(p<0.01), and the total color differences of the varnish or the light-cured bonding resin coated groups were lower than those of the control group with glass-ionomer cements which had no surface treatment(p<0.01). 3. In all groups the translucency decreased with time. 4. In the control group and the varnish coating group. the opacity changes of the GC groups were lower than those of the LC groups(p<0.01) and in the light-cured bonding resin coated group, there was no significant difference between the GC group and the LC group. 5. The opacity changes of the varnish or the light-cured bonding resin coated groups were lower than those of the control group(p<0.01). These results suggest that color change and opacity of conventional chemical setting and light cured glass-ionomer cement were increased with time, and the color changes and the opacity changes of a control group after immersion for 8 months in distilled water at
were greater than those of the varnish or the light-cured bonding resin coated groups.
A Fatigue Toughness and Polymerization Shrinkage of Post-cure Heat Treated Composite Resins
Oh, Won-Mann ; Rhu, Sun-Youl ; Son, Ho-Hyun ; Okuda, Reiichi ; Endo, Tastuo ; Kudo, Yoshiyuki ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 135~147
This study was conducted to evaluate whether the fatigue toughness of visible light cured composite resins could be improved and how much percentage of polymerzation shrinkage could be affected by additional heat treatment. 7 materials were investigated for this study: P-50, Lite-fil CR inlay, Pekafil, Clearfil CR inlay, Clearfil photo posterior, Z -100 and Progress. Diametral tensile strengths and linear shrinkages of composite resins were taken under visible light cured and additional post-cure heated condition and compared each other. A fatigue toughness of above materials was evaluated by measuring diametral tensile strength after they were repeatedly loaded with 120kgf/
up to 3000 cycles. The results obtained were as follows : 1. When composite resins were cured just by visible light, Lite fil CR inlay, Z -100 and Progress showed respectively higher diametral tensile strength than the other materials. Clearfil CR inlay, Clearfil photo posterior and Progress exhibited strong fatigue toughness compared to P-50 and Pekafil. 2. Post-cure heat treated composite resins had higher diametral tensile strengths than visible light cured composite resins at fatigue toughness test as well as no fatigue toughness test. 3. When Composite resins were additionally polymerized by post-cure heat treatment, P-50 showed weak fatigue toughness, on the contrary, Clearfil CR inlay, Z-100, Progress showed strong one. 4. When composite resins were cured just by visible light, percentage of polymerization linear shrinkage was the lowerest in Clearfil CR inlay, followed by, in ascending order, Clearfil photo posterior, Lite-fil CR inlay, Progress, Pekafil, P-50, and Z-100. In the case of post- cure heat treated composite resins, percentage of linear shrinkage was the lowest in Clearfil photo posterior, followed by, in ascending order, Lite-til CR inlay, Clearfil CR inlay, Progress, P-50, Pekafil and Z-100. 5. Percentage of polymerization linear shrinkage was greater in the post-cure heat treated composite resins than in the visible light cured composite resins and linear shrinkage increased significantly in Pekafil, Clearfil CR inlay, and Clearfil photo posterior between at the visible light cured and at the post-cure heat treated condition. The above results is saying that additional post-cure heat treatment on the composite resins for posterior restoration is able to affect on improvement of strength and fatigue toughness and lead to increase polymerization of composite resins.
