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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Sep 1994
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 1994
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A STUDY ON AMALGAM CAVITY FRACTURE WITH THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Kim, Han-Wook ; Um, Chung-Moon ; Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 345~371
Restorative procedures can lead to weakening tooth due to reduction and alteraton of tooth structure. It is essential to prevent fractures to conserve tooth. Among the several parameters in cavity designs, cavity isthmus and depth are very important. In this study, MO amalgam cavity was prepared on maxillary first premolar. Three dimensional. finite element models were made by serial photographic method and cavity depth(1.7mm, 2.4mm) and isthmus (11 4, 1/3, 1/2 of intercuspal distance) were varied. linear, eight and six-nodal, isoparametric brick elements were used for the three dimensional finite element model. The periodontal ligament and alveolar bone surrounding the tooth were excluded in these models. Three types model(B, G and R model) were developed. B model was assumed perfect bonding between the restoration and cavity wall. Both compressive and tensile forces were distributed directly to the adjacent regions. G model(Gap Distance: 0.000001mm) was assumed the possibility of play at the interface simulated the lack of real bonding between the amalgam and cavity wall (enamel and dentin). When compression occurred along the interface, the forces were transferred to the adjacent regions. However, tensile forces perpendicular to the interface were excluded. R model was assumed non-connection between the restoration and cavity wall. No force was transferred to the adjacent regions. A load of 500N was applied vertically at the first node from the lingual slope of the buccal cusp tip. This study analysed the displacement, von Mises stress, 1 and 2 direction normal stress and strain with FEM software ABAQUS Version 5.2 and hardware IRIS 4D/310 VGX Work-station. The results were as follows: 1. G model showed stress and strain patterns between Band R model. 2. B model and G model showed the bending phenomenon in the displacement. 3. R model showed the greatest amount of the displacement of the buccal cusp followed by G and B model in descending order. G model showed the greatest amount of the displacement of the lingual cusp followed by B and R model in descending order. 4. B model showed no change of the displacement as increasing depth and width of the cavity. G and R model showed greater displacement of the buccal cusp as increasing depth and width of the cavity, but no change in the displacement of the lingual cusp. 5. As increasing of the width of the cavity, stress and strain were not changed in B model. Stress and strain were increased on the distal marginal ridge and buccopulpal line angle in G and R model. The possibility of the tooth fracture was increased. 6. As increasing of the depth of the cavity, stress and strain were not changed in B and G model. Stress and strain were increased on the distal marginal ridge and buccopulpal line angle in R model. The possibility of the tooth fracture was increased.
A study on the correlations between salivary levels of lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory Immunoglobulin A to Streptococcus mutans and caries susceptibility
Yoo, Hyeon-Mee ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 372~383
Saliva plays an important role in modulating the oral microbial ecology. And it is suggested to influence the initiation and progression of the dental caries. To evaluate the correlations between the salivary antimicrobial agents and the caries susceptibility, the 51 subjects were divided into 3 groups according to caries experience ; caries resistant group, medium caries susceptible group, and high caries susceptible group. Stimulated whole saliva was collected, and the salivary levels were measured for lysozyme, lactoferrin, and secretory-IgA to Streptococcus mutans. The lysozyme level was estimated using Micrococcus diffusion plate, lactoferrin level was determined with a non-competitive avidin-biotin enzyme immunoassay, and the titer of secretory IgA to Streptococcus mutans was assayed with ELISA. The results were as follows: 1. Lysozyme levels of each group showed no significant difference statistically (p>0.05). 2. The caries resistant group and the medium caries susceptible group had significantly higher levels of lactoferrin than the high caries susceptible group (p<0.05). But no clear difference was observed between the caries resistant group and the medium caries susceptible group(p>0.05). 3. The caries resistant group and the medium caries susceptible group showed relatively higher levels of the secretory IgA to Streptococcus mutans than the pigh caries susceptible group, but no significant difference was observed statistically (p>0.05).
