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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Sep 1995
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
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AN ELECTRONMICROSCOPIC STUDY ON THE HEALING PROCESS OF THE REMAINING PULPAL TISSUES AFTER PULPOTOMY BY Nd-YAG LASER
Park, Dong-Sung ; Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 399~422
The purpose of this study was to investigate a fragment of possibility of pulpotomy with the Nd-YAG laser by the observation of pulpal healing process and the fine structural changes of the fibroblasts of the remaining pulpal tissues. Class V cavities on !55 teeth from 4 adult dogs were prepared and the pulp chambers were opened with a sterilized round bur. In the control group(19 teeth), the exposed coronal pulps were excised by a sharp excarvator. After bleeding was controlled with the sterilized cotton pellets, calcium hydroxide powder was applied on the remaining pulpal tissues and the cavities were sealed with Z.O.E. In the experimental group 1 : the pulpotomy with laser-calcium hydroxide powder application group(l9 teeth), the exposed coronal pulps were excised by Nd-YAG laser(10 watts power, 2 psi water, 20 psi air) for 2 or 3 seconds and calcium hydroxide powder was applied on the remaining pulpal tissues and the cavities were sealed with Z.O.E. In the experimental group 2 : the pulpotomy with laser-no calcium hydroxide powder application group(17 teeth), after amputating the coronal pulps with Nd-YAG laser as the experimental group 1, the remaining pulpal tissues were covered with stenilized aluminum foil and the cavities were filled with Z.O.E. The animals were sacrificed at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. All the teeth were rouutinely processed and the remaining pulpal tissues were observed by the light microscope and electron microscope. The results were as follows : 1. In light microscopic findings, there was no significant difference of the inflammatory response in the remaining pulpal tissues between the control group and the experimental groups. In both of the experimental group 1 : pulpotomy with laser-calcium hydroxide powder application group and the control group, the dentin bridges were observed after 2 weeks and the structure of the dentin bridge was almost same. In the experimental group 2 : pulpotomy with laser-no calcium hydroxide powder application group, the fibrous layers instead of dentin bridge were observed on the superficial portion of the remaining pulpal tissues after 2 weeks and they were consisted with densely crowded active fibroblasts. 2. In the electronmicroscopic findings, the active fibroblasts in the experimental groups were more frequently observed than in the control group at 1 week. But active fibroblasts were found with same frequency after 2 weeks in all of the control group and the experimental groups. 3. General distortions of the cell such as loss of the cell membrane, vaculoization of the cell etc. were observed at the suberficial layer of the remaining pulpal tissues and the carbonization was found in the dentinal wall in 1 week of the experimental groups. 4. In the experimental group 2 : pulpotomy with laser-no calcium hydroxide powder application group, the activity and the density of the fibroblasts in the fibrous layer were more than those in the deep portion of the remaining pulpal tissues after 2 weeks. 5. In the control group, bacteria such as cocci and bacilli were observed frequently, but in the experimntal groups, they could not be observed.
EFFECTS OF A VARIOUS DRUGS ON THE RELEASE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS FROM TRIGEMINAL SENSORY NUCLEUS
Yoon, Jung-Hae ; Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 423~431
Trigeminal spinal sensory nucleus is a main relay site in transmission of orofacial pain. Glutamate and aspartate playa role in transmission of primary afferents. This experiment was performed to study the role of capsaicin, KR-25018 and shogaol on the release of glutamate and aspartate from trigeminal spinal sensory nucleus. Release of excitatory amino acids(EAAs) was induced by electrical stimulation of oral mucosa with innocuous or noxious stimuli. Capsaicin(
), ruthenium red and capsazapine were added to perfusion solution to observe the changes in EAA release, and glutamate and aspartate were determined by HPLC. Release of glutamate and aspartate from trigeminal sensory nucleus was increased by noxious stimulation of oral mucosa, but innocuous stimulation did not affect on the release of EAA Capsaicin and KR-25018 increased the release of glutamate and aspartate, and effect of KR-25018 on release of EAA was more potent than capsaicin. But shogaol had a weak effect on release of EAA. Effect of capsaicin and KR-25018 was partially blocked by capsaicin antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine.
A STUDY ON COMPARISON OF VARIOUS KINDS OF CLASSII AMALGAM CAVITIES USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Seok, Chang-In ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 432~461
The basic principles in the design of Class II amalgam cavity preparations have been modified but not changed in essence over the last 90 years. The early essential principle was "extension for prevention". Most of the modifications have served to reduce the extent of preparation and, thus, increase the conservation of sound tooth structure. A more recent concept relating to conservative Class II cavity preparations involves elimination of occlusal preparation if no carious lesion exists in this area. To evaluate the ideal ClassII cavity preparation design, if carious lesion exists only in the interproximal area, three cavity design conditions were studied: Rodda's conventional cavity, simple proximal box cavity and proximal box cavity with retention grooves. In this study, MO amalgam cavity was prepared on maxillary first premolar. Three dimensional finite element models were made by serial photographic method. Linear, eight and six-nodal, isoparametric brick elements were used for the three dimensional finite element model. The periodontal ligament and alveolar bone surrounding the tooth were excluded in these models. Three types model(B option, Gap option and R option model) were developed. B option model was assumed perfect bonding between the restoration and cavty wall. Gap option model(Gap distance:
) was assumed the possibility of play at the interface simulated the lack of real bonding between the amalgam and cavity wall (enamel and dentin). R option model was assumed non-connection between the restoration and cavty wall. A load of 500N was applied vertically at the first node from the lingual slope of the buccal cusp tip. This study analysed the displacement, 1 and 2 direction normal stress and strain with FEM software ABAQUS Version 5.2 and hardware IRIS 4D/310 VGX Work-station. The results were as followed. 1. Rodda's cavity form model showed greater amount of displacement with other two models. 2. The stress and strain were increased on the distal marginal ridge and buccopulpal line angle in Rodda's cavity form model. 3. The stress and strain were increased on the central groove and a part of distal marginal ridge in simple proximal box model and proximal box model with retention grooves. 4. With Gap option, Rodda's cavity form model showed the greatest amount of the stress on distal marginal ridge followed by proximal box model with retention grooves and simple proximal box model in descending order. 5. With Gap option, simple proximal box model showed greater amount of stress on the central groove with proximal box model with retention grooves. 6. Retention grooves in the proximal box played the role of supporting the restorations opposing to loads.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF RESIN-DENTIN HYBRID ZONE PRODUCED BY THE MOISTENING OF ACID CONDITIONED DENTIN SURFACE
Lee, Kwang-Won ; Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 463~486