A STUDY ON THE ADAPTATION OF LIGHT-CURED AND SELF-CURED GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS TO TOOTH STRUCTURE
Park, Yil-Yoon ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Hur, Seung-Myun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 148~158
The purpose of this study was to compare the adaptation to tooth structure of light - cured glass ionomer cement with that of self -cured glass ionomer cement. In this study, class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 10 extracted human premolar teeth, and teeth were randomly assigned 2 groups of 5 teeth each. The cavities of self-curing glass ionomer cement group were restored with the Fuji n. and the cavities of lightcuring glass ionomer cement group were restored with the Fuji II LC. The surfaces of glass ionomer cements were applied with All-Bond 2 adhesive, and cured with visible light. The restored teeth were stored in 100% relative humidity at
for 24 hours. And then. the roots of the teeth were removed with the tapered fissure bur and the remaining crowns were sectioned occlusogingivally through the center of glass ionomer restorations. Adaptation at tooth-restoration interface was assessed occlusally. axially, and gingivally by scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : 1. On the occlusal margin, the group of self - curing glass ionomer cement showed closer adaptation to both enamel and dentin than the group of light-curing glass ionomer cement showing 5/lm gap between cement and tooth structure. 2. On the axial wall. the group of light-curing glass ionomer cement showing 5-
gap between cement and dentin showed closer adaptation to dentin than the group of self -curing glass ionomer cement showing 10-
gap between cement and dentin. 3. On the gingival margin, the group of light-curing glass ionomer cement showing 2-
gap between cement and dentin(X 1200) showed closer adaptation to dentin than the group of self-curing glass ionomer cement showing 20pm gap between cement and dentin(X 600). 4. The group of self -curing glass ionomer cement showed closer adaptation on the occlusal margin than on the gingival margin, and the group of light-curing glass ionomer cement showed similar adaptation on both occlusal and gingival margins.
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THE PORCELAIN LAMINATE ACCORDING TO SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF THE CUT ENAMEL
Park, Bong-Seok ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 159~168
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the porcelain laminate specimens according to the surface roughness of the cut enamel of human anterior teeth. Flat enamel surfaces were prepared in 30 extracted human anterior teeth with diamond disc which were divided into two groups. Group 1 Coarse enamel surface group prepared with LVS-3 bur. Group 2 Fine enamel surface group prepared with superfine diamond bur. 30 teeth specimens of two group were stored in normal saline during 24 hours. 30 disk - type porcelain laminate specimens with diameter 4mm and thickness 1mm were made and sand - blasted on internal surface which were to cemented on enamel surface. Porcelain laminate specimens were cemented on enamel surface with Choice Veneer System (Bisco Dental, U.S.A) according to manufacture's instructions. All teeth specimens of two groups were manipulated with same method and stored In normal saline before testing. An Universal Testing machine (Model No.UTM-4206,Instron, U.S.A) was used to apply shear loads in the vertical directed, and the force required for separation was recorded with a cross head speed of 3mm/min and 500kg in full scale. The results were as follow ; 1. The mean shear bond strength of coarse surface group was 36.30kg and that of fine surface group was 44.39 kg, but there was no significant difference in breaking strength of two groups(p>0.05).
A STUDY ON THE COLOR CHANGES OF DISCOLORED NONVITAL TEETH BY THE NONVITAL BLEACHING TECHNIQUES
Park, Hyun-Hee ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 169~179
The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the bleaching efficacy of three nonvital bleaching techniques: Walking bleaching, Walking bleaching and heat application, and Walking bleaching and bleaching light application. 36 extracted anterior teeth with intact crowns were immersed in 5 % sodium hypochlorite solution for twenty-four hours to loosen extrinsic debris. Lingual access openings were prepared in all teeth and the pulps were extirpated. The teeth were stored in 5% sodium hypochlorite for twenty-four hours to open the dentinal tubules and they were stained via whole blood. Once the teeth were stained, they were evaluated with Colorimeter. The teeth in each group were ranked from lightest to darkest and divided equally into three experimental groups in which the following bleaching techniques were used. Intracoronal base was placed 2mm below cementoenamel junction. Group 1 Walking bleaching (Superoxol + Sodium perborate) Group 2 Heat application + Walking bleaching (Superoxol+Sodium perborate) Group 3 Light application+Walking bleaching (Superoxol+Sodium perborate) The bleaching agents were changed every 3 days and the teeth were bleached for a total of 14 days. The teeth were evaluated with Colorimeter before the start of any bleaching and on day 14. The results were as follows: 1. At the end of 14 days, all the sample teeth demonstrated the increase of Lightness Index at cervical 1/3 of crown (p<0.05) Lightness Index was significant difference in group 2 and 3, but there were some minor differences among groups (p>0.05). 2. In all groups, there was significant difference in red chromacity (p<0.05), but there were some minor differences among groups (p>0.05). 3. In all groups, there was no significant difference in yellow chromacity (p>0.05).