A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ON STRESS AND DISPLACEMENT RELATED TO ISTHMUS WIDTH OF GOLD INLAY CAVITY
Hwang, Ho-Keel ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 384~408
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of tooth restored with gold inlay. A profound understanding of the isthmus width factor, which is one of the several parameters of cavity designs, would facilitate the appropriate cavity preparation in a specific clinical situation. In this study, the cavities for gold inlay were prepared in maxillary left first premolar. A three-dimensional model was designed using I-DEAS program. The model was composed of 2515- nodes and 2172 isoparametric brick elements. In the model isthmus width was varied into 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 of intercuspal width respectively, and numeric values of the material properties of enamel, dentin and gold was set. Three types of load : concentrated load, divided load and distributed load was 500N. The empty cavities in the model were also examined using divided load and distributed load. The three - dimensional Finite Element Method was used to analysis the displacement and stress distribution. The results were as follows : 1. All of the experimental models which were filled with gold inlay revealed similar direction of displacement to that of the natural tooth model under the same load type. But in the models with empty cavities, as the isthmus width increased, the degree of displacement increased in the case of divided load type. 2. All experimental models which were filled with gold inlay showed stress concentration at load points, but in the models with empty cavities at divided load type, as isthmus width increased, stress was concentrated at the comer of the pulpal floor. 3. In the models with empty cavities at divided load type, tooth fracture was expected regardless of isthmus width, but all experimental models which were filled with gold inlay after cavity preparation were not susceptible to fracture. 4. In all experimental models which were filled with gold inlay after cavity preparation, displacement patterns were similar under both concentrated and divided load types. In the models with empty cavities, a divided load resulted in a bucco-lingual cuspal displacemenat in both sides, but a distributed load resulted in a lingual displacement of the tooth.
CYTOTOXICITY OF RETROGRADE FILLING MATERIALS TESTED BY
Cr RELEASE, MIT AND LD ACTIVITY
Choi, La-Young ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 409~428
Endodontic surgery is performed when conventional endodontic therapy fails or is contraindicated. In such cases, retrograde filling materials including amalgam, composite resin, and various cements have been used. Biocompatibilty and margin sealing ability of retrograde filling materials are important for the long term success of endodontic surgery. In vitro cell culture is frequently used as the method of measuring the biocompatibilty of dental materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of six kinds of retrograde filling materials including newly developed light curing glass ionomer cements. Each material was mixed according to. the manufacture's instruction and evaluated as : freshly mixed, 24-hour after mixing, and 168-hour after mixing respectively. The elution solution was extracted after 24-hour contact with materials using media. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by direct contact, or elution contact. Test results of radiochromium(
) release, cell viability using tetrazolium dye (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl dimethyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) test and lactate dehydrogenase(LD) of damaged L929 cells were analyzed. In the
release of direct contact, all experimental retrograde filling materials except amalgam and glass ionomer cement showed increased cytotoxicity compared to control. In the
release of elution solution, the released
was so minimal that it was impossible. to evlauate the cytotoxicity exactly. The elution solutions of glass ionomer cement and IRM showed marked cytotoxicity in MTT test. LD enzyme activity was highest in tests of direct contact with composite, light curing composite, and light curing glass ionomer cement and IRM. Amalgam revealed least cytotoxicity while IRM showed cytotoxicity using all three methods. Composite, light curing composite and light curing glass iomomer cement were cytotoxic in the tests of
release and LD activity. Glass ionomer cement showed cytotoxic effect only in the MTT method. From these results it is suggested that the standardization and optimization of cytotoxicity testing, especially using elution solutions, should be strongly advised.
THE CANAL SEALING EFFECT OF WARM LATERAL CONDENSATION OF GUTTA-PERCHA
Kim, Yong-Duk ; Cho, Kyeu-Zeung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 429~446
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing effect of warm lateral condensation technique by Endotec spreader, comparing with other canal filling techniques. One hundred and forty extracted human teeth with single canal were instrumented and randomly divided into four groups according to canal filling techniques including lateral condensation with sealer, warm lateral condensation with sealer, warm lateral condensation without sealer, and injection-molded thermoplasticized gutta-percha without sealer. Obturated canals were exposed to 2 % methylene blue solution at
for 24 hours and measurement of the degree of microleakage was done linearly and volumetrically with stereozoom microscope and UV-spectrophotometer respectively. The results were as follows ; When sealer was used, the canals obturated by warm lateral condensation showed less leakage linearly and volumetrically than the canals obturated by standard lateral condensation with no statistically significant difference. The obturated canals by warm lateral condensation with sealer showed less leakage linearly and volumetrically than the canals obturated by warm lateral condensation without sealer and by injection-molded thermoplasticized gutta-percha without sealer with statistical significance (p<0.05). No statistical difference revealed that the group filled with the use of the Endotec had significantly less leakage than any of the other groups. There was a significant correlation between the linear measurement and volumetric measurement(r=0.4459, p<0.05).
