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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Sep 1995
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
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A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DENTIN BONDING AGENTS APPLIED OVER ENAMEL ABOUT THE BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN
Choi, Woong-Dae ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 1~16
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin bonding agents on the bond strength of composite resin restorations in case of applying the dentin bonding agents to acid etched enamel surfaces. Freshly extracted 364 bovine anterior teeth were selected as a adherents. 320 enamel specimens were divided into two groups(unetched group (1) and etched group (2) for testing the shear bond strength, 40 specimens were used for the hardness testing, and 4 specimens of rest were to observe the resin-tag formation into etched enamel surfaces. All surfaces of enamel specimens were polished with 320~1500 SiC paper under continuous running water. In Group (1), 100 enamel specimens were polished and unetched. 220 polished enamel specimens in Group (2) were etched with 37 % phosphoric acid solution for 60 seconds, washed with water for 20 seconds, and dried with a light air pressure for 60 seconds. Three kinds of dentin bonding agents(Gluma, Prisma, Scotchbond 2) were evaluated the effect on the bond strength to conditioned enamel surfaces. Shear bond strengths were measured on the three cases such as a coating of primer only, a coating of sealer only, and a sequential coating of primer and sealer to acid etched enamel surfaces were compared with the bond strengths measured by the coating of enamel bonding agent followed by the bonding of composite resin (Photo clearfil bright, Kuraray, Japan) to unetched and acid etched enamel surfaces. In addition, the hardness tested on the adhesive fractured surface between composite resin enamel as a mean of evaluation of a factor whether the mechanical bond strengths were affected and the penetration of dentin bonding agents into etched enamel surfaces was also observed. Bond strengths were measured using the method of shear bond strength by a universal testing machine (Instron-4467, USA), statistical test were applied to the results using a one way analysis variance(ANOVA), and hardness was measured by the Vicker's Hardness Tester(MHT-i, Matsuzawa, Japan) and the penetration of the resins were observed by the SEM (Hitachi, S-2300, Japan). The following conclusions were drawn; 1. Enamel bonding agent showed to affect the improvement of bond strength of composite resin to enamel surface both unetched and etched. 2. Dentin bonding agents could be resulted in increase of bond strength to unetched enamel surface, but there were no statistical significances. 3. Bond strengths to etched enamel surface were significantly decreased with a coating of dentin primer only. 4. Coating of sealer only and coating of primer and sealer noticed the similar bond strengths of composite resin to etched enamel using the enamel bonding agents. 5. The applying method proved to be more effective than the kinds of dentin bonding agents on the bond strength of composite resin to etched enamel than the kind of dentin. 6. Vicker's hardness numbers of dentin bonding agents were lower than that of composite resin, but the degree of penetration of dentin bonding agents into etched enamel surfaces was excellent.
EFFECTS OF SOME ROOT END FILLING MATERIALS ON THE REPAIR OF PERIRADICULAR TISSUE
Cho, Yong-Bum ; Hong, Chan-Ui ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 17~32
The purpose of this study was to examine the response of periradicular tissues to amalgam, IRM, Ketac-silver and MTA(Mineral trioxide aggregate) used as a root end fillings. The lower third and fourth premolars of 5 mongrel dogs were used. Each root was resected, followed by root end fillings with experimental materials. The animals were sacrificed after 16 weeks and radiographic and histologic results were evaluated. The results were as follows : 1. Severe inflammation around apex and disruption of cortical were noted in relation to the amalgam. 2. With IRM, there was severe infiltration of inflammatory cells around filling material, but healing of cortical bone was noted. 3. With Ketac-silver, mild inflammation and thick band of fibrous connetive tissue around filling material were seen, with a cortical bone healing. 4. In case of MTA, complete regeneration of cortical bone was seen, and free MTA was surrounded with newly formed bone tissue.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DEGREE OF CONVERSION AND CYTOTOXICITY OF DUAL CURE RESIN CEMENTS
Roh, Byoung-Duck ; Park, Seong-Ho ; Lee, Chung-Suck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 33~54
The degree of conversion of composite resin was known to have influence on the mechanical properties of composite materials such as hardness, strength, wear resisitance, dimensional and color stability. Also unreacted monomer was reported to be harmful to the pulp. So the degree of conversion was a very important factor in the success of composite resin restorations. In recent, the dual cure resin cement was developed with the advocations that it could increase the curing rates in the sites where the curing ligt could not reach. Moreover many manufactors added some adhesive components in the resin cement. This study was undertaken to observe the effects of curing depth and light curing times on the degree of conversion of dual cure resin cements. CR INLAY CEMENT, DUAL CEMENT and OPTEC BOND, by the Fourier transform Infrared analysis, changing the curing depth 1mm, 2mm and 3mm, and varying the light curing time 20 seconds, 40 seconds and 80 seconds at each depth. The cytotoxicity of dual cure resin cements was tested by the in vitro MTT method using L929 cell. The results was evaluated and compared statistically. The results were obtained as follows : 1. The dual cure resin cements reavealed various degree of conversion, CR INLAY CEMENT and DUAL CEMENT had a tendency to be more reactive to the light cure and OPTEC BOND was a more chemical one. 2. CR INLAY CEMENT and DUAL CEMENT showed the lowest degree of conversion in 2 mm depth, and in 3mm depth the degree of conversion increased, which were due to the chemical cure of dual cures, but OPTEC BOND showed decreasing degree of conversion with increasing curing dept h and all experimental groups showed lower degree of conversion than CHEMICAL group which cured in dark room with no light, so the weak light-curing of dual cure resin cement prevented the chemical cure. (P<0.05) 3. CR INLAY CEMENT and DUAL CEMENT showed increasing degree of conversion in 1 mm and 3 mm, according to the increasing cure times, but in 2 mm depth the degree of conversion decreased with increasing light-curing times and OPTEC BOND showed contrary tendency, but there was no ststistical importance in the differences among the experimental group.(P>0.05) 4. The optical density by MTT assay of extractions of CR INLAY CEMENT, DUAL CEMENT and OPTEC BOND revealed no statitically important differences comparing with optical density of negative control.(P>0.05) 5. CR INLAY CEMENT showed a tendency of increaing cytotoxicity with days and DUAL CEMENT and OPTEC BOND showed higher cytotoxicity in 2 days than in 4 days, but there was no statistical importance in the differences.(P>0.05).