The effect of moistening and air-drying of acid-conditioned dentin before priming on the formation of resin-dentin hybrid zone was investigated, Freshly extracted human molars were used and divided at random into 5 groups, Groups 1 - 3 consisted of specimens conditioned with 10 % phosphoric acid for 20 seconds; Group 1 served as a control in which the conditioned dentin was simply blot-dried with a damp facial tissue; Group 2 was air dried for 30 seconds ; Group 3 was air dried for 30 seconds and immediately remoistened for 10 seconds with air-water syringe. and then the specimen was blot-dried with a damp facial tissue. Groups 4-5 were not acid conditioned ; In group 4, the smear layer on the dentin was blot dried before primer placement; Group 5 was air dried only for 30 seconds, The acetone-based primer and bonding agent of All Bond 2 (Bisco. Inc., USA) and composite resin (Z-100, 3M Dental products, USA) were applied for acid conditioned dentin and non-conditioned dentin. The morphologic ultrastructure of resin-dentin hybrid zone was examined by the use of SEM and TEM. and the existence of inorganic material and analysis of Ca/P weight-percent ratio in the resin-dentin hybrid zone were revealed by the EDAX, The results were as follows : 1. In the moistened specimens from acid-conditioned groups, the resin penetrated about 3-
into dentin and the denatured collagen smear layer was not present at the surface. The resin tag was formed to a thickeness of 3-
at the upper part of dentinal tubule and compactively connected to each other by means of many lateral branching. 2. In the air-dried specimens from acid-conditioned groups, the resin penetrated about 2.0-
into dentin and an upper thin black layer to a thickness of 30-35nm was identified between adhesive resin and demineralized collagen layer. The resin tag to have a diameter of
was formed at the upper part of dentinal tubule. However the funnel shape of the tag was not notable compared to the moistened specimens. 3. In the remoistened specimens from acid conditioned groups, the resin penetrated about 2.0-
into dentin and an upper black layer was not present. The resin tag at the upper part of dentinal tubule was formed less than
and was weakly connected to each other by means of few lateral branching. 4. In the non-conditioned groups, the smear layer was formed to a thickness of
at dentin surface. However, the resin-dentin hybrid zone was not identified by TEM. The evidence of resin penetration into intertubular and intratubular dentin did not show. 5. All the acid-conditioned groups showed that the detected calcium and phosphorus weight percent ratios at the
upper portion from the resin-dentin interface into the resin were much higher than that at the
lower portion from the resin-dentin interface to dentin. (P<0.01).
A STUDY ON THE BOND STRENGTH OF REPAIR RESIN TO THE SURFACE TREATED COMPOSITE RESINS
Kang, Hyun-Sook ; Choi, Ho-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 487~507
Composite resin repair requires strong bond strength between the new and old materials. The objective of the current study was to identify the optimal treatments for sufficient bond strengths. Bondings between same kinds of materials and cross bondings using chemical curing composites and light curing composites were tested. Surface treatments included the methods of sand-blasting, acid etching and coating of bonding agent. Seven kinds cases of combinations from three kinds of methods were experimented and compared with a control group of which surfaces were highly polished. Measurements of shear bond strength and observations of surface morphologic changes using a scanning electron microscope were done. Following conclusions were drawn : 1. The highest bond strength among composite resins were exhibited by the treatment of the sand-blasting and the coating of bonding agent. 2. Acid etched surfaces showed the lowest bond strength. Bond strengths obtained from experimental groups including acid etching were lower than those obtained from same kinds of experimental groups without acid etching. 3. Simple method of the coating of bonding agent produced the slightly increased bond strength on chemical curing composite and reduced bond strength on light curing composite. 4. Bonding surfaces of chemical curing composite resin showed slightly higher bond strengths than light curing composite resin, however significant differences were not confirmed statistically. 5. More significant irregular surfaces were created by sand-blasting method than acid etching method. 6. A principal component of fillers of both resins was silicon. Acid etching method produced the seperations and degradations of fillers, these were significant on light curing composite resins which containing barium fillers.
CHANGES IN INTRADENTAL NERVE ACTIVITY AND OCCLUDING ASPECTS OF DENTINAL TUBULES BY CHEMICAL DESENSITIZING AGENTS APPLIED TO THE CAT DENTIN
Oh, Won-Mann ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 508~526
This experiment was performed to study mechanisms of desensitization by chemical desensitizing agents in hypersensitive dentin and compare effects of these agents by measuring the activity of intradental nerves and observing their occluding aspects on dentinal tubules with SEM over time after application of chemical desensitizing agents to the exposed dentinal surfaces. Canines of adult cats weighing 2-3 kg were cross-sectioned at 1.5 mm from incisal apex, and the smear layer of the exposed dentinal susface was removed by 32 %
for 15 sec. Chemical desensitizing agents such as 10%
, were applied to the exposed dentin surfaces for 2 minutes. Intradental nerve activity was measured immediately after application of the agents, at 15 minutes and at 30 minutes by stimulating with 4M NaCl. To compare occluding ability of desensitizing agents on dentinal tubules in vivo and in vitro, the structures of the exposed dentinal surfaces of nonvital and vital teeth were morphologically observed by SEM. The results obtained were as follows : 1. Intradental nerve activity was decreased immediately after the application of 10 %
. (p<0.01), among which 30%
. showed the highest desensitizing effect(p<0.01). 2. The immediately decreased intradental nerve activity after application of 10 %
was increased over time. 10%
showed no desensitizing effect respectively at 30 minutes and at 15 minutes after application. 3. The immediately decreased intradental nerve activity after application of 30 %
was persistently continued during the period of observation (p<0.01). 4. Precipitates of
were not noted on the exposed dentinal surfaces and within dentinal tubules by SEM examination. On the other hand, 30 %
produced precipitates on the exposed dentinal surfaces and openings of dentinal tubules without any formed preciptates within dentinal tubules. 5. Ten percent
, 5 %
and 30 %
showed no differences in their occluding aspects on dentinal tubules either in vivo or in vitro studies and either immediately following application or at 30 minutes. These results suggest that the desensitizing effect of
is resulted from their reducing effect on the intradental nerve activity rather than from their precipitates' occluding the dentinal tubules. However, desensitizing effect of 30 %
, is probably resulted from its precipitates' occluding the openings of the dentinal tubules as well as from it's reducing effect on the intradental nerve actibity.
CHANGES IN INTRADENTAL NERVE ACTIVITY FOLLOWING LOCAL APPLICATION OF CGRP, SP AND ELECTRICAL STIMULI IN CATS
Kim, Mi-Ja ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 527~537
The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and electrical stimulation of the tooth on the intradental nerve activtiy (INA) was investigated in anesthetized cats. The INA was recorded from single pulp nerve units dissected from the inferior alveolar nerve under stereomicroscope. The INA elicited by 3 minute application of 4M NaCl in deep dentinal cavity was compared before and after stimulation at 10 minute intervals. The magnitude of INA was calculated as the total number of nerve impulses produced in given period, and the changes of INA are expressed as % of control INA. The results obtained were as follows. 1. 16 single pulp nerve units were classified as 14
-fibers (3.4~19.4m/sec) and 2-fibers (1.5~1.7m/sec) according to the conduction velocity. 2. 4M NaCl evoked an irregular bursts of spikes which continued until washing out. Isotonic saline did not affect INA to subsequent applications of the hypertonic NaCl solution (P>0.05). 3. Local application of CGRP (
/ml) in deep dentinal cavity reduced the INA induced by 4M NaCl in
-fiber units (P<0.01) and some units of those responded to CGRP during application. 4. Local application of SP (
/ml) in deep dentinal cavity reduced the INA induced by 4M NaCl in AS-fiber units (p<0.05), but increased the INA in C-fiber unit coincided with large reduction of the INA of
-fiber units. 5. Monopolar electrical stimulation applied to the crown at intensities high enough to excite C-fibers (12V, 5ms, 10Hz, 10~30min) decreased the INA in
-fiber units (P<0.01) and systemic pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine (3mg/kg, i.v.) enhanced this inhibitory effect (P<0.01). On the contrary, electrical stimulation increased the INA in C-fiber unit.