A STUDY OF THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN TO LIGHT-CURING GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS
Kim, Deok ; Min, Byung-Soon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 447~459
The purpose of this study is to evaluate of shear bond strength of light-curing composite resin to light-curing glass ionomer cement. Composite resin and glass ionomer cement have been widely used as an esthetic filling materials in dental clinics. To achieve better clinical results, sandwich technic was developed with conpensating for disadvantages of these two materials. Especially, light-curing glass ionomer cement provided greately improved bonding strength of teeth or composite resin, and then excellent clinical results can be acquired. In this study, 6 commercial light-curing glass ionomer cements(3 commercial restorative materials : Fuji II LC, Variglass VLC, Vitremer, and 3 commercial lining materials : Fuji Lining LC, Baseline VLC, Vitrebond) were devided two groups. According to manufacturer's appointment, no surface treatment was referred to N groups. Supposing. of clinical practice, surface grinding with water spray at 320 grit sand paper, 40 seconds etching with 37% phosphoric acid, 20 seconds washing, 20 seconds air drying was referred to N groups. Totally 12 experimental groups were devided, and all 120 specimens from 10 specimens of each groups were made. After light-curing composite resin was bonded to light-curing glass ionomer cement, shear bond strength was tested by Instron universal testing machine between glass ionomer cement and composit resin. The data were analyzed statistically by Student's t-test and ANOVA. The obtained results were as follows; 1. In light-curing glass ionomer cement, restorative materials showed higher shear bond strength to composite resin than lining materials(p<0.05). 2. Variglass VLC of restorative material group and Baseline VLC of lining material group have highest shear bond strength to composite resin(p<0.001). 3. In light-curing glass ionomer cement, surface grinding and acid etching reduced shear bond strength to composite resin(p<0.001)}. 4. VGN group 1s highest shear bond strength to composite resin, VBE group is lowest shear bond strength to composite resin(p<0.001).
EVALUATION OF APICAL SEAL ACCORDING TO TYPES OF SPREADER AND COMPATIBILITY OF ACCESSORY CONE USED IN LATERAL CONDENSATION METHOD WITHOUT SEALER
Ahn, Young-Mi ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 461~472
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability according to types of spreader and compatibility of accessory cone used in lateral condensation method. 120 plastic blocks with canal preformed were instrumented with K-,H-files and Gates-Gllidden bur. Shaped plastic blocks were divided into six experimental groups according to spreader and accessory cone used in lateral condensation. Then they were obturated by lateral condensation method without -sealer. Six experimental groups were as follows: Group 1 : Filling with #30 spreader & #25 gutta-percha cone Group 2 : Filling with #30 spreader & Fine accessory cone Group 3 : Filling with #3 spreader & #25 gutta-percha cone Group 4 : Filling with #3 spreader & Fine accessory cone Group 5 : Filling with #20,#30 spreader & #25 gutta-percha cone Group 6 : Filling with #2, #3 spreader & Fine accessory cone All the blocks were stored in 100% humidor at room temperature for 2 days. Each block was placed in centrifuged for 20 minutes at 3,000 rpm. Apical leakage was mesured from the apical foramen to the most coronal level of- dye leakage in millimeter under a stereoscope. The data were analysed by ANOVA. The obtained results were as follows; 1. In groups using two spreaders(Group 5,6), the linear leakage was less than one spreader using groups(Group 1-4). 2. Tn groups using two spreaders(Group 5,6), there was no significant difference in linear leakage between standardized -spreader group and non standardized group (p>0.01). 3. When one spreader was used(Group 1-4), standardized-spreader groups showed less linear leakage than nonstandardized spreader groups(P<0.01). 4. In case of using same spreader(Groupl,2 & Group 3,4), there was no significant difference in linear leakage according to accessory cone type. 5. It needs to use one more spreaders to increase apical sealability.