A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONTAINING CELLS IN PERIAPICAL LESIONS OF THE HUMAN TEETH
Cho, Soo-Jin ; Yoon, Tae-Chull ; Park, Dong-Soo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 55~70
Periapical lesions develop as a result of immunopathologic response to irritants from infected root canal systems. Removal of these irritants from the root canal system and sealing the root canal space may induce he31ing of the periapical lesions. 83 periapical lesions diagnosed as periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, chronic nonspecific inflammation, fibrosis and periapical Cyst were evaluated for the distribution of immunoglobulin containing cells. The influence of the state of root canal treatment on the distribution of immunoglobulin containing cells has evaluated. All lesions were divided into a group with no treatment, a group with canal enlargement, a group filled with gutta percha, and a group filled with Vitapex(calcium hydroxide). The distribution of immunoglobulin-containing cells according to the presence of pain and fistula was also evaluated. The following results were obtained. 1. Statistically significant difference in the distribution of immunoglobulin-containing cells among periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, chronic nonspecific inflammation/fibrosis and periapical cyst were found.(Kruskal-Wallis analysis, P<0.05) The number of immunoglobulin-containing cells in fibrosis was remarkably lower than that of periapical abscess, granuloma and cyst. 2. IgM and IgA containing cells were predominantly observed in periapical abscesses and periapical cysts, respectively. 3. All periapical lesions showed a large number of IgG containing cells followed by IgM, IgA and IgE containing cells. 4. There was a decrease in all Ig-containing cells in the group with canal filling compared to groups without treatment or with enlargement. That is, there is a decrease in Ig-containing cells as treatment progresses. 5. No significant correlation existed between the presence of pain and fistula and the distribution of immunoglobulin containing cells in periapical lesions.(t-test) Results appear to support that immune response are actively involved in the development and progress in periapical lesions. The fact that distribution of immunoglobulins differ according to the state of endodontic treatment suggests that root canal treatment may alter the humoral immune response of the periapical lesions.
THE EFFECTS OF CELL WALL PROTEINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS SPP. ON DNA SYNTHESIS OF L929 CELLS AND THEIR SDS-PAGE PATTERNS
Lee, Se-Jong ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 71~95
Bacteria have been regarded as a one of major etiologic factors in root canal infections. In endodontic treatment the effective removal of pathogenic microorganisms in the root canal is the key to successful outcome. Bacterial cell wall components may play an important role in the development of pulpal and periapical disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sonic extracts of Streptococcus spp. on cultured L929 cells and to characterize cell wall protein profiles of Streptococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. were isolated from infected root canals and identified with Vitek Systems(Biomeriux, USA). Five streptococci, namely S. sanguis, S. mitis, S uberis, S. mutans (ATCC 10449) and S. faecalis (ATCC 19433) weere enriched in brain heart infusion broth. Cell pellets were sonicated and cell wall extracts were dialyzed and membrane filtered. Prepared cell wall proteins were applied to cultured L929 cell. The cell reaction were evaluated by monitoring DNA synthesis, cell numbers and the change of cell morphology. The total cell wall protein profiles of microorganisms were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel eledruphoresis(SDS-PAGE). DNA synthesis of L929 cells were reduced by the increasing concentration of sonic extracts. DNA synthesis was significantly suppressed in more than
/ml of sonic extract conentration in five streptococci. S. nutans (ATCC 10449) showed stronger suppression on DNA synthesis than remaining four streptococci, which had the similar effect on DNA synthesis. Analysis of DNA synthesis measured by [
]-thymidine uptake was more sensitvie method than cell counting. Sonic extracts affected the microscopic findings of L929 cells. The protein profiles indicated that all five strains shared two major proteins with molecular masses of 70.8 and 57.5 kD respectively. S. uberis and S. mutans shared common minor proteins of which molecular weights were 147.9 and 112.2 kD respectively. However some minor proteins were unique for S. mitis, S. uberis and S. faecalis.
EFFECT OF WETTING CONDITION ON BONDING OF RESIN CEMENT TO DENTIN
Son, Kang-Ha ; Park, Jin-Hoon ; Cho, Kyeu-Zeung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 97~112
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wetting condition made by drying time on bonding of resin cement to dentin. Freshly extracted bovine teeth were grinded to expose flat dentin surfaces. After the exposed dentin surfaces were treated with pretreatment agents and water rinse, each wetting condition of dentin surfaces was made according to drying times and methods including slight blow bry for I-second by air syringe, blow dry for 20-second by air syringe, and 12-hour dry in desiccator respectively. and then, previously made composite resin specimens were bonded onto each conditioned dentin surface of the specimen using Panavia-21(Kuraray Co.), Bistite(Tokuso Co.), and Choice(use with All bond-2, Bisco Inc.) resin cement according as manufacturer's instruction. Bonded specimens were stored in
distilled water for 24 hours, then the tensile bond strength was measured, cohesive failure rate was calculated, and fractured dentin surfaces and acrylic rod sides were examined under scanning electron microscope. The result were as follows ; In the group of bonding with Panavia-21 resin cement, higher tensile bond strength was seen in 12-hour dry group than in I-second and 20-second dry group(p<0.01). In the group of bonding with Bistite resin cement, higher tensile bond strength was seen in 1-second dry group than in 20-second and 12-hour dry group(p<0.01). In the group of bonding with Choice resin cement, no significant differences of bond strength under given drying time were seen. Cohesive failure rates derived from the groups of bonding with Panavia-21 and Choice resin cement were increased with the increase of tensile bond strength in each drying time. On SEM examination of fractured surface, adhesive failure mode with fractured resin tags was mostly seen in wet condition with I-second drying time in the group of bonding with Panavia-21 resin cement, mixed failure mode with shortened and fractured resin tag was seen in the group of bonding with Bistite resin cement, and regardless of drying time, and cohesive-adhesive mixed failure mode with fracture of 'Hollow' typed resin tags was mainly seen in the group of bonding with Choice resin cement.