THE CYTOTOXICITY ON L929 CELLS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT ON SEVERAL STREPTOCOCCI OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE
Yu, Young-Dae ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 538~548
Calcium hydroxide has been used not only as pulp capping and pulpotomy agents in the operative dentistry, but dressing and temporary filling materials in root canal treatment. Calcium hydroxide was known to stimulate odontoblast to produce new reparative dentin and to eliminate microorganims effectively in the infected root canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide solution on cultured L929 cells and its antibacterial effect on several streptococci. Calcium hydroxide solution (0.121g/100ml) was added to L929 cells and cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red (NR) dye. Calcium hydroxide solution (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and
) was added to L929 cells in 96-well microplates for 1, 4 and 24 hours respectively. Cell viability was gradually decreased when the volume and exposure time of calcium hydroxide solution were increased. When
of calcium hydroxide was applied to L929 cells for 24 hours, there was more than fifty percent reduction of cell viability. Calcium hydroxide solution (20g/100ml) showed antibacterial effect against S. uberis, S. intermedius and S. mitis after thirty-second exposure. But 0.121g/100ml concentration of cacium hydroxide solution exhibited no antibacterial effect on six streptococci after one-hour exposure.
THE EFFECT OF CELL WALL PROTEINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS SPECIES ON MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF L929 CELLS
Oh, Sae-Hong ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 549~576
Bacteria are one of the most important causative agents of the pulpal and periapical diseases. Streptococci are one of the most frequently isolated facultative anarerobic bacteria in the infected root canals. Bacterial cell wall components have a direct effect in the pathogenesis of the pulpal and periapical infections. Hyaluronidase produced by bacteria has been implicated in dissemination of the diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cell wall extract of streptococci on the L929 cells using inverted microscope and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hyaluronidase production of streptococcal strains were investigated to determine the correlation between the severity of cell damage and the activity of enzymes. Bacterial cell wall extracts of S. sanguis, S. mitis and S. uberis isolated from infected root canals and ATCC type strains of S. mutans (ATCC 10449) and E. faecalis (ATCC 19433) were prepared by sonication and confirmed with SDS-PAGE. Silver stain of SDS-PAGE of sonic extract was efficient at
/ml concentration of cell wall protein, while Coomasie blue stain was efficient at
/ml concentration. Inverted microscope showed that sonic extract-treated L929 cells were round and detached from the substratum while others lost their fibroblastic shapes. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that streptococcal extracts induced death of L929 cells. Sonic extracts of streptococci had variable effect on microstructure of L929 cells. significant chromatin condensation was observed in the nucleus of the cells. Disappearance of cell surface microvilli and nuclear fragments with dense chromatin were observed. The cell nucleus had an irregular shape and numerous large vacuoles were seen in the cytoplasm and some breaks of the cell membrane could be seen. Cell organelles were in various stages of destruction and cristae of mitochondria were disoriented or disappeared. Eighteen strains of streptococci did not produce hyaluronidase.
POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM OF 16S RIBOSOMAL DNA OF STREPTOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM INFECTED ROOT CANALS
Jung, Hee-Il ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 577~609
Bacteria have been regarded as one of the most important factors in pulpal and periapical diseases. Streptococci are frequently isolated facultative anaerobes in infected root canals. Recently molecular biological techniques have been rapidly progressed. This study was designed to apply the molecular biological tools to the identification and classification of streptococci in the endodontic microbiology. Streptococci isolated from infected root canals were identified with both Vitek Systems and API 20 STREP. Identification results were somewhat different in several strains of streptococci. Eighteen streptococci and enterococcal was difficult so to digest plasmid DNA using Hind III and EcoRI to differentiate strains by restriction enzyme analysis of plasmid DNA. 16S rDNA of chromosome was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and then restricition fragment length polymorphism(RFLP) using several restriction enzymes was observed. The molecular mass of 16S rDNA of chromosomal DNA was approximately 1.4kb. There were three to five RFLP patterns using eight restriction enzymes. RFLP patterns digested with CfoI which recognizes four base sequences were identical in all stains. Hind III which recognizes six base sequences could not digest the 16S rDNA. Restriction enzymes which recognize five base sequences were suitable for RFLP pattern analysis. At least three different restriction enzymes were needed to compare each strains. 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP was simple and rapid to differentiate and classify strains and could be used in the epidemiological study of root canal infections.
HISTOPATHOLOGIC STUDY OF FURCATION PERFORATIONS REPAIRED WITH SOME MATERIALS
Hong, Han-Pyo ; Hong, Chan-Ui ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 610~626
Perforations especially in the furcations during endodontic treatment have notably detrimental effect on prognosis. The purpose of this study was to compare radiographically and histologically the sealing ability and the tissue responses of amalgam, Ketac-Silver, IRM, Vitapex, and mineral trioxide aggregate(MTA) used to repair furcation perforations. Thirty two experimental furcation perforations were created in the mandibular premolars of 6 mongrel dogs and immediately repaired with experimental materials. The animals were sacrificed after 16 weeks and radiographic and histopathologic results were evaluated. The following conclusions were drawn within the limits of the experimental results; 1. All materials tested in this experiment revealed a certain degree of extrusion into the periodontal space. 2. Both amalgam and Ketac-Silver showed the greatest degree of inflammation and bone resorption(p<0.0001). There was no significant difference between the amalgam and Ketac-Silver groups. 3. Both IRM and Vitapex showed a markedly milder degree of inflammatin and less bone resorption than amalgam or ketac-siver(p<0.00005). both IRM and vitapex showed the same respone. 4. MTA showed the least degree of Inflammation and bone resorption(p<0.05). The results of this experiment indicate that among the different materials tested, MTA appeared to be the best material for sealing furcation perforations, although the radiographic and histopathologic differences between the MTA and Vitapex groups were not statistically significant. But further studies with a larger sample are needed to have the exact conclusions.
