Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Oct 1996
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE DETECTION OF PORPHYROMONAS ENDODONTALIS BY ANAEROBIC CULTURE, IIF AND DNA PROBE METHOD IN INFECTED ROOT CANALS
Kim, Min-Kyum ; Yoon, Soo-Han ; Chung, Chong-Pyoung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~18
There are many advantages when using IIF and DNA probe methods over anaerobic culture method in that they are time-and effort-saving, more precise and more sensitive. Furthermore, in IIF and DNA probe methods, the detection is possible only with small amount of bacteria, the quantitative analysis is possible, and the cell viability is not necessary. The purpose of this study is to observe the incidence of P.endodontalis by carrying out anaerobic culture, IIF and colony lift using DNA probe method respectively, and to compare these 3 methods in terms of effectiveness and sensitivity in order to identify the most effective detection method. 30 teeth with at least one clinical symptoms, with single canal, and with pulp necrosis were sampled. For sampling bacteria, access cavity was prepared after disinfecting tooth and its surroundings. Then the paper point was inserted up to the periapical area, leave there for a while, and finally it was placed into PRAS Ringer's sol. and PBS sol. In anaerobic culture method, P.endodontalis was identified by biochemical tests after subculturing black and brown colonies which were produced after 7 days of incubation on BAP and Brucella BAP in anaerobic chamber. To identify P.endodontalis in IIF method, species-specific polyclonal rabbit-antisera of P.endodontalis(ATCC 35406) was reacted with sampled PBS sol. dispensed onto glass slide, and then P.endodontalis was examined by phase contrast microscopy after incubating with Goat anti-rabbit lgG conjugated to Fluorescein isothiocyanate. For colony lift using DNA probe method, membranes were laid over colonies on the surface of BAP and were hybridized with cloned DNA probe of P.endodontalis. The existence of P.endodontalis was then identified by the methods of chemiluminescent detection and color metric detection. Black colony was found in 11 teeth out of 30 teeth and P.endodontalis was detected in 6 teeth (20 %) by anaerobic culture method, 16 teeth (53 %) by IIF method, and 7 teeth (23 %) by DNA probe method. IIF method is significantly better in detecting P.endodontalis than DNA probe method and anaerobic culture method. There was no significant differences between DNA probe method and anaerobic culture method. There was significant correlation between the formation of black colony and the existence of P.endodontalis. The probability of detecting P.endodontalis when black colony being present is 2.89 times higher than when not being present. There was significant relationship between the foul odor of clinical symptoms and P.endodontalis. The sensitivity of existing P.endodontalis when foul odor being present was 93.75 %, while the specificity of not existing P.endodontalis when foul odor not being present was 28.57 %. These results suggested that the probes of P.endodontalis will be used to decide the method and prognosis in endodontic treatments.
IN VITRO DETERMINATION & QUANTIFICATION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PENETRATION DURING NONVITLAL BLEACHING
Park, Soo-Kyeong ; Lee, Chung-Sik ; Choi, Han-Seuk ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 19~34
It has been demonstrated that intracoronal bleaching of pulpless teeth may result in cervical root resorption. Several authors postulated that bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide penetrated through the dentinal tubules to damage the surrounding tissues that cause cervical root resorption. The purpose of this study was to suggest on in vitro model for direct determination of hydrogen peroxide penetration through CEJ during nonvital bleaching. In addition, this model permit the quantification of the amount of hydrogen peroxide penetrated during the procedure. Freshly extracted intact premolars, removed for orthodontic reasons were used. Root canal treatment was performed in each tooth. And then the outer surface and crown portion of the teeth was sealed with wax leaving the CEJ. The prepared teeth mounted on the wax laminates were placed in plastic assay tubes containing 1.5ml bidistilled water with their entire root, including the CEJ, submerged in the solution. The teeth were dividied into four groups. Thermo group : thermocatalytic bleaching with superoxol Walk group: walking bleaching with sodium perborate & superoxol Combi group : combination of thermocatalytic & walking bleaching Dw group : walking bleaching with sodium perborate & water The bleaching procedure was performed three times. The bleaching intervals were at 3 days. The hydrogen peroxide present in the assay system was added to ferrous ammonium sulfate resulting in ferric ion release. Upon the addition of potassium thiocyanate a ferrithiocyanate complex results, which absorbs light at the wavelength of 467nm. The radicular penetration of hydrogen peroxide in the four groups was assessed directly using spectrophotometer. The amount of hydrogen peroxide in the samples tested is determined by comparing them with a standard curve generated by known amounts of hydrogen peroxide. The results were obtained as follows : 1. In all experimental groups except the Dw group showed lower penetration amount in day 4 than day 1, there was statistical importance in the difference (P<0.05). 2. After 3rd treatment, Thermo group showed slightly increased value and narrow distribution. Walk group showed much more penetration amount and widely dispersed value. Value of Combi group showed wide distribution without regard to treatment time, but value of Dw group evenly distributed. 3. Thermo group, Walk group and Dw group showed a tendency of increasing penetration amount with increasing treatment times(P<0.01), but Combi group revealed no statistically important differences. 4. Combi group showed the highest degree of penetration. Walk group showed lower penetration than Combi group. Thermo group & Dw group showed lower than Walk group. 5. Cervical root permeability to hydrogen peroxide varied from 0 to 35 %.