A STUDY OF THE DURABILITY OF DENTINAL TUBULE SEALING EFFECTS OF DENTIN BONDING AGENTS
Kim, Eui-Seong ; Park, Dong-Soo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 180~193
The purpose of this study was to observe the sealing ability and durability of All-Bond 2, Gluma Bonding System, Scotch bond 2 and Superbond D-liner which are dentin bonding agents used as desensitizing agents. The durability of the sealing ability of the materials were compared after 0, 140, 420, 840 tooth brushing strokes. 120 extracted teeth were divided into 5 groups and the agents were applied to the exposed dentin. No agents was applied on group I, the control group. Each specimen went through thermocycling from
, 200 times. Each group was devide into 4 subgroups and artificial tooth brushing strokes were done for 0, 140, 420, 840 times. Finally the specimens were stored in 0.5 % methylene blue solution for 24 hours in a incubator set at
. The tooth were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis and the dye penetration ratio to the pulp was measured. The following results were obtained. 1. All four dentin bonding agents initially showed excellent sealing ability. 2. All-bond 2, Gluma Bonding System and Superbond D-liner showed durability of dentinal tubule sealing effect after 840 strokes(6-week) artificial tooth brushing. 3. Scotchbond 2 showed a significant decrease in sealing ability after 420 strokes(3-week) artificial tooth brushing. (P<0.05).
A STUDY ON SURFACE HARDNESS OF COMPOSITE RESINS ACCORDING TO STORAGE CONDITON AND HEAT TREATMENT
Kang, Seung-Hoon ; Min, Byung-Soon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 194~204
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface hardness of composite resins according to heat treatment. storage condition and storage time. In this study. two kinds of composite resin inlays and one kind of conventional posterior composite resin were used as experimental materials. One hundred eighty composite resin specimens were constructed from composite resin inlays and conventional posterior composite resin. The conditions of this study were heat treatment. storage condition and storage time. Hardness readings were taken from the top surface of each samples using the Vickers microhardness tester(MHT-l. Matsuzawa. Japan}. The following results from this study were obtained: 1. Regardless of storage condition. both composite resin inlay and conventional posterior composite resin have a higher surface hardness under heat treatment than not. 2. Composite resins with heat treatment have a higher surface hardness under dry storage than under water immersion. 3. In case of Clearfil Photo Posterior and Brilliant Enamel with heat treatment. there was no significant difference with time. but Clearfil CR Inlay with heat treatment. there was statistical difference after 24 hours. 4. Surface hardness of composite resins with coarse hybrid type was higher than that of composite resin with fine hybrid type.
EVALUATION OF APICAL PLUG MATERIALS USED FOR THE CONTROL OF EXTRUSION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMOPLASTICIZED GUTTA-PERCHA
Hur, Eun-Jung ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 205~216
The purpose of this study is to evaluate of apical plug materials for the contral of extrusion and sealing ability of high-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha in plastic root canal blocks. Seventy seven plastic blocks with canal preformed were instrumented with # 50K file 1 mm beyond apical foramen. Blocks were randomly divided into 5 groups of 15 blocks each. Group 1 was filled by high-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha only. The another 4 groups were placed with apical plug materials each other and then remaining space was back filled with high temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha Apical plug materials were used as follows; Group 2: Thermoplasticized gutta-percha (Thermoplasticized gutta-percha group) Group 3 :. Calcium hydroxide powder (Calcium hydroxide group) Group 4 : Silver point (Silver point group) Group 5 : Gutta-percha cone softened by chloroform (Gutta-percha cone group) All the blocks were stored in 100 % relative humidor at room temperature for 14 days. Filling material extruded was removed carefully and then weighed in analytic balance. Each block was placed in centrifuge tube filled with India ink, and then centrifuged for 20 minutes at 3,000 rpm. Apical leakage was measured from the apical foramen to the most coronal level of dye leakage in millimeter by two examiners under a stereoscope. The data were analysed statistically by Student's t-test The obtained results were as follows; 1. The amounts of material extruded through the foramen decreased in all of groups used apical plug materials (P<0.01). 2. Silver point group and gutta-percha cone group were similar linear leakage to high-temperature thermoplasticised gutta-percha technique only (P>0..5). 3. Calcium hydroxide group and thermoplasticized gutta-percha group showed more liner leakage than high-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha only (P<0.01, P<0.05). 4. High-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique with silver point and gutta-percha cone as apical plugs showed less linear leakage and less extrusion of filling material.