FINITE ELEMENT STRESS ANALYSIS OF A CLASS II COMPOSITE RESIN RESTORATION
Song, Bo-Kyung ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 627~643
The resistance to fracture of the restored tooth may be influenced by many factors, among these are the cavity dimension and the physical properties of the restorative material. The placement of direct composite resin restorations has generally been found to have a strengthening effect on the prepared teeth. It is the purpose of this investigation to study the relationship between the cavity isthmus and the fracture resistance of a tooth in composite resin restorations. In this study, MO cavity was prepared on the maxillary left first molar and then filled with composite resin. Three dimentional model with 3049 nodes and 2450 8-node blick elements was made by the serial photographic method and isthmus (1/4, 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 of intercusplal distance between mesiobuccal cusp tip and mesiolingual cusp tip) was varied. Two types of model(B and R model) were developed. B model was assumed perfect bonding between the restoration and cavity wall and R model was left unfilled. A load of 1500N was applied vertically on the node from the lingual slope of the mesiobuccal cusp. The results were as follows : 1. There was a significant decrease of stress resulting in increase of fracture resistance in B model when compared with R model. 2. When it comes to stress distribution, the stress was concentrated in the facio-gingival line angle and the buccal side of the distal margin of the cavity in both Band R model. 3. With the increase of the isthmus width, the stress decreased in the area of the facio-gingival line angle, and increased in the area of facio-gingival line angle as well as the buccal side of the distal margin of the cavity in B model. In R model, the stress increased both in the area of facio-gingival line angle and the buccal side of the distal margin of the cavity, therefore the possibility of crack increased. 4. As the width of cavity increased, in B model, the direction of crack moved from horizontal to vertical on the facio-gingival line angle and the facio-pulpal line angle. In R model, the direction of the crack was horizontal on the facio-gingival line angle and moved from horizontal to the
direction on the facio-pulpal line angle.
BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION WITH RANDOM-CLONED RESTRICTION FRAGMENT OF Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 GENOMIC DNA
Um, Won-Seok ; Han, Yoon-Soo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 645~654
Porphyromonas endodontalis is a black-pigmented anaerobic Gram negative rod which is associated with endodontal infections. It has been isolated from infected dental root canals and submucous abscesses of endodontal origin. DNA probe is an available alternative, offering the direct detection of a specific microorganism. Nucleic-acid probes can be off different types: whole different: whole-genomic, cloned or oligonucleotide probes. Wholegenomic probes are the most sensitive because the entire genome is used for possible hybridization sites. However, as genetically similar species of bacteria are likely to be present in specimences, cross-reactions need to be considered. Cloned probes are isolated sequences of DNA that do not show cross-reactivity and are produced in quantity by cloning in a plasmid vector. Cloned probes can approach the sensitivity found with whole-genomic probes while avoiding known cross-reacting species. Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 (serotype
) was selected in this experiment to develop specific cloned DNA probes. EcoR I-digested genomic DNA fragments of P. endodontalis ATCC 35406 were cloned into pUC18 plasmid vector. From the E. coli transformed with the recombinant plasmid 4 clones were selected to be tested as specific DNA probes. Restriction-digested whole-genomic DNAs prepared from P. gingivalis 38(serotype a), W50(serotype b), A7A1-28(serotype C), P. intermedia 9336(serotype b), G8-9K-3(serotype C), P. endodontalis ATCC 35406(serotype
), A. a Y4(serotype b), 75(serotype a), 67(serotype c), were each seperated on agarose gel electrophoresis, blotted on nylon membranes, and were hybridized with digoxigenin-dUTP labeled probe. The results were as follows: 1. Three clones of 1.6kb(probe e), 1.6kb(probe f), and 0.9kb(probe h) in size, were obtained. These clones were identified to be a part of the genomic DNA of P. endodontalis ATCC 35406 judging from their specific hybridization to the genomic DNA fragments of their own size on Southern blot. 2. The clones of 4.9kb(probe i) was identified to be a part of the genomic DNA of P. endodontalis ATCC 35406. but not to specific for itself. It was hybridized to P. gingivalis A7A1-28, P. intermedia G89K-3.
A STUDY ON AMALGAM CAVITY FRACTURE WITH TWO DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD I : VARIATION OF THE WIDTH OF CAVITY
Kim, Han-Wook ; Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 655~669
Restorative procedures can lead to weakening tooth due to reduction and alteration of tooth structure. It is essential to prevent fractures to conserve tooth. Among the several parameters in cavity designs, cavity isthmus is very important. In this study, amalgam 0 cavity was prepared on maxillary first premolar. Two dimensional finite element models were made by serial photographic method and isthmus(1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 of intercuspal distance) were varied. Three or four-nodal mesh were used for the two dimensional finite element models. The periodontal ligament and alveolar bone surrounding the tooth were excluded in these models. 1S model was sound tooth with no amalgam cavity. B model was assumed perfect bonding between the restoration and cavity wall. Both compressive and tensile forces were distributed directly to the adjacent regions. A load of 500N was applied vertically at the first node from the lingual slope of the buccal cusp tip. This study analysed von Mises stress, 1 and 2 directional normal stress and Y and Z axis translation with FEM software Super SAPII Version 5.2 (Algor Interactive System Co.) and hardware 486 DX2 PC. The results were as :follows : 1. 1S model was slightly different with 1B model in stress distibution. 1S, 2B, 3B, 4B models showed similiar stress distribution. 2. 1S model and four B models showed similiar pattern in Y axis and Z axis translation. 3. 1S model and four B models showed the bending phenomenon in the translation. 4. As increasing of the width of the cavity, experimental group was similiar with the control group in stress distribution. 5. As increasing of the width of the cavity, experimental group was similiar with the control group in Y and Z axis tranlation.
APICAL SEALING OF THERMAFIL OBTURATORS IN CURVED CANALS
Ha, Joo-Hee ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 671~684
The purpose of this study was to compare the apical sealing ability, overfilling and obturation of lateral canals using two gutta-percha techniques: Thermafil obturators and cold lateral condensation. Eighty numbered epoxide blocks with one major and five lateral canals were divided into four experimental groups and obturated according to experimental groups. Four experimental groups were as follows: Group 1 : Filling with Thermafil plastic obturators and sealer(ThermaSeal) Group 2 : Filling with Thermafil plastic obturators only, without sealer(ThermaSeal) Group 3 : Fillng using lateral condensation with sealer(AH-26) Group 4 : Fillng using lateral condensation without sealer(AH-26) All the blocks were stored in 100% relative humidor at room temperature for 7 days. Each block was placed in centrifuge tube filled with India ink, and then centrifuged for 20 minutes at 3,000 rpm. Apical leakage was measured from the apical foramen to the most coronal level of dye penetration in millimeter under a stereoscope. The length of gutta-percha and sealer in each of the lateral canals was measured, too. The presence or absence of overfilling of gutta-percha and sealer was recorded. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The obtained results were as follows: l. Apical dye leakage was almost: not occurred in Group Willed with Thermafil and sealer) and Group 3(filled using lateral condensation with sealer), and there was no significant difference in linear leakage between two groups(p>0.01). 2. In both Thermafil and lateral condensation groups, linear leakage of Group I, 3(filled with sealer) was less than that of Group 2, 4(filled without sealer), and there was no significant difference in linear leakage between Group 1, 2, 3(p> 0.01). 3. Overfilling during obturation of Group 1, 2(filled with Thermafil) was more than Group 3, 4(filled using lateral condensation), and there was no significant difference between groups(p> 0.05). 4. Groups filled with Thermafil had significantly more gutta-percha than groups filled using lateral condensation in all lateral canals(p <0.01), the total length of gutta-percha and sealer found in all lateral canals were similar in Group 1 and Group 3.