EFFECT OF FLUORIDE APPLICATION ON DENTIN BONDING
Kwon, Hyoung-Jo ; Park, Jin-Hoon ; Cho, Kyeu-Zeung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 113~128
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stannous fluoride on the dentin bonding with three kinds of commercially available dentin bonding systems containing different adhesive monomers. Dentin specimens with exposed labial dentin prepared from freshly extracted bovine mandibular anterior teeth were divided into experimental and control groups. The specimens of experimental groups were bonded with dentin bonding systems and composite resins including All bond 2 ㅡ& Bisfil, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose & Z100, and Denthesive II Charisma after 2 % stannous& fluorided application for S minutes and washing for 1 minute. The specimens of control groups were bonded with the same dentin bonding systems and composite resins as used in the experimental groups. After bonded specimens were stored in
distilled water for 24 hours, the tensile bond strength and cohesive failure rate were measured, and then the pretreated dentin surfaces and the fractured dentin surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : Mean bond strength of stannous fluoride applied groups of All bond 2, Scotchbond MP, and Denthesive II were 2.5MPa, 1.1MPa, and 1.1MPa respectively, and those of control groups were 7.5MPa, 8.1MPa, and 4.6MPa. Bond strength values of stannous fluoride applied groups were significantly lower than those of the control groups(p<0.05). SEM findings of dentin surfaces after stannous fluoride application demonstrated an appearance of partially remained smear layer and smear plugs inspite of pretreatment with 10 % phosphoric aicd or maleic acid solution, and an appearance of smear layer covered surface under Denthesive II priming. But those of control groups commonly showed clean dentin surfaces without smear layer and smear plugs. On SEM observation of the fractured dentin-resin interface, while most of the specimens of stannous fluoride applied groups showed adhesive failure mode, those of All bond 2 and Scotchbond MP control groups showed mainly adhesive-cohesive mixed failure mode, and mainly adhesive failure mode in Denthesive II control group.
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF ESTHETIC RESTORATIVE MATERIALS TO DENTAL AMALGAM
Jeong, Hye-Jeon ; Min, Byung-Soon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 129~141
Composite resin and glass-ionomer cement can be used for the purpose of repair of defective amalgam restoration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of shear bond strength of esthetic restorative materials to dental amalgam. The materials used in this study were Photo Clearfil Bright(light curing composite resin), Clearfil F II(chemical curing composite resin), Fuji II LC(light curing glass-ionomer cement), Fuji II (chemical curing glass-ionomer cement), All-Bond 2(intermediary), and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (intermediary). A total of 120 acrylic cylinders with amalgam were divided into 8 groups After amalgam condensation, all specimens were stored for 48 hours in water at
and tested with Instron universal testing machine between amalgam and composite resins and glass-ionomer cements. The data were analyzes statiscally by ANOVA and Duncan test. The following results obtained ; 1. The shear bond strength of bonded composite resin to amalgam was higher than bonded glass-ionomer cement(P<.001). 2. The group 4 had highest shear bond strength with 15.45kgf/
and the group 5 had lowest shear bond strenght with 3.26kgf/
(P<.001). 3. In the group 3, 4, 5, 6, the group 3, 4 with All-Bond 2 had higher shear bond strength than the group 5, 6 with Scotch bond MP both in light-curing and in chemical curing. 4. Both in composite resin and glass-ionomer cement, chemical curing materials had higher shear bond stength than light curing materials(P<.001).
A STUDY ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROOT CANAL SEALERS
Chang, Young-In ; Choi, Ho-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 142~151
The purpose of this study was to compare and estimate the physical properties of five root canal sealers classified Calciobiotic root canals sealer as calcium hydroxide based sealer, Apatite root sealer type II as calcium phosphate based sealer, AH-26 as resin based sealer, Canals and Pulpdent root canals sealer as zinc oxide eugenol based sealer. The author investigated dimensional change and flow rate of canal sealers, diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength of sealers to dentin to evaluate the physical properties on affect of complete obturation of root canal and performed the total 100 specimens of each 25 sealers under the condition of root temperature according to manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored at
in 100 % relative humidity. A microscope for measurement of micro distance is used for the dimensional change test and evacuation methods using vaccum were used for the flow rate test. The result differed by the storage time measured on the tests of diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength to dentin. The following results were obtained ; 1 On the test of dimensional change, Canals and Pulpdent expanded slightly, AH-26 and Apatite showed the severe shrinkage after 48 hours. 2. AH-26 and Apatite were the excellent with each 24.59mm, 31.19mm after 3 minutes in the aspect of flow property. 3. On the diametral tensile strength, Calciobiotic root canals sealer showed the highest strength with 27.13kg/
after 48 hours, Apatite root sealer type II showed highest strength with 84.57kg/
after 120 hours. 4. On the shear bond strength to dentin, AH-26 was most excellent with 55.73kgf/
after 24 hours and with 134.71kgf/
after 120 hours.