A STUDY ON BONDING STRENGTH OF DENTAL AMALGAM TO GLASS IONOMER CEMENT FOLLOWING SURFACE TREATMENT
Shin, Young-Joo ; Choi, Ho-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 217~230
The purpose of this study was to assess the 24-hour shear bond strength of amalgam to glass ionomer cement, using five different intermediaries. The intermediaries used in this study were Scotchbond 2 (light curing dentin adhesive), Panavia (resin cement), liquid' of glass ionomer cement (chemical curing & light curing), and uncured mixture of light curing glass ionomer cement. This study was operated with 48 specimens devided into 6 groups. The experimental groups are as follows: Group 1 : Bonded Amalgam to chemical curing glass ionomer cement with liquid of chemical curing glass ionomer. Group 2 : Bonded Amalgam to light curing glass ionomer cement with liquid of chemical curing glass ionomer. Group 3: Bonded Amalgam to light curing glass ionomer cement with resin cement. Group 4: Bonded Amalgam to light curing glass ionomer cement with light curing dentin adhesive. Group 5: Bonded Amdlgam to light curing glass ionomer cement with liquid of light curing glass ionomer. Group 6: Bonded Amalgam to light curing glass ionomer cement with uncured mixture of light curing glass ionomer cement. 30 minutes after amalgam condensation, all specimens were stored for 24 hours in water at
and tested with Instron (1122). The following results obtained: 1. The shear bond strength of group 6 was higher than those of the other groups (46.7 kgf/
, p<0.05). 2. The shear bond strength of resin cement intermediary group was lower than that of the group using uncured mixture of light curing glass ionomer cement. 3. The results of group 1 and group 2 were different, even though the inter-me diaries used were same. 4. Intermediary of Group 5 did not show complete set in Scanning Electromicroscopic examination. 5. Light-curing dentin adhesive did not show any bonding ability to amalgam.
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS WITH CAVITY DESIGN ON FRACTURE OF COMPOSITE RESIN INLAY RESTORED TOOTH
Kim, Chull-Soon ; Min, Byung-Soon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 1, 1994, Pages 231~254
Fracture of cusp, on posterior teeth, especially those carious or restored, is major cause of tooth loss. Inappropriate treatments, such as unnecessarily wide cavity preparations, increase the potential of further trauma and possible fracture of the remaining tooth structures. Fracture potential may be directly related to the stresses exerted upon the tooth during masticatory function. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of tooth, restored with composite resin inlay. In this study, MOD inlay cavity prepared on maxillary first premolar and restored with composite resin inlay. Three dimensional finite element models with eight nodes isoparametric solid element, developed by serial grinding-photographing technique. These models have various occlusal isthmus and depth of cavity, 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 of isthmus width and 0.7, 0.85 and 1.0 of depth of cavity. The magnitude of load was 474 N and 172 N as presented to maximal biting force and normal chewing force. These loads applied onto ridges of buccal and lingual cusp. These models analyzed with three dimensional finite element method. The results of this study were as follows : 1. There is no difference of displacement between width of occlusal isthmus and depth of cavity. 2. The stress concentrated at bucco-mesial comer, bucco-disal comer, pulpal line angle and the interface area between internal slopes of cusp and resin inlay. 3. The vector of stress direct to buccal and lingual side from center of cavity, to tooth surface going on to enamel. The magnitude of vector increase from occlusal surface to cervix. 4. The crack of tooth start interface area, between internal slop of buccal cusp and resin inlay. It progresses through buccopulpal line angle to cervix at buccomesial and buccodistal comer. 5. The influence with depth of cavity to fracture of tooth was more than width of isthmus. 6. It would be favorable to make the isthmus width narrower than a third of the intercuspal distance and depth of cavity is below 1 : 0.7.