EFFECT OF TEMPORARY CEMENT ON TENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF DENTIN BONDING AGENT
Chang, Heon-Soo ; Cho, Kyeu-Zeung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 685~698
This study was conducted to the effect of temporary cement on the adhesiveness of dentin bonding agent to dentin surface. One hundred freshly extracted bovine mandibular incisors were grinded to expose flat labial dentin surface. The dentin surfaces were temporarized with either eugenol-containing temporary cement(TemBond and Zinc Oxide Eugenol cement) or non-eugenol temporary cement(Nogenol and TempBond NE) for 7days, and then the temporarization was removed with surgical currette and the exposed dentin surfaces were water-rinsed. Bonding specimens were made by use of All-Bond 2 and Super-Bond C&B dentin bonding agent, and stored in
distilled water for 24hours. The tensile bond strenth and the cohesive failure rate were measured, and then the pretreated dentin surfaces which the temporary cement had been applied to and removed from and the fractured dentin surfaces after bonding test were examined under scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : In case of bonding with All-Bond 2, tensile bond strength of each experimental group was lower than that of the control group(p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the bond strengths of the control group and each experimental group in case of bonding with Super-Bond C&B(p>0.05). No significant difference between tensile bond strength of experimental group, whether temporary cement contains eugenol or not, was seen(p>0.05). In case of bonding with All-Bond 2, the control group showed cohesive-adhesive mixed failure mode and the experimental groups mainly showed adhesive failure mode, but in case of bonding with Super-Bond C&B, almost of the control and the experimental groups mainly showed cohesive failure mode. On SEM examination, all of the dentin specimens pretreated with either 10 % phosphoric acid or 10% citric acid after application of the temporary cements demonstrated remnants of temporary cement attached to dentin surface.
EFFECT OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE ON DENTIN BONDING WITH NTG-GMA/BPDM AND DSDM SYSTEM
Shin, Il ; Park, Jin-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 699~720
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of benzalkonium chloride solution as a wetting agent instead of water on dentin bonding with NTG-GMA/BPDM system (All-bond 2, Bisco.) and DSDM system (Aelitebond, Bisco.). Benzalkonium chloride solution is a chemical disinfectant widely used in medical and dental clinics for preoperative preparation of skin and mucosa due to its strong effect of cationic surface active detergent. Eighty freshly extracted bovine lower incisor were grinded labially to expose flat dentin surface, and then were acid-etched with 10 % phosphoric acid for 15 second, water-rinsed, and dried for 10 second with air syringe. The specimens were randomly divided into 8 groups of 10 teeth. The specimens of control group were remoistured with water and the specimens of experimental groups were remoistured with 0.1 %, 0.5 %, and 1.0 % benzalkonium chloride solution respectively. And then, the Aelitefil composite resin was bonded to the pretreated surface of the specimens by use of All-bond 2 dentin bonding system or Aelitebond dentin bonding system in equal number of the specimens. The bonded specimens were stored in
distilled water for 24 hours, then the tensile bond strength was measured, the mode of failure was observed, the fractured dentin surface were examined under scanning electron microscopy, and FT-IR spectroscopy was taken for the purpose of investigating the changes of the dentin surface pretreated with benzal konium chloride solution followed by each primer of the dentin bonding systems. The results were as follows : In the group of bonding with NTG-GMA/BPDM dentin bonding agent(All-bond 2), higher tensile bond strength was only seen in the experimental group remoistured with 0.1 % benzal konium chloride solution than that in water-remoistured control group(p<0.05). In the group of bonding with DSDM dentin bonding agent (Aelitebond), no significant differences were seen between the control and each one of the experimental group(p<0.05). Higher tensile bond strength were seen in NTG-GMAIBPDM dentin bonding agent group than in DSDM dentin bonding agent group regardless of remoistur ization with benzal konium chloride solution. On the examination of failure mode, cohesive and mixed failure were predominantly seen in the group of bonding with NTG-GMAIBPDM dentin bonding agent, while adhesive failure was predominantly seen in the group of bonding with DSDM dentin bonding agent. On SEM examination of fractured surfaces, no differences of findings of primed dentin surface between the groups with and without remoisturization with benzal konium chloride solution. FT-IR spectroscopy taken from the control and the experimental group reve::.led that some higher absorbance derived from the primers binding to dentin surface was seen at the group pretreated with 0.1 % benzal konium chloride solution than at the control group of remoisturizing with water.
A STUDY ON MICROLEAKAGE OF LIGHT-CURING GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS
Park, Kwang-Soo ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 721~731
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptability to tooth structure of light-cured glass ionomer cements. In this, study, class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of thirty extracted human premolar teeth, and they were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 10 teeth. The cavities of each groups were filled with the Fuji II LC(GC International Corp., Japan), Vitremer(3M Dental Products Division, U.S.A) and VariGlass VLC(Caulk/Dentsply Inc., U.S.A.). The specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution and stored in 100% realtive humidity at
for 5 days. And then, the specimens sectioned buccolingually. Degree of eke penetration at tooth--restoration interfaces were examined by magnifying glass at occlusal and gingival margin. The results were as follows : 1. On the occlusal margin, among the experimental groups, the group 2 showed the lowest microleakage(
) and the group 1 showed the highest microleakage(
). There was significant difference between group 1 and group 2(P<0.01). 2. On the gingival margin, among the experimental groups, the group 2 showed the lowest microleakage(
) and the group 1 showed the highest microleakage(
). But there was not significant. difference among the experimental groups(P>0.05). 3. The degree of microleakage at occlusal margin was less than gingival margin in all experimental groups.