GINGIVAL MARGIAL LEAKAGE AND BONDING PATTERN OF THE COMPOSITE RESIN INLAY ACCORDING TO VARIOUS THICKNESS OF DIE SPACER
Park, Tae-Il ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 152~163
This experiment was performed to observe the adhesion pattern and microleakage in the gingival margin according to variation in the resin cement thickness which results from thickness of Die spacer. which is considered to effect the adaptability of the composite resin inlays. Clearfil CR inlays were fabricated on stone models with CR Sep applicated once and Nice fit twice, 4 times, and 6 times each. After 2nd curing within the CRC-100 oven, CR inlays were cemented with CR inlay cement. Dye(2% methylene blue) penetration and adhesion pattern were evaluated after sectioning of gingival margin into :3 pieces. The results were as follows ; 1. The thickness of resin cement showed unevenchanging pattern with that of die spacer, namely, it was increased until 4 times' application of Nice-Fit but was decreased with 6 times' application of that. 2. The degree of dye penetration wasn't affected by cement thickness within a limited value. 3. Most of dye penetration was shown through the interface between cement and enamel rather than the interface between cement and CR inlay. This shows that the affinity of resin cement for CR inlay was superior to the adhesive strength with tooth structure. 4. No gap was found at the interface between enamel and cement but some showed separation between dentin and cement. It is concidered that the contraction force of cement was less than the bond strength with the enamel. 5. Lots of voids were found in the CR inlay and resin cement. There was a pooling tendency of bonding agent and cement in the axiogingival line angle portion. 6. In some specimens, cracks were shown in enamel margin. From this it could be considered that cavity preparation and surface treatment weakened the tooth structure.
ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE SEALING EFFECT OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE-BASED SEALERS
Choi, Kook-Ryeol ; Hong, Chan-Ui ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 164~172
The purpose of this electrochemical study was to determine and compare the sealing effect of three commonly used calcium hydroxide-based sealers (Sealapex, Apexit, and CRCS) with that of Roth 801 which is a ZOE-based sealer. 64 single rooted teeth were used in this experiment. After removing the crown, the teeth were devided into 4 groups of 15 in each and obturated with gutta-percha and experimental sealers. 4 teeth were as controls(2 positive and 2 negative). The results were as follows : 1. During the observation period, all sealers showed varying degree of microleakage. 2. The mean leakage currents according to the electrochemical study of each group showed
for Roth 801,
for Apxit and
for CRCS group. The positive control group showed 600mV. 3. There were statistically significant difference in mean leakage among experimental groups. ZOE-typed Roth 801 sealer was the lowest, and Sealapex, Apexit, CRCS group in that order showed increased leakage(P<0.05). 4. Roth 801, Sealapex and Apexit group showed increasing leakage with time, but CRCS group showed stable or decreasing leakage tendency.
THE ADAPTIBILITY OF LIGHT-CURED GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS TO CAVITY WALLS.
Kang, Mi-Sun ; Hur, Bock ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 173~182
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of light-cured glass ionomer cement to cavity walls. Class V cavities were prepared on the labial surfaces of extracted bovine incisor teeth. The cavities were restored with Fuji II as self-cured glass ionomer cement and Fuji II LC, Vitremer as light-cured glass ionomer cement. Fluorescent markers (fluoreceine and rhodamin B) were incorperated into liquid and primer for a better image of microscopic observation. Restored teeth were sectioned by longitudinal and labiolingual direction. The adaptability at the tooth-restoration interface was assessed incisally, axially and cervically by confocal scanning laser microscope. Following results were obtained : 1. Chemical-cured glass iomomer cement restoration showed close adaptation on the all of the cavity walls, but, cracks formed within the cement. 2. Light-cured glass ionomer cement restoration was well adapted to the cavity walls, but showed crack in the cement adjacent to axial dentinal wall. 3. There' was no significant difference in adaptability between two light-cured glass ionomer cement restorations.
INTERFACIAL MORPHOLOGY BETWEEN DENTIN AND ADHESIVES
Kang, Ji-Young ; Hur, Bock ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 183~192
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer management on the interfacial morphology between dentin bonding system and dentin. Clearfil New Bond, Scotchbond Multipurpose, Prisma Universal Bond 3 and X-R Bond were used on the cervical dentinal surfaces of bovine incisor teeth. All of the dentin bonding systems were labeled with fluorescene in primer and rhodamine B in adhesive. Specimens of 2~3mm thichness were prepared by longitudinal and labiolingual sectioning. The interface between dentin bonding system and dentin was observed by flouresence imaging with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Following results were obtained. 1. In the specimen of Clearfil New Bond, dentinal tubules were widened by destruction of peritubular dentin in the course of treatment with phosphoric acid of high concentration. 2. Hybrid layer was observed in the specimen of Scotchbond Multipurpose and X-R Bond. 3. In the specimen of Prisma Universal Bond 3, the penetraton of adhesive was not observed clearly.
THE STUDY OF CHANGE IN SURFACE HARDNESS AND TEXTURES OF COMPOSITE RESIN DUE TO ENZYMATIC ACTION
Kim, Mi-Ri ; Lee, yung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 193~213
The purpose of this study is to investigate a possible contribution of nonspecific esterases, which occur in the oral cavity, to the degradation of ester bonds in polymethacrylates. One of the problems connected with the use of composite resins for restorations is their inadequate resistance to wear. It has been shown that methacrylate hydrolysis can be catalyzed by enzymes and that a carboxylic hydrolase (porcine liver esterase) catalyzed the hydrolysis of several mono - and dimethacrylates. The softening effect on a BISGMA/TEGDMA polymer induced by hydrolase will accelerate the in vivo wear of the polymer. Porcine liver esterase (EC 188.8.131.52) 3.2 mol/L
was obtained from Sigma Chemical Company. The esterase activity of one unit is defined as the amount of enzyme capable of hydrolyzing
ethyl butyrate per min at pH 8.0 AT
. Phosphate buffer, 10mmol/L, pH 7.0, was made by adjustment of a solution of
. Composite resins used in this study are Silux Plus, Z-100, Durafil VS, and Prisma APH. Cylindrical specimens, 14mm in diameter and 3mm thick, of Silux Plus, Z-100, Durafil VS, Prisma APH were polymerized under the celluloid strip. 60 specimens were divided into 2 groups. One group was emersed only in buffer solution, the other group was emersed in buffer and enzyme solution. Silux Plus and Z-100 were divided into 2 subgroups, one subgroup was cured only Visilux 2. And the other subgroup was cured Visilux 2 and Triaid II. Thereafter, specimens were polished to its best achievable surface according to manufacture's directions. The Vickers hardness of the specimens was measured after 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 15, 50 days. The solutions were changed after each measurement. Composite resin surfaces were evaluated for the surface roughness with profilometer (
-step 200, Tencor instruments, USA) after 1 and 50 days. And then surfaces of specimens were pictured with stereosopy after 1 and 50 days. The results were as follows. 1. The surface hardness of Silux plus, durafil VS, and Prisma APH were decreased with time. But, the surface hardness of Z-100 was not decreased. 2. The surface hardness of all composite resins was decreased by esterase. 3. Composite resins, which were light-cured by Visilux 2 and concomitantly baked by oven, showed more hardened surface than light-cured by Visilux 2 only. 4. Significant surface changes were occured in Silux plus after esterase treatment.