A GINGIVAL MARGINAL FIT OF THE ADHESIVE CLASS II CAST GOLD INLAY
Choi, Hee-Kyung ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 473~484
To investigate the effect of resin cement, which had been known to increase the adhesive capacity of the cast gold inlay, on the gingival marginal fit and whether the tin-planting of the beveled area affects the marginal fit, Class II cast gold inlays were made on the 25 sound molars. Control group(ZPC goup) was cemented with the ZPC by conventional method. Experimental groups were cemented with the resin cement(Super-hond &
) and subdivided further by the existence or nonexistence of the tin-plating of the beveled area(ST & PT groups: with plating, SNT & PNT groups: without plating). So, each group was consisted of 5 teeth and the gingival margin of each specimen was mesiodistally sectioned by 3 times and the marginal and internal gap were evaluated by the Stereo Microscope (
) and the Scanning Electron Micrascope(
) was used for examining the adhesive relationship of the resin cement to the cavity wall and to the cast gold surface. The results were as follows : 1. Marginal gap was less than internal gap in all groups. 2. ZPC and SNT(bevel without tin-plating) groups showed the least gap and gap in PNT(bevel without tin-plating) group, ST(bevel with tin-plating) group, PT(bevel with tin-plating) group showed the greater value in order in evaluation of the both internal gap and marginal gap. 3. With the exception of the relationships between ZPC and SNT groups, ST and PNT groups, relationships between any other groups showed the statistical significance in the internal gap(p<0.05). 4. In the marginal gap, all relationships between groups showed the statistical significance (p<0.05) except the relationships between ZPC and SNT groups, ST and PNT groups, ZPC and PNT groups. 5. ZPC group showed more soluble phenamena than the resin groups(ST, SNT, PT, PNT). 6. Resin cement showed the void spaces in spite of good penetration into the micro-irregularities on both the tooth surface and the cast surface. The void was shown more in PT and PNT groups than in the ST and SNT groups. 7. After the treatment of heat and desiccation for SEM specimen, resin cements were detached more easily from the tooth surface than from the cast surface.
IMMUNE REACTION OF SPECIFIC SERUM ANTIBODIES TO PORPHYROMONAS ENDODONTALIS ANTIGEN IN PATIENTS WITH PERIAPICAL LESION
Kim, Jae-Hee ; Yoon, Soo-Han ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 485~498
Porphyromonas endodontalis is a black-pigmented anaerobic Gram-negative rod which is associated with endodontal infections and this microorganism possesses a potential for pathogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare the membrane components of Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis and to study the immune reaction patterns of Porphyromonas endodontalis with patients with periapical lesion. Porphyromonas endodontalis (ATCC 35406), Porphyromonas gingivals serotypea (381), serotype b(W50), serotype c(A7A1-28) were cultured in anaerobic condition. Rabbit antisera were prepared by intravenous injection of formalized whole cells and human sera were obtained from patients and dental students. Indirect immunofluorescence method was used to study on the cross reaction between Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis serotype a, b, c antigen. Total membrane protein profiles of Porphyromonas endodontalis antigen were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the reactivity of antigenic components of Porphyromonas endodontalis against sera of patients and rabbit anti-Porphyromonas endodontalis antisera were assessed by Immunoblotting method. The following results were obtained : 1. Antigens of Porphyromonas endodontalis has multiple antigenic components, and both patients with periapical lesion and normal healthy individual showed immune response to this. 2. Patients group and healthy individual group showed a diversity of immune reaction pattern but they showed immune response against 43kd protein. 3. Patients with periapical lesion showed more diverse immune response than healthy individual and in some patients, much more bands appeared to lower molecular weight protein. 4. According to indirect immunofluorescence and Immunoblotting study, Porphyromonas endodontalis did not share common antigen with Porphyromonas gingivalis serotype a, b, c.
AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON MICROLEAKAGE OF RETROGRADE FILLING USING DIFFERENT RETROGRANE FILLING MATERIALS, ROOT RESECTION ANGLE AND CAVITY PREPARATION INSTRUMENTS
Kim, Jin-Woo ; Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 499~512
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage electrochemically using different retrograde filling materials, different root resection angle, and different cavity preparation instruments. 104 extracted single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. 100 teeth were used as experimental groups and four was used as controls. Anatomical crowns were resected, root canals were prepared, and the apical 2 mm of roots were removed. The experimental roots were randomly divided into five equal groups. Experimental groups : Group 1. no bevel, cavity preparation with ultrasonic instruments, amalgam filling Group 2. no bevel, cavity preparation with ultrasonic instruments, SuperEBA cement filling Group 3. no bevel, cavity preparation with ultrasonic instruments, desiccated ZOE filling Group 4.