A STUDY ON THE ADAPTATION OF DENTIN BONDING AGENTS TO TOOTH STRUCTURE
Park, Sung-Taek ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 732~743
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of light cured dentin bonding agents to tooth structure by measuring contraction gaps on interfaces between cavity wall and composite resin under SEM study. In this study, class V cavities with cementum margin were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 15 extracted human premolar teeth and teeth were randomly assigned 3 groups of 5 teeth each. The cavities were filled with three dentin bonding agents and two composite resins were investigated for this study: three dentin bonding agents; Scotchbond 2, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. All-Bond 2, two composite resins; Silux Pius, Z-100. Group 1 : Scotchbond 2 + Silux Plus Group 2 : Scotchbond Multi~Purpose + Z-100 Group 3 : All-Bond 2 + Z-100 The restored teeth were stored in 100% relative humidity at
for 7 days. And then, the roots of the teeth were removed with the tapered fissure bur and the remaining crowns were sectioned occlusogingivally through the center of restorations. Adaptation at tooth-restoration interface was assesed occlusally, gingivally, and axially by scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : 1. In Group 1, the adaptation to dentinal wall of Scotchbond 2 was poor, but the adaptation to enamel wall of Scotchbond 2 was excellent. 2. In Group 2, the adaptation to occlusal was axial wall and gingival wall of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose was excellent. Especially in axially wall, the dentin bonding agents infiltrated into dentinal tubules and there was excellent adaptation to dentinal wall. 3. In Group 3, the adaptation to occlusal wall and axial wall of All-Bond 2 was excellent. But in gingival wall, there was gap formation between composite resin and dentin bonding agent.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE REACTION OF PULPAL CELLS TO THE IMPLANTED DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX
Kim, Sun-Hun ; Kim, Min-Seok ; Oh, Won-Mann ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 744~757
Implantation of demineralized bone matrices was done into the amputated pulp in vivo and sequential reaction of the pulpal ectomesenchymal cells was observed. The bone matrices, obtained from cat long bone were crushed into below
, demineralized with 0.5N HCl and allografted into pulp of molar teeth. At seven days after implantation many undifferentiated mesenchymal cells aggregated near the matrices in the pulpal tissue. At fourteen days after implantation, the cells differentiated into preosteoblast-like cells which have secretory cell characteristics. At one or two months after implantation osteoid tissue was formed. The cells, which are located at the surface of the tissue, contained abundant dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and secretory granules in the cytoplasm. The matrix of the tissue has less collagen fibers than those in normal dentin. These results suggest that the interaction of pulpal mesenchymal cells with demineralized bone matrix can be a model which induces mineralization.
THE COMPARISON OF CANAL SHAPING ABILITY BY ENGINE-DRIVEN NICKEL-TITANIUM FILE AND ENDOSONIC FILE IN CURVED CANAL
Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Oh, Won-Mann ; Yang, Kyuo-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 758~767
The purpose of this study was to evaluate canal shaping ability after canal preparation by using engine-driven nickel-titanium file and endosonic file in curved canals. 30 mesiobuccal canals of molars extracted within recent 3 months were divided into 3 groups. Group I and group II were prepared by using engine-driven nickel-titanium Gates-Glidden drill type and the engine-driven nickel-titanium file type. Group III prepared by using en do sonic file. The image of preinstrumented canals was taken by X-ray. The image of postinstrumented canal was taken by X-ray in the same condition of preinstrumentation. A magnified X-ray image on magnifier screen was traced and then compared the preinstrumentated canal image with the postinstrumentated canal image by superimposing method. The following results were obtained : 1. In the change of canal curvature, the engine-driven nickel-titanium Gates-Glidden drill type showed the least change and the ultrasonically filing showed the greatest change. 2. In the percentage of canal enlargement, the engine-driven nickel-titanium file type was greatest at all level(p<0.05), the apex of all group was the greatest, the difference of ultrasonically filing group showed greater between apex and cervix. 3. The percentage of canal enlargement on convex side was greater than that of on concave side in apex of each group(p<0.05). In the ultrasonically filing group, both sides of canal enlargement showed sharply difference(p<0.01). 4. The percentage of canal enlargement on convex side was greater than that of on concave side in the third of cervix of the engine-driven nickel-titanium file type and the ultrasonically filling. The percentage of canal enlargement of convex and concave side in the third of middle of the engine-driven nickel-titanium Gates-Glidden drill type show a similar canal enlargement between convex side and concave side. As above result, the engine-driven nickel-titanium file type was greater in canal enlargement than the other instruments. The engine-driven nickel-titanium Gates-Glidden dirll type was efficient endodontic instrument for curved canal preparation because it was least change in canal curvature.
EFFECT OF "STEP-DOWN" AND "BALANCED FORCE" PREPARATION METHODS ON THE SHAPE OF THE ROOT CANAL
Chin, Cheong-Hee ; Kim, Jong-Hwa ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 768~779
This study was performed to investigate the effect of root canal shaping techniques on the change of the shape of prepared root canal. 40 mesiobuccal canals of recently extracted mandibular 1st and 2nd molars were divided into 4 groups and shaped by step-down/balanced force technique, step-down/step-back technique, step-back technique and conventional technique respectively. The change of the shape of root canal was traced by superimposing the radiographs obtained before and after shaping of each root canal. The results were as follows. 1. By the experimented techniques except conventional technique, the root canals were more shaped in convex side of apical area and in concave side of most curved and coronal area than in the other sides(P<0.05). By conventional technique, the root canals were more shaped in convex side than in convave side from apex to orifice(P<0.05). 2. By step-down/balanced force technique, the cancave sides at C and D points of proximal view and C point of clinical view were more shaped than the convex side(P<0.05). Through the entire canal, the concave side was more shaped than the convex side in proximal view(P<0.01). But there was no statistical difference between both sides in clinical view. 3. By step-down/step-back technique, the change of root canal shape was not statistically different in concave and convex sides at each point of both views(P>0.05). And through the entire canal in proximal view, there was no statistical difference in shaping percentage between both sides. But through the entire canal in clinical view, the concave side was more shaped than the convex side(P<0.1). 4. By step-back technique, the convex side at B point of clinical more shaped than the other sides(P<0.05). Through the entire canal in proximal and clinical views, there was no statistical difference in shaping percentage between both sides. 5. Comparing the total shaping percentage among techniques, that in conventional technique was the greatest numerically, and followed by the percentages in step-down/step-back, step-down/balanced force and step-back technique. But, in proximal view, shaping percentages were not statistically different among techniques(P>0.05, ANOVA test). In clinical view, shaping percentages in step-back and conventional techniques were statistically different(P<0.01, ANOVA test). * Proximal view: radiograph taken in mesiodistal direction. * Clincal view: radiograph taken in faciolingual direction. A point : 1mm point from radiographic apex B point : center point between A and C points C point : most curved point of root canal D point : center point between C point and canal oriffice.