A STUDY ON THE COMPATIBILITY OF DENTIN ADHESIVES WITH COMPOSITE RESINS
Park, Jin-Sung ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 214~234
The purpose of this work was to study the compatibility of several commercially available dentin adhesives with composite resins. In this study, V-shaped cavity preparations were created on both buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 extracted human premolars(
deep). Preparations were located such that the occlusal margins were on the enamel and the gingival margins were on the cementum(1mm below the CEJ). These specimens were randomly divided into three equal groups. Three dentin adhesives(Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, All Bond 2, Prisma Universal Bond 3)were applied to the cavity in accordance with each manufacturer's instructions. The teeth in each group were restored with four composite resins(Silux plus, Z100, Bisfil, Prisma TPH) in three increments, with each increment light-cured for 40 seconds. All specimens were exposed to 500 cycles of thermal stress. Specimens then placed in a silver nitrate solution(50% by weight) and stored in darkness for 24 hours. They were then immersed for 6 hours in photographic developing solution under flourescent light. Specimens were sectioned buccolingually through the center of the restoration and observed under a binocular stereoscope. To compare the marginal leakage, ANOVA and Dunkan's multiple range tests were used in analysis. Selected samples were further studied using scanning electron microscopy(XL20, Philips, The Netherlands). The results were as follows. 1. In all groups, the enamel margin showed significantly less leakage than the cementum margin. 2. No statistically significant differences were found in microleakage when composite resins were used with their proprietary dentin adhesives. 3. In comparison between dentin adhesives, Prisma Universal Bond 3 showed significantly less leakage at the enamel margin and Scotch bond multi-purpose showed significantly less leakage at the cementum margin than the other groups. 4. In comparison between composite resins, Silux Plus showed significantly more leakage than other groups at the enamel margin and no statistically significant differences were found in microleakage at the cementum margin. 5. According to the backscattered scanning electron microscope, microleakage occurred via gaps at the dentin adhesives/dentin interface.
LYMPHOCYTES POPULATION IN RELATION TO CLINICAL SYMPTOMS IN IRREVERSIBLE PULPITIS
Lee, Woo-Cheol ; Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 235~249
This study was designed to identify the lymphocytes present and to examine the relation between lymphocytes population and clinical symptoms of the pulps clinically diagnosed as normal and irreversible pulpitis. We recorded the history and severity of the pain and performed several clinical tests, before extirpation of vital, irreversibly inflamed pulps in routine endodontic treatment. Then the teeth were divided into two groups. Five teeth, categorized in acute symptom group, had severe spontaneous pain, particularly at night and were extremely sensitive to cold and heat. The other 15 teeth with history of mild to moderate pain and with or without cold or heat responses were categorized as chronic symptom group. Inflamed pulps were also classified into 8 minor groups by presence or absence of signs or symptoms related to the involved teeth, including the presence of pain on percussion, pain on heat and cold stimuli and the periodontal pocket depth. All extirpated pulps were immediately immersed in ultra low-temperature freezer(
), and they were sectioned
in thickness. Specimens were stained using three-stage indirect immunoperoxidase techniques(DAKO, LSAB kit) and monoclonal antibodies for detecting the presence of T lymphocytes(T), B lymphocytes(B) and helper(T4) and suppressor(T8) lymphocytes. Following results were obtained; 1. All the examined normal and inflamed pull) tissues had positive staining for T lymphocytes and T helper and T suppressor cells. But B cells were observed only in inflamed pulp. 2. Statistically more T and B cells were observed in acute symptom group as compared with chronic symptom group(p<0.05). 3. Cell ratio of BIT in acute symptom group were significantly higher than that of chronic symptom group(p<0.05). 4. Only B cells were significantly increased in the percussion positive group than the number of B cells in percussion negative group(p<0.05). 5. No differences were observed in the number of different cell types among other minor groups.