bevel, cavity preparation with ultrasonic instruments, amalgam filling Group 5. no bevel, cavity preparation with conventional bur, amalgam filling Microleakage was measured once a day for 30 days using electrochemical method and were analyzed statistically. The results were as follows : 1. The group with Super EBA cement filling showed the least marginal leakage from second to fourth day(p<0.05), there was no significant difference between the group with amalgam filling during eighth to eighteenth day(p>0.05), but after the nineteenth day here was a higher marginal leakage than the group with amalgam filling(p<0.05). 2. The group with desiccated ZOE filling demostrated that the highest marginal leakage, started on the eighth day(p<0.05). 3. The group using ultrasonic instrument showed lower marginal leakage than the group using bur until the nineteenth day(p<0.05), but there was no significant differnce with the group using bur after twentythird day(p>0.05). 4. The group without bevel showed lower marginal leakage than the group with bevel (p<0.05). 5. Whether bevel or nor had much more effect on marginal leakage than with cavity perparation instrument when the cavity was retrogrdefilled with amalgam(stepwise regression).
A STUDY ON THE SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND REFLECTIVITY AFTER POLISHING OF THE MICROFILL, HYBRID COMPOSITE RESINS
Moon, Anne-Jay ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 513~533
The smooth surface after polishing of composite resin contributes to the patient's comfort, and appearance and longevity of the restoration. This study was performed for the quantitative analysis of the effects of the various finishing and polishing instruments on the surface roughness and reflectivity of the microfill, and hybrid composite resins. Cylindrical specimens 2mm thick and 10mm in diameter of Silux Plus, Durafill VS ; Z100, Prisma TPH, Brilliant, and Herculite XR composite resin were polymerized under the matrix strip. 18 specimens for each composite resin materials were divided into 6 groups ; 5 experimental groups were abraded with # 600 sand paper to remove resin-rich layer, except control. Thereafter, using diamond bur(Mani Dia-Burs), carbide bur(E. T. carbide set 4159), rubber point(Composite polishing kit), aluminum-oxide disk(Sof-Lex disk), polishing paste(Enhance system) ; each specimen was polished to its best achievable surface according to manufacturer's directions. Final polished surfaces were evaluated for the surface roughness with profilometer(
-step 200, Tencor instruments, USA) and for the reflectivity with image analyser(Omniment Image Analyser, Buehler, USA). The results were as follows. 1. Polishing paste or aluminum-oxide disk finish in the microfill, and hybrid composite resins was as smooth as matrix strip finish on the surface roughness test. 2. Polishing paste or aluminum-oxide disk finish in the microfill ; polishing paste finish in the hybrid composite resins was as reflective as matrix strip finish on the refectivity test. 3. For the polishing paste, there were no significant differences between the composite resin materials on the surface roughness and refectivity tests. 4. For the aluminum-oxide disk, the best result was obtained with the microfill composite resin on the surface roughness and reflectivity test. 5. Diamond bur, carbide bur, and rubber point were inappropriate for the final polishing instruments.
AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY BY USING A POTENTIOSTAT ON THE CORROSION OF AMALGAMS IN SALIVA
Son, Yoon-Hee ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 534~548
The purpose of this study is to observe the corrosion characteristics of seven dental amalgams (CAULK FINE CUT, CAULK SPHERICAL, OPTALLOY II, DISPERSALLOY, HI VERALOY, TYTIN, VALIANT) through the anodic polarization curve obtained by using a potentiostat. After each amalgam alloy and Hg being triturated, the triturated mass was inserted into the cylindrical metal mold, and condensed by hydrolic pressure(160 kg/
). Each specimen was removed from the metal mold. 24 hours after condensation, specimens were polished with the emery paper and stored at room temperature for 1 week. The anodic polarization curves were employed to compare the corrosion behaviours of the amalgam in 0.9% saline solution, Fusayama's artificial saliva, and stimulated parotid saliva at