A COMPARISON OF APICAL SEAL FOLLOWING "STEP-DOWN/BALANCED FORCE" AND "STEP-DOWN/STEP-BACK" ROOT CANAL SHAPING
Lee, Yun-Hee ; Kim, Jong-Hwa ; Son, Ho-Hyun ; Lee, Kwang-Won ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 780~788
The purpose of this study was to compare the apical seal following root canal shaping by different methods. From fourty extracted mandibular 1st and 2nd molars, fourty mesial roots whose canals have some degree of curvature were selected. The mesiobuccal root portion including mesiobuccal portion of a crown was sectioned in each molar. After access cavity preparation for the mesiobuccal canal, working length was determined with # 10 K-file. The sectioned roots were implanted in acrylic resin block and randomly divided into four groups. The canals of group I were shaped by step-down/balanced force, group II by stepdown/step-back, group III by step-back and group IV by conventional method. All of the shaped canals were obturated by Thermafil method and access cavities were filled with IRM. The roots were removed from acrylic resin block and placed in 100 % humidity for 7days. Except the root surfaces of apical 2mm, the root surfaces were nail-varnished 3 times. After the roots were placed in 700 torr vacuum pressure for 15 minutes, they were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 4 days. Nail varnishes were removed with acetone. After that, the roots were decalcified in 5 % nitric acid and dehydrated with alcohol series. Transparent specimens were made by methyl salicylate and the quality of apical seal was assessed by measuring the leakage linearly. The results were as follows. 1. The leakage in canals shaped by step-down/balanced force method was significantly less than that in canals shaped by step-back method(P<0.05) and was less but not statistically than that in canals shaped by step-down/step-back method (P>0.05). 2. The leakage in canals shaped by step-down/step-back method was less than that in canals shaped by step-back method, but there was no statistical significance(P>0.05). 3. The leakage in canals shaped by conventional method was significantly more than that in canals shaped by step-down/balanced force, step-down/step-back and step-back method (P<0.05).
COMPARISON OF CANAL FILLING EFFICIENCY ON THE INTERNALLY RESORBED ROOT ACCORDING TO CANAL FILLING TEHNIQUES
Ha, Sang-Yoon ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 789~801
Canals with artificially made internal resorption were filled with 4 techniques(Lateral condensation, Ultrafil, Obtura II, Thermafil) to compare the efficacy of canal filling according to the filling techniques. After canal filling, radiographic examination, dye penetration through the apical portion and percentage of G-P filled area on the internal resorption area were evaluated. To examine the degree of crystal-like structure and the interface between filled G-P and canal wall, SM and SEM images were taken too. The results were as follows : 1. There was no statistically significant difference in apical microleakage among the 4 root canal filling techniques. 2. As a result of radiographic examination, Ultrafil was the best and Obtura II was acceptable but Lateral condensation and Thermafil showed unfavorable canal filling pattern similarly. 3. Ultrafil filled most of artificially made internal resorption area and Obtura II, Lateral condensation, Thermafil in that order filled unfavorably. 4. Degree of crystal like structure was the highest in the group filled with Ultrafil and those of Obtura II and Thermafil were similar and that of gutta percha used in Lateral condensation showed the lowest value. 5. Penetration of gutta percha into the dentinal tubules couldn't be seen in all groups. In the contact surface between the filled G-P and the canal wall, Lateral condensation showed relatively close sealing, Obtura II and Thermafil had irregular contact surface and Ultrafil showed regular filling pattern. 6. Contact surface between the core of Thermafil and the gutta percha showed close relationship without gap formation.
BLEACHING EFFECT AND SURFACE CHANGE INDUCED BY 3 BLEACHING AGENTS ON THE EXTRINSICALLY STAINED TEETH
Lee, Jae-Yoon ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 802~811
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the bleaching effect and the surface change according to three bleaching agents (Rembrandt, Natural White, Hi-Lite). Teeth were stained by artificial food colorants for 6 weeks and bleached for 4 weeks. The teeth were evaluated with spectrophotometer after bleaching on the 1st week and on the 4th week. The surface change of enamel was evaluated under SEM after exposure to 3 agents for 1 and 24 hours. The results were as follows : 1. All groups showed increased Lightness difference after bleaching. 2. After 1 week, only Rembrandt group showed significant bleaching effect compared to control group. 3. After 4 weeks, Rembrandt group and Hi-Lite group showed significant bleaching effect compared to control group. 4. SEM evaluation revealed that enamel surface underwent considerable change after 24 hours. Scratch disappeared and smooth surface was shown.
CORONAL DYE PENETRATION OF THE APICAL FILLING MATERIALS AFTER POST SPACE PREPARATION
Yoon, Soo-Han ; Kweon, Oh-Yang ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 812~817
Endodontically treated teeth are usually restored for crown protection, aesthetics, and prevention of root canal recontamination. Restoration of these teeth, however, often requires intracanal posts. Various depths and techniques have been recommended for the preparation of post space. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that pst preparation has on the coronal seal by linear dye penetration of root canals obturated by lateral condensation, vertical condensation, and thermafil techniques. Forty canals of roots of incisors and canines were cleaned and shaped with the use of a step-back technique. Thirty canals were obturated, 10 each with lateral, vertical, and thermafil techhniques. Five root canals were obturated without a root canal sealer and served as positive controls. Another five root canals were obturated, and their coronal half was sealed with sticky wax and served as negative controls. The apical 5 to 6mm of the filling materials were exposed to india ink for 48 hours. The depth of dye penetration was measured in all groups and statistically analyzed (ANOVA). The results were as follows. 1. The apical plugs in the thermafil groups had the highest degree of coronal dye leakage. 2. The group filled by vertical condensation technique had the lowest degree of coronal dye leakage. 3. No significant statistical difference was found in the amount of coronal dye leakage in canals filled by lateral condensation versus those filled by the veritcal condensation technique. 4. Significant statistical differences in coronal dye penetration were found between the canals filled by thermafil and those filled by the lateral or vertical condensation techniques (p<0.05).
Seeded Crystal Growth onto Enamel Mineral and Synthetic Hydroxyapatite in Dilute Supersaturated Solutions Containing Low Concentrations of Fluoride
Lee, Chan-Young ; Aoba, Takaaki ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 818~826
The present study was undertaken to investigate the crystal growth onto enamel mineral and synthetic hydroxyapatite seeds in media resembling the enamel fluid composition. Effects of fluoride at low concentrations on the precipitation were also examined in a benchtop crystal growth model adopting a miniaturized reaction column. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), as well as chemical analyses, were employed for characterization of both seed materials before and after experimentation. Remarkable findings were that (1) both biological and synthetic seeds at the same total surface areas yielded rather similar precipitation rates at all levels of fluoride concentration in solution and (2) the precipitation rate was accelerated in a manner depending on fluoride concentrations in media. FTIR differential analysis disclosed that the precipitating phase was characterized as poorly crystallized apatite, which incorporated subtle carbonate. Most of the fluoride ions in soution were readily incorporated into crystals. The overall results support the view that the seeded crystal growth model is of value to gain insight into the mechanism of enamel crystal growth under fluoride regimens.
THE CHANGES IN DEGREE OF CONVERSION OF COMPOSITE RESINS AFTER ADDITIONAL HEAT CURING
Park, Seong-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 827~831
This study was designed to etermine the changes in the degree of conversion for composite resins after heat curing following the methods proposed by Lee & Park(1995). 8-mm diameter hole was made in 1mm teflon plate and one of three types of composites (Charisma, Brilllant, Z100) was placed and light cured for 60seconds. The samples were devided into 3 groups according to the placing composites. After light curing, the samples were separated from the moulds. Using this method, 10 samples were prepared in each group; 5 samples from each group were heat cured according to the methods proposed by manutfactures, These samples were then thinned to 50-
and analysed with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Standard baseline technique was used to calculate the degree of conversion. When the samples were light cured, the degrees of conversion in each groups were 47.1 % (charisma), 53.3% (Z100), and 70.1 % (Brilliant). The degree of conversion after heat curing were; 60.1 % (Charisma), 71.1 % (Z100), and 73.3 % (Brillant). Once the samples were heat cured, there were significant increases in degree of conversion.