THE STUDY ON THE LEAKAGE OF BLEACHING AGENTS THROUGH CERVICAL AREA ACCORDING TO THE BASING METHOD
Kim, Sung-Chul ; Yoon, Tae-Chull ; Park, Dong-Soo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 250~260
Bases have been used in order to prevent the leakage of bleachingagents through dentinal tubules in bleached teeth. But the proximal surfaces where the actual resorption takes place havenot been protected. The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional basing method with the basing of the labial and two proximal surfaces to the cementoenamel junction. The bases were placed after conventional root canal treatment. Group I: 2mm thickness bases were placed to the level of labial cementoenamel junction line. Group II : 2mm thickness bases were placed to the level of all c-e J lines including cervical area. Control : No bases were placed. After placement of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide mixtureinto the teeth, the changes of pH were measured. The results were as follows. 1. Group II showed smaller leakage of bleaching agents and was statistically significant difference compared to Group I.(p<0.05) 2. Group I showed no statistically significant difference compared to the control group. (p>0.05) 3. There were no significant among the upper and lower teeth groups in each group and between the groups.(p>0.05). According to the above results, it was considered that basing of the labial and proximal surfaces to the cementoenamel junction can reduce the leakage of bleaching agents during bleaching procedure of pulplessteeth.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR THE EFFECT OF ALL-BOND 2, GLUMA, SCOTCH BOND MULTI-PURPOSE
Kang, Chang-Seong ; Park, Seong-Ho ; Lee, Chong-Suck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 261~274
This study aimed to evaluate the marginal microleakage of Class V cavities of All-bond 2 (Wet - bonding system), Gluma (Adhesion of resin to exposed collagen fibers), and Scotchbond Multi-purpose(Mild Etching System). Hundred extracted human teeth divided into a control and three experimental groups consisting of eight teeth. The experimental group was further subdivided into All- bond2, Gluma and Scotchbond MP groups, Vitrebond served as the control. The positive control group consisted of specimens filled with resin and with no etching, primer and bonding procesure. Polished specimens underwent temperature changed from
a thousand times. After thermocycling, speciemens were placed in 2 % methylene blue dye solution for 24 hours in an incubator set at
. The teeth were sectioned buccolingually and the degree of dye penetration was observed with a stereomicroscoped(*20). The following results were obtained. 1. Both the control and the experimental group showed a lower degree of dye penetration on enamel than on dentin margins(p<0.05) 2. Gluma exhibited a statistically significant lower degree of dye penetration than All-bond 2 on enamel margins(p<0.05) Scotchbond MP also exhibited a lower degree of dye penetration than All-bone 2 but was no statistically significant. Gluma and Scotchbond MP exhibited a similar degree of dye penetration. 3. The degree of dye penetration of All-bond 2, Gluma and Scotch bond MP showed no statistically singnificance on enamel margins but was significantly lower than in the control using Vitrebond. 4. All-bond 2 exhibited a statistically significant lower degree of dye penetration than Gluma on dentin margins. All- bond 2 and Scotchbond MP showed a similar degree of dye penetration. 5. The degree of dye penetration of All-bond 2, Gluma and Scotchbond MP showed no statistically significance on dentin margins. There was neither a statistical significance with the control.
THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF STREPTOCOCCAL CELL WALL EXTRACTS ON STIMULATION OF LYMPHOCYTES
Sang, Hyoung-Sook ; Jeong, Hee-Il ; Oh, Se-Hong ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 275~288
The inhibitory effect of cell wall extracts of streptococci, have been investigated to know host-parasite relationship or pathogenesis of abscess formation. Streptococci isolated from the infected root canals were sonicated to get cell wall extracts which have been known as one of the factors of pyogenesis. Lymphocytes separated by density gradient were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and exposed to cell wall extracts of Streptococcus sanguis, S. mitis, S. uberis, S. mutans (ATCC 10449), and S. faecalis (ATCC 19433). [
]-thymidine uptake of lymphocytes was analyzed with scintillation counter and lactate dehyrogenase (LD) activity was measured with autochemistry analyzer. S. faeealis had the strongest inhibitory effect. beginning at
concentration of sonic extracts. S. sanguis and S. mitis had inhibitory effect at
, while S. uberis and S. mutans showed no inhibitory, effect on DNA syntheis even at
. Each streptococci showed different inhibitory effect on the DNA synthesis of lymphocytes, which finding indicated wide spectrum of susceptibility of lymphocytes according to streptococcus spp. There were no significant difference of LD activities between control and each streptococcal extracts. Streptococcal sonic extracts did not affect the morphological findings or number of colonies activated lymphocytes. These finding suggested the inhibitory effect of sonic extract of streptococci to lymphocytes could be detected by DNA synthesis inhibition, not by cellular membrane damage.
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTIN BONDING AGENTS
Lee, Gi-Hwan ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 289~302
The purpose of this study was to estimate the shear bond strength and observe the fractured and interfacial surfaces of various dentin bonding agents used conjunction with a visible light cured composite. The senentytwo human premolars and molars extracted due to periodontal or orthodontic reasons were used and randomely divided into six groups. All the prepared dentin surfaces were treated with Superbond D-liner, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, All-Bond 2 and Prisma Universal Bond 3 accroding to the manufacturer's instructions. Six specimens were then demineralized in 10 % HCl for 24 hours and the other six specimens were not demineralized in order to observe the interfacial surfaces with Hitachi X-450 SEM at 25Kv. Also shear bond strength were obtained using an Instron Testing Machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The following results were obtained : 1. Although shear bond strength of Superbond D-Liner(17.35 MPa) and Scotch-bond Multi-Purpose group(17.29 MPa) were higher than the All-Bond 2(12.80 MPa) and Prisma Universial Bond 3 (13.43 MPa), there were no significant statistic differences in the shear bond strength between 4 groups.(P<0.05) As a result of etching to dentin in Prism a Universial BOND 3 experimentally, the resin tag was formed, but shear bond strength was decreased. 2. The resin tag into the opened dentinal tubule was formed in Superbond D-Liner, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, All-Bond 2(etching) and Prisma Universial Bond 3(etching), but not in the All-Bone 2 and Prism a Universial Bond 3(non-etching). 3. Strong, durable bonds between dentin and dentinal bonding agents are essential, not only resin tag into the dentinal tubules, but also hybrid layer.