FORMATION OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX COMPONENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT AND REPAIR OF PERFORATION OF THE RAT DENTIN AND PULP
Kim, Byung-Wooh ; Min, Byung-Soon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 35~53
The development and repair requires the formation of new tissues comprised of various extracellular matrix components. The present study investigated the formation and distribution of the major ECM components such as type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronection, bone sialoprotein, and osteonection during development and repair. For developing observation. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing
were sacrificed. For repair observation, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing
were used. The pulp perforation were prepared on mesial surface of the maxillary first molar by using 1/2round bur. At 5 days after perforation, rats were sacrificed by perfusion with 3 % paroformaldehyde. The maxillary first molar region were cut, demineralized, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Immunostaining the ECM components was achieved by the avidin-biotin complex method. The results as follows : 1. Bright immunoreaction for fibronectin was present in the basement membrane at the inner epithelial-mesenchymal interface, especially concentrated in the blood vessel walls, cell membrane of odontoblasts, and initial predentin. 2. Type I and III collagen was observed in the newly formed pulp tissue, predentin, and its intensity increased as more of these components during repair. 3. Strong immunostaining for bone sialoprotein and osteonectin was found in dentin while no or weaker staining was observed loose connective tissue of the pulp. 4. These results suggest that develpment and repair is achieved through a series of cell differentiation and attachment by the specific ECM components.
THE EFFECT OF ADHESIVE GLYCOPROTEINS ON THE ATTACHMENT AND PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN PULPAL CELLS
Shin, Young-Joo ; Choi, Ho-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 54~69
The purpose of this vitro study was to evaluate attachment and proliferation of human pulpal cells to the attachment glycoprotein-coated and non-coated culture dishes. Well known adhesive glycoproteins were used, such as type I collagen, type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, and vitronection. Each adhesive glycoproteins applied onto the culture dishes. In this study, the protein coated and non-coated dishes were classified as each groups. Human pulpal cells onto each culture dishes. After 90 minute, 4 hour and 24 hour incubation attached cells in each group were counted with hematocytometer for evaluation of the attachemnt of human pulpal cells. The configurations of attached human pulpal cells were done by SEM observation. The results as follows : 1. After 90 minute incubation the score of attachment of human pulpal cells was best in laminin-coated group among groups. Then fibronectin, type IV collagen group were better, and all proteins were higher than control. 2. After 4 hour incubation the numbers of attachment of human pulpal cells were most in fibronectin coated group. 3. After 24 hour incubation all of adhesive glycoproteins showed high and similar attachemtn effect to human pulpal cells. 4. In SEM observation, fibronectin and type IV collagen groups showed well spreaded human pulpal cells, then laminin group was moderately spreaded, and vitronectin group was mildly spreaded as well as control group.
A COMPARISON OF POST AND CORE TECHNIQUES WITH FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS
Cheong, Yong-Kee ; Hur, Bock ; Lee, Hee-Joo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 70~86
The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution in mandibular second premolars restored with different post and core techniques. Sixteen two-dimensional finite element model of mandibular second premolars restored with post and core and complete crown were developed according to the diameter, length, and material of post and core. Vertical force, 10N in magnitude, was applied first to the central fossa and then
oblique force of same magnitude was applied to the buccal contact surface of buccal cusp. The obtained results were as follows : 1. Stress distribution within the dentin 1) Regardless of the material of the post and core and the diameter and length of the post, the pattern of stress distribution within the dentin was similar. 2) Maximum dentinal stress was observed on the lingual root surface of alveolar crest level with oblique loading and on lingual side of root dentin at the crown margin on vertical loading. 3) Cast post and cores produced the lowest dentinal stress concentrations and the highest stress concentration was observed in composite resin post and cores. 2. Stress distribution within the post and core 1) Within the amalgam and composite resin post and core, the patterns and maximum values of stress were similar. Maximum stress located at the central fossa of core portion on vertical loading and at the lingual junction of post and core with oblique loading. 2) Among the all post and cores, the cast post and core registered the highest stress concentration and maximum stress value within the post. Maximum stress located at the post apex on vertical loading and at lingual half of the post surface with oblique loading. 3) In case of Para-post and amalgam core, maximum stress located at the central fossa of core portion and lingual tip of the post head on vertical loading. With oblique loading, maximum stress located at the lingual half of the post surface.
A