with 3-electrode potentiostat. After the immersion of specimen in electrolyte for 1 hour, the potential scan was begun. The potential scan range was. -1700m V ~ + 400m V(vs. S. C. E) in the working electrode and the scan rate was 50m V /sec. The results were as follows, 1. The corrosion potential, the potential of anodic current peak, and transpassive potential in the stimulated parotid saliva shifted to more anodic direction than those in saline solution, and the current density in the stimulated parotid saliva was lower than that in saline solution. Those in Fusayama's artificial saliva was similar to those in stimulated parotid saliva. 2. The anodic polarization profiles in Fusayama's artificial saliva and stimulated parotid saliva indicated a region of slow slope current density, which is extending from the corrosion potential to the potential of anodic current peak, but that in 0.9% saline solution indicated no region of slow slope. 3. The corrosion potentials for CAULK FINE CUT, CAULK SPHERICAL, and OPT ALLOY II had the similarity in 0.9% saline solution, Fusayama's artificial saliva and stimulated parotid saliva, but those for high coper amalgam and VALIANT had no similarity. 4. The current density for TYTIN amalgam in stimulated parotid saliva was the lowest among the others. 5. As for current density, there was no significant difference between palladium enriched VALINAT and other high copper amalgams.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF RESTORATION AFTER ROOT CANAL THERAPY
Lee, Jae-Young ; Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 549~567
Restoration of severly damaged teeth after endodontic treatment had been an interest to many dentists, and it is a fact that there have been lots of studies about it. In these days, although we have used Para-Post, pins, threaded steel post, cast gold post and core, and so on, as a method of restoration frequently, it has been in controversy with the influence of them on the teeth and surrounding periodontal tissue. In this study, we assume that the crown of the upper incisor have severly damaged, so, after the root canal therapy, 4 types of restoration had been carried out; 1) coronal-radicular amalgam restoration, 2) after setting up the Para-Post, restore with composite resin core only, 3) after setting up the Para-Post; restore with amalgam core, then cover with the PPM crown 4) after setting up the Para-Post, restore with composite core, then cover with the PPM crown. After restoration, in order to observe the concentration of stress at internal portion of the teeth and the sourrounding periodontal tissue, developing a 2-dimensional finite element model of labiopalatal section, then loading forces from 3 direction - direction of 45 degrees from lingual side near the incisal edge, horizontal direction from labial height of contour, vertical direction at the incisal edge-were applied. The analyzed results were as follows: 1. Stress of the normal central incisor was concentrated on the dentin aroundpulp chamber, labiocervical portion of a tooth and root apex, but with the alveolar bone, in the case of load from the direction of 45 degrees from lingual side near the incisal edge showed remarkable concentration of stress: 2. Coronal-radicular amalgam technique -showed less concentration of stress on the root and surrounding periodontal tissue than the restoration with the Para-Post. 3. The von Mises equivalent stress on the Para-Post showed maximum value at root-core junction rather than both ends and model with PPM restoration with amalgam core showed the least concentration of stress. Only the force from horizontal direction showed large shear stress on internal portion of the root, root apex and alveolar bone. 4. PPM crown with composite core rarely showed the concentration of stress on root and periodontal tissue. 5. As for alveolar bone, remarkable shear stress was concentrated on labial and palatal side by horizontal load.
INDENTIFICATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM INFECTED ROOT CANALS
Ji, Jung-Ho ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 568~584
Bacteria have been regarded as major etiolgic factors in root canal infections. Infected root canal flora from thirteen patients who had visited to conservative department of Wonkwang dental hospital were cultured on blood agar plates. Cultued microorganisms were isolated and identified with Gram stain and biochemical tests using Vitek Systems(BioMeriux, MO, USA); Antibiotic susceptibillity was performed with disk diffusion and broth microdilution using Vitek Systems. Gram positive cocci(65 %) were predominant, which were composed of 6 Streptococcus viridans group, 5 Staph. spp., and 4 Enterococcus faecium, in the isolatd 23 strains. Gram negative rods (26 %) were the next common bacteria, which were composed of 5 non - fermentative Gram negative rods, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae. Most strains of S. viridans group and E. faecium were susceptible to antibiotics including penicillin. But strains of Staphylococcus spp. and non - fermentative Gram negative rods showed marked resistance to antibiotics except tetrancyclin and cefotaxime. Most results between disk diffusion and microdilution were all agreed, but the results of non - fermentative Gram negative rods were susceptible to cefotaxime in disk diffusion method but resistant in microdilution.