HARDNESS CHANGE OF LIGHT-ACTIVATED GLASS IONMER CEMENT WITH THICKNESS AND TIME
Lee, Kyoung-Jin ; Oh, Won-Mann ; Kim, Sun-Hun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 303~315
An adequate and homogeneous cure of light-activated restroative material is very important for improvement of marginal adaptation and prevention of marginal leakage, secondary caries and pulpal irritation as well as expressing natural physical property of that material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface hardness and cure uniformity of light-activated glass ionomer cements. Restorative(Fuji II LC, Vitremer) and lining(Baseline VLC, Vitrebond) light-activated glass ionomer cements were investigated for this study. The surface hardness of the top and bottom surfaces and cure uniformity of each 1mm, 1.5mm, 2mm, 2.5mm & 3mm in the thickness of specimen were measured immediately, at 1 hour, 24 hours and 1 week after light activation. The surface hardness change and cure uniformity of all the specimens were measured by Knoop hardness tester. The results were as follows. 1. The surface hardness of top and bottom surfaces in all groups increased with time(p<0.01). 2. Both top and bottom surfaces hardness of Vitrebond group measured immediately after light-activation were significantly lower than those of the other groups(p<0.01). 3. The surface hardness of top and bottom surfaces of restorative light -activated glass ionomer cements was higher than those of lining materials at 1 week(p<0.10). 4. Surface hardness of Vitremer group decreased as the specimen thickness increased, except top and bottom surfaces hardness of the specimen at 1 week(p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the surface hardness of Fuji II LC with changes in the thickness except bottom surface hardness of specimen at 24 hours and 1 week (p>0.05). 5. Surface hardness of Vitrebond group significantly decreased as the specimen thickness increased(p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the surface hardness of Baseline VLC group with changes in the thickness except bottom surface hardness of specimen measured immediately after light -activation(p>0.05). 6. The hardness ratio of top against bottom surface in all groups decreased with time(p<0.05). 7. There was no significant difference in the hardness ratio of top against bottom surface with changes of the thickness except Vitrebond group, 24 hours and 1 week of Vitremer group and 1 week of Baseline VLC group (p>0.05). These results suggest that surface hardness of restorative ligh-activated glass ionomer cements were highter than those of lining light-activated materials. In all groups, the surface hardness and cure uniformity continuously increased with time.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERCENTAGE OF CANAL ENLARGEMENT AND CANAL ANGULATION CHANGE BY PRECURVED ENDOSONIC K-FILE
Hur, Heuy-Keung ; Oh, Won-Mann ; Yang, Kyu-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 316~327
The purpose of this study was to evaluate canal shaping ability and canal angulation change of K-file, straight endosonic K-file and pre curved endosonic K-file. Twenty staight canals and thirty curved canals were selected and divided into five groups according to canals curvature and canal instrumentation method. VI group was prepared by straight endosonic K-file and H1 group by K-file in straigt canals. V2 group was instrumented by straight endosonic K-file, V3 group by pre curved endosonic K-file and H2 group by precurved K-file in curved canals. Radiographs of canals were obtained before and after canal shaping. And postoperative radiographs were compared with preoperative radiographs using superimposition method. The results obtained were as follows ; l. In straight canals, K-file group demonstrated lager percentage of canal enlargement than endosonic K-file group on facial view, but reverse results exhibit on mesial view. 2. In curved canals, precurved K-file group showed largest percentage of canal enlargement, followed by precurved endosonic K-fine group and straight endosonic K-file group was smallest. 3. Percantage of canal enlargement at convex side was greater than at concave side in apical portion of each group. Especially in straight endosonic K-file group, percantage of canal enlargement at convex side and concave side showed sharply difference. 4. In angulation change, the straight endosonic K-file group exhibited the greatest its change, followed by precurved endosonic K-file group and precurved K-file group was the least. Above results suggest that K-file is more effective endodontic instrument than endosonic K-file, and that precurved file is effective for canal shaping in curved canal.
EFFECTS OF MOISTENING OF ETCHED DENTIN AND ENAMEL SURFACES ON BOND STRENGTH
Lee, Kwang-Won ; Park, Soo-Joung ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 328~341
I. Shear Bond Strength to Air-dried and Remoistened Dentin.. The effect of air-drying and remoistening of acid-conditioned dentin before priming with the primer of All-Bond 2(BISCO. INC., U. S. A.) on shear bond strength(SBS) was investigated. Ninty freshly extracted sound human molars were divided at random into 9 groups of 10 teeth each. SBSs were meaured for acid-conditioned and non-conditioned dentin to which the primer and bonding agent of All-Bond 2 and composite resin(Z-100, 3M Dental Products, U. S. A.) were applied. The following values(Mean
SD, MPa) were obtained for the groups conditioned with 10% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds: Group l(blot dried)
; Group 2(10 seconds dried)
; Group 3(20 seconds dried)
; Group 4(30 seconds dried)
; Group 5(10 seconds dried/remoistened)
; Group 6(20 seconds dired/remositened)
; Group 7(30 seconds dried/remoistened)
. For the non-conditioned groups the values were: Group 8 (blot dried)
; Group 9(10 seconds dried)
. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. In the acid-conditioned groups, mean values of SBS for the air-dried specimens(Grps. 2, 3 and 4) and the 20 and 30 seconds dried/remoistened specimens (Grps. 6 and 7) were significantly lower than that of blot dried specimens.(p<0.05) The value for 10 seconds dried/remoistened specimens (Grp. 5), however, was not statistically different compared to that of blot dried specimens.(p>0.05) In the non-conditined groups, there was no statistical difference between blot dried and 10 seconds dried specimens.(p>0.05) The results suggest that the acid-conditioned dentin surface is more vulnerable to dentin bonding when it is air-dried or even remoistened after long period of drying. II. Shear bond stengh to the moistened and primed enamel. The effect of moistening and priming of enamel compared to the air-drying of enamel on the shear bond strength of enamel bonding agent was investigated. The experiment was divided into 4 groups each containing 10 caries-free maxillary incisor teeth. Shear bond strength values were measured for the primed and non-primed enamel to which All-Bond 2 and Z-100 were applied. The following values(MPa) were obtained for the primed groups pretreated with 32 % phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. : Group 1 (10 seconds dried)
; Group 2(moistened)
. For the non-primed groups the values were: Group 3(10 seconds dried/primed)
; Group 4(mostened/primed)
. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA. The results showed that mean shear bond strengths among the experimental groups were not statistically different. (p>0.05) Conclusively, It is suggested that the bonding ability to enamel is not decreased by the moistening and priming of the enamel.