DENTINAL MICROLEAKAGE STUDY ON THE LIGHT CURABLE RESTORATIVE GLASS IONOMER CEMENT
Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 832~838
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of marginal microleakage of 2 light curable GI cements(Fuji II LC & VariGlass), which contain some resin components. 4 volunteers kept on acrylic resin plates, which contained dentin disks with cavities filled with test materials for 2 weeks. The time when polishing was done(5 minutes and 24 hours after filling) and the use of protective agents were varied, so 8 groups with each 6 specimens were tested. After having specimens(disks with cavities filled with materials) penetrated with 1% Methylene Blue solution, specimens were stored in 40% nitric acid solution for 4 days to extract adsorbed dye material. Supernatants of centrifuged samples were diluted 5 times and Spectrophotometer was used to determine the degree of absorption. Dye concentration was calculated through the pre-obtained Linear Regression Curve. The results were as follows. 1. The best result was seen in groups (PF24, PV24) which were protected and polished 24 hours later and the opposite phenomenon was seen in groups(NF24, NV24) which were held without protection and polished 24 hours later. Groups polished S minutes later showed moderate leakage pattern. 2. Groups polished 5 minutes later showed similar leakage amount irrespective of using of protective agent. But statistically insignificant lower values were seen in VariGlass than in Fuji II LC groups, So It was considered that VariGlass may be more resistant to early moisture attack than Fuji II LC. 3. In groups polished 24 hours later, there was no significant difference between materials but was definitely significant difference according to the use of protective agent. If the cement in which polishing will be done 24 hours later, Protective agent should be used to cover the surface.
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ARECA CATECHU L. ON THE GROWTH OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS JC-2
Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Nam, Yong-Ok ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 839~842
In its study, We investigated the effects of Areca catechu L on the growth and acid production of Streptococcus mutans JC-2 in broth system and the activity of glucosyltransferase. The results were summarized as follow; 1. The growth of Streptococcus mutans JC-2 was suppressed by adding Areca catechu L in broth system. Especially, its inhibitory effect was significant at 2,000ppm of concentration. 2. Areca catechu L decreased the acid production of Streptococcus mutans JC-2. Decrease of pH according to acid production was less in presence of Areca catechu L than in absence. 3. Areca catechu L exerted the inhibitory effect against glucosyltransferase activity form Streptococcus mutans JC-2.
A REVIEW OF 70-YEARS OF OCCUPATIONAL DENTISTRY IN KOREA
Han, Young-Chul ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 843~855
Occupational Dentistry was introduced in Korea about 70 years ago. During the colonial period occupied by Japan till 1945, there were few documents about industrial dentistry, furthermore most cases of occupational diseases and accidents might have been concealed intentionally by the colonial government. After being an independent country, several dentists made efforts to set up 'Preventive Dentistry for Workers' performing specific oral health surveys, even though which were stopped by Korean War. In 1960s' and 1970s', some investigations of oral status were carried out intermittently for specific small groups;white-collar workers, mentally retarded person, buddhist monks and crews of ocean liners. At the same time there was important study in Korean history of occupational dentistry, which was 'a comparison of the oral hygiene conditions in the female workers of a spinning factory at intervals of 30 years.' In 1980s', young researchers began to give attention to erosion of the teeth due to sulphuric acid in the acid-related industry and dental caries due to sugar and flour in the sweets industry. After being democratic labor union movement activated in 1987, hidden and suppressed occupational diseases under the military dictatorship were exposed and flushed in the newspapers. It was shocking for all people that 15-year old boy had been dead due to mercury intoxication after 3-month employment in 1988. In 1990s', the activity for studying oral status of workers in their workplaces was launched and 'Occupational Accidents and Diseases in Oral and Maxillofacial Field' was published. And also The Korean Association of Occupationl Dentistry was established. Oral health examination of workers at the time of employment and of workers exposed to 5 special chemicals at the time of routine special health examination was adopted in 1992, and epocally oral health examination was also included in periodic routine examination of workers' health in 1995. So, occupational dentistry in Korea should cope with the changing needs of working environment and the altering scheme of health examination.
EFFECT OF COLLAGEN DISSOLUTION IN ACID CONDITIONED DENTIN LAYER ON RESIN-DENTIN ADHESION
Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 20, issue 2, 1995, Pages 856~868
The effect of collagen dissolution in acid conditioned dentin layer on resin - dentin adhesion was investigated. 160 freshly extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups randomly and dentin surfaces were exposed. 40 exposed dentin surfaces were not acid conditioned and each 10 of them were applied with bonding agents within dentin bonding systems of All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multipurpose, Clearfil Photobond and Superbond D - Liner respectively. Each 10 of another 40 exposed dentin surfaces were acid conditioned by the acid within the above four bonding systems respectively and applied with corresponding bonding systems. After acid conditioning of the other 40 exposed dentin surfaces as above, they were treated with 5% NaOCl for 2 minutes, and each 10 of them were applied with the above four dentin bonding systems respectively. The remaining 40 dentin surfaces were acid conditioned and treated with 10% NaOCl for 2 minutes, and each 10 of them were applied with corresponding bonding agents as the above. After the procedures were finished, composite resin (Z -100, 3M Dent. Prod., USA) were applied on the dentin surfaces and light cured. Shear bond strength values were measured. Surface changes of fractured dentin specimens were observed using SEM (Hitachi S-2350, Japan). The following results were obtained. 1. In all of dentin bonding systems, shear bond strengths of non - conditioned specimens were significantly lower than those of acid conditioned specimens (P<0.05). 2. A statistically significant difference of bond strengths did not exist between acid conditioned specimens and 5% NaGCI retreated specimens applied with All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multipurpose and Clearfil Photobond (P>0.05). However, strength values of 5% NaOCl retreated specimens applied with Superbond D - Liner were lower than those of acid conditioned specimens (P<0.05). 3. In all the applied dentin bonding systems except Clearfil Photobond, bond strengths of 10% NaOCl retreated specimens were lower than those of acid conditioned and 5% NaOCl retreated specimens (P<0.05). 4. The resin - dentin hybrid layer of 4 -
thickness was formed in the acid conditioned specimens applied with All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multipurpose and Superbond D-Liner. 5. The resin - dentin hybrid layer of 3 -
thickness was still formed in the 5% NaOCl retreated specimens applied with All Bond 2 and Scotchbond Multipurpose. In addition, this layer was not completely removed after the retreatment with 10% NaOCl. Above results indicate that the dissolution of collagen in acid conditioned dentin layer by NaOCl solution can not be achieved completely and the collagens contribute to the resin - dentin adhesion considerably.