A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF BASE MATERIALS TO PROTECT THE CERVICAL LEAKAGE OF BLEACHING AGENTS
Song, Byeong-Choon ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 585~601
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of several intracoronal base materials to prevent cervical leakage of a bleaching agent into the dentinal tubules and along the root canal. In this study, thirty-two anterior teeth were used. After lingual access was prepared in each tooth, tooth was instrumented with a step-back technique to a Nos. 40-50 using K-type files. All teeth were obturated with a lateral condensation technique. Excess gutta percha was removed with a warm instrument to the facial level of the CEJ. Teeth were divided into four groups : Teeth in control group were not filled with base material. Teeth in groups 1, 2, and 3 had 2mm of gutta percha removed with a warm instrument, then Dycal, Fuki II LC and Z-100 were filled with palstic instruments on the top of the gutta percha respectively. All teeth were bleached for 7 days, fresh bleach was added for another 7 days, then a 10 % methylene blue dye was placed inside the access preparation. They were stored at
humidity for 5 days. Each tooth was sectioned perpendicular to the long axis using a diamond disk. Initial cuts were made at the most coronal level of facial and lingual CEJ's, then another cuts continued appically in the levels of 0.5mm, 1.5mm, and 2.0mm respectively. The amount of dye leakage through the dentinal tubules was determined at each cut section. In addition, when the cut specimen was determined to be last penetration of any dye, this level was recorded as depth of apical leakage from the coronal terminus of the gutta percha, Dycal, Fuji II LC and Z-100. The acquired data were analyzed by Tukey's Multiple Range Test adn Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Test to see if there was any statistically significant difference in dye penetration and linear apical leakage among the groups. The results were as follows : 1. Control group at levels of CEJ and 0.5mm, group 3 at level of 1.5mm, and group 2 AND 3 at level of 2.0mm showed the least dye penetration through the facial or lingual dentinal tubules, but there were no significant difference among three groups. 2. Group 2 at levels of CEJ and 0.5mm, group 3 at level of 1.5mm, and group 2 and 3 at level of 2.0mm showed the least dye penetration through the proximal dentinal tubules, but there were no significant difference among control group, group 2, and group 3. 3. Group 1 showed the greatest dye penetration through the facial or lingual and proximal dentinal tubules at all levels, and there were significant difference with other three groups. 4. Control group and group 1 showed 2mm apical dye leakage at facial or lingual and proximal aspects, group 2 showed 1.5mm, and group 3 showed 0.5mm.
A STUDY ON THE FLOW AND DIMENSIONAL CHANGE OF POSTERIOR COMPOSITE RESINS
Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 602~610
The purpose of this study was to measure the free flow of the unpolymerized resin by its weight for 10 minutes by one minute interval, and to measure the dimensional change of composite resins during the irradiation of visible light(Quich light VL-l Kuraray Japan) using visible leser displacement meter(LC-2210 Kerence Japan). The unpolymerized resin was cured by the visible light for 40 seconds, the dimensional change was measured at the begining of irradiation for 5 minutes. The results were as follows : 1. In free flow LFI was the largest, BLI was the smallest at
and CFP was the largest, and BL was the smallest at
. 2. In dimensional change CFI, LFP, LEI and CFP was excessively contracted flow the begining of irradiation until 15 seconds but BLI and BL was excessively contracted until 30 seconds BL and BLI in dimensional change was much larger than LFI and CFP.
AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF POST SPACE PREPARATION ON THE APICAL SEAL OF ROOT CANAL
Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 611~620
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of post space preparation on apical sealing according to the methods and time of gutta percha removal. Forty six extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this study. Forty teeth were used as experimental groups and six teeth as control groups. Forty teeth were routinely prepared by step-back method and obturated with gutta percha cones and zinc oxide-eugenol cement using lateral condensation. All obturated teeth were divided into 4 groups of 10 teeth each. In each group of 1, 2, 3, heated plugger, gate glidden drill and chloroform and K-file were used respectively for post space preparation by removing the gutta percha immediately after obturation. In group 4, post space were prepared with gate glidden drill one week after obturation. In all experimental groups, the post space were prepared so that 4mm of apical gutta percha remained. After post space preparation, apical leakage were measured with electrochemical method for 28 days and analyzed statistically. The following results were obtained ; 1. No statistically significant differences in apical leakage were occured among the experimental groups using heated plugger, gate glidden drill and chloroform and K-file to remove the gutta percha immediately after obturation. 2. No significant difference in apical leakage was found between the teeth prepared post space immediately after obturation and those prepared 1 week after obturation. 3. In all experimental groups, the apical leakage was increased with time passage regardless of the post space preparation time and the gutta percha removal techniques.
Effect of Capsaicin on the Excitatory Amino Acids Neurotranmitters in Medullary Dorsal Horn
Kwon, Soo-Kyung ; Yoon, Soo-Han ; Lee, Jong-Heun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 621~632
This experiment was performed to study the effect of capsaicin on the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) neurotransmitter in medullary dorsal horn and to clarify the relationship between substance P and excitatory amino acids. Horizontal slice of rat medullary dorsal horn was prepared and perfused with modified Krebs-Ringer solution in brain slice chamber. Release of EAAs was induced by veratrine and capsaicin were added to perfusion solution to observe the changes in EAA release. Capsaicin and ruthenium red, capsaicin antagonist, were also systemically injected with 50mg/kg in first day and 100mg/kg in second day for 2 days. Medulla oblongata containing the medullary dorsal horn was isolated, homogenized and centrifused. Spernatant was freeze-dried and EAA was determined by HPLC. Release of glutamate and aspartate was significantly increased by veratrine or capsaicin, but veratrine evoked release of EAAs was blocked by capsaicin in vitro, and injected ruthenium red did not have effect on the contents of EMs in vivo. Systemically injected capsaicin evoked the slight decrease in content of glutamate and aspartate in medullary dorsal horn and this effect of capsaicin was unaffected by ruthenium red.
BONDING STRENGTH OF GLASS-IOMOMER CEMENT AND COMPOSITE RESIN COMBINATION
Um, Chung-Moon ; Oilo, Gudbrand ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 633~640
The tensile bond strength to dentin was measured for three glass-ionomer cement and composite resin combinations: two light-curing glass-ionomer cements(Vitrebond and XR - Ionomer) and one traditional glass - ionomer cement(Ketac - Bond), two adhesive systems(Scotchbond, and XR - Bonding System), and a corresponding composite resin. The bond strength of this "sandwich" was also compared with that of the same cements used in bulk. Vitredbond showed a significantly higher bond strength in bulk than did the other two cements. Of the sandwiches, the XR - Iomomer and XR - Bond combination showed a bond strength significantly higher than that of the Vitrebond and Scotchbond or Ketac- bond and Scotchbond combination. The fracture of the bond was mainly adhesive for Vitrebond, cohesive for XR - Ionomer when used in bulk and adhesive - cohesive when used in a sandwich, and cohesive for Ketac-Bond.
ADAPTATION OF COMPOSITE RESIN TO DENTINAL WALL USING DENTIN BONDING AGENTS
Oh, Won-Mann ; Yang, Kyu-Ho ; Okuda, Reiichi ; Sasazaki, Hiromi ; Komatsu, Masashi ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 19, issue 2, 1994, Pages 641~654
This study was executed to evaluate adaptability of dentin bonding agents to dentinal wall with measuring contraction gap on interface between cavity wall and composite resin by SEM study. 6 kinds of dentin bonding agents were investigated for this study : Gluma, Super Bond C & B, All bond 2, Scotchbond multipurpose, Scotchbond 2 and Clearfil photo bond. 30 of fresh extracted teeth were randomly selected and divided into 6 groups with each 5. The round shaped cavities with 3mm dia. and 1.5mm depth were prepared on cementoenamel junction of buccal surface of teeth. Dentin bonding agents were applied to cavity wall and then the composite resin was filled in the cavity. Specimens were sectioned longitudinally on buccal surface. Sectioned aspects of specimens were impressioned with rubber base materials and finally precise replica were made of epoxy resin poured in negative impression. Contraction gaps were examined on interface between cavity wall and composite resin under condition of 200 and 2000 magnification of SEM. The results were as follows. 1. There were no gap on interface between enamel and composite resin in all specimens, but gaps were mainly exhibited on apical side of lateral wall of dentin of cavity. 2. In Gluma, 2 cases of 5 specimens exhibited excellent adaptation to the cavity wall, indicating no gaps on interface between cavity wall and composite resin. The other specimens showed gaps with range of
width. 3. In Super Bond C & B, gaps with range of
width were mainly exhibited on apical side of lateral wall of dentin of cavity. 4. In All bond 2, all specimens showed the most exellent adaptation to cavity wall when compared to the other materials, indicating no gap interface between cavity wall and composite resin. 5. In Scotchbond multipurpose, gaps with range of
width were locally located on cavity wall. 6. In Scotchbond 2, all specimens showed great amount of gap with range of
, indicating the worst adaptation to cavity wall compared to the other materials. 7. In Clearfil photo bond, 2 case of 5 specimens exhibited exellent adaptation to cavity wall, indicating no gap. the other specimens showed gap with range of
width on inferface between cavity wall and composite resin.