FLOW OF DENTINAL FLUID THROUGH CAT DENTINAL TUBULES IN VIVO
Son, Ho-Hyun ; Park, Soo-Joung ; Lee, Kwang-Won ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 342~350
To determine the factors which affect the flow of dentinal fluid through cat dentinal tubules in vivo, the flow of fluid was measured by observing the movement of the fat droplets of dilute milk in a glass capillary with a microscope connected to the monitor. After measuring the exposed area of dentin, hydraulic conductances of dentin were calculated. The mean pressure which stoped the outward flow of dentinal fluid was 9.5mmHg. The hydraulic conductance of dentin under the condition of pulp exposed was increased by 21 % from that under the condition of dentin exposed. Under the conditions of pulp cut and pulp removed, the hydraulic conductances of dentin were increased by 22 % and 31 % respectively from that under the condition of dentin exposed. These results show that the direction and rate of dentinal fluid flow in cat dentin is affected mainly by the hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid of pulp tissue in the state of low compliance. Both of the osmotic effect produced by the protein constituents of interstitial fluid across the odontoblast tell layer and the change of interstitial fluid pressure produced by the state of the microcirculation of the pulp also affect the direction and rate of dentinal fluid in some degree.
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THE COMPOSITE RESIN ACCORDING TO THE SURFACE TREATMENT OF THE BLAEACHED ENAMEL
Kim, Eun-Hee ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 351~361
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the composite resin bonded on the bleached enamel surface according to its surface treatment. 90 extracted human premolars were divided into six groups. : enamel unbleached (control group) and enamel bleached with 15% carbamide peroxide for 2 weeks (experimental groups: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The surface of bleached enamel in all experimental groups was treated by following manners. Experimental group 1 : catalase immersion for 3 mimutes. Experimental group 2 : catalase immersion for 15 mimutes. Experimental group 3 : artificial saliva immersion for 1 hour. Experimental group 4 : artificial saliva immersion for 48 hours. Experimental group 5: surface reduction of the bleached enamel about 0.5mm-1mm with superfine diamond bur. Composite resin molds(3mm height, 3mm diameter) were bonded to the untreated enamel and treated. The shear bond strengths of composite resin bonded to enamel of each specimen were tested with universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5mm/min and 500Kg in full scale and analyzed statistically. The following results were obtained : 1. Control group had the highest shear bond strength with
MPa and experimental group 5 had the lowest shear bond strength with
MPa. 2. Control group showed significant differences in shear bond strength with experimental group 1(P<0.05). 3. Control group showed significant differences in shear bond strength with experimental group 5(P<0.05). 4. Experimental group 4 showed significant differences in shear bond strength with experimental group 5(P<0.05). 5. Experimental group 3 showed no significant differences in shear bond strength with experimental group 4(P<0.05).
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THE COMPOSITE RESIN TO GLASS IONOMER CEMENT ACCORDING TO SURFACE TREATMENT METHODS OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENT
No, Bong-Hwan ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 362~371
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between composite resin and glass ionomer cement according to surface treatment methods of glass ionomer cement. Sixty round acrylic cylinders were fabricated. And then, a round undercut cavity(8 mm diameter, 2.5mm depth) was prepared in the center of the every acrylic cylinder. After all cavities were restored by using light-cured glass ionomer cement. A total of sixty acrylic cylinders restored with glass ionomer cement were divided into 4 groups according to surface treatment methods of glass ionomer cement. The surface treatment of each group were as follows : control group : no treatment Group 1 : acid etching Group 2 : sandblasting Group 3 : air-podwer abrasive polishing The composite resin was bonded to glass ionomer cement of each specimens. And the shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1mm/min and 500kg in full scale. The results were as follows : 1. The sandblasting group(group 2) had the highest shear bond strength with
and the acid etching group(group 1) had the lowest shear bond strength with
. 2. The no treated group(control group) had higher shear bond strength than acid etching group(group 1) (p<0.05). 3. The sandblasting group(group 2), air-powder abrasive polishing group(group 3) and no treated group(control group) had higher shear bond strength than the acid etching group(group 1) (p<0.05). 4. The sandblasting group(group 2) and air-powder abrasive polishing group(group 3) had higher shear bond strength than the no treatment group(control group), but there was not significant(p>0.05).
A STUDY ON THE STAINING TENDENCY OF ETHETIC RESTORATIVE MATERIALS
Shin, Heung-Soo ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 1, 1995, Pages 372~383
The staining tendency of esthetic restorative material was very important factor for the people who are great concern about the esthetics. Most external stains were superficial and adjustable by routine prophylactic procedure. But some of these stains were remained under superficial stain. Some of these stains were accumulative on external tooth surface and it's removal alter the anatomic contour of restoration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the staining tendency of esthetic restorative materials to staining solution. In this study two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji II Glass-Ionomer Cement and Fuji II LC Glass-Ionomer Cement) and three composite resins (Sil
x Plus, APH and P-50) were evaluated and compared. Total 8 disc-shaped specimens of each material (17mm diameter, Imm thick) were immersed in coffee staining solution. These specimens were divided into one control and 3 experimental groups according to the immersion period as follows : Control: immersed in distilled water during each testing period Group 1 : immersed in staining solution for 6 hours Group 2 : immersed in staining solution for 24 hours Group 3 : immersed in staining solution for 72 hours Staining tendency was evaluated by total color difference(
) of specimen before and after staining by spectorcolorimeteric readings (ColorQUEST Spectrophotometer, U.SA.). The results were as follows : 1. The total color differences of each testing materials were increased with time. 2. Among the experimental groups, the Fuji II Glass Ionomer Cement showed the highest total color difference(6.803) and the Silux Plus showed the lowest total color difference(1.637). 3. In comparison of glass ionomer cements, the total color difference of chemical cured glass ionomer cements(6.803) were higher than light cured glass ionomer cements(3.891) (P<0.01). 4. In comparison of composite resins, the P-50 showed the highest total color difference and the Silux Plus showed the lowest total color difference, but there was not significant difference among composite resins(P>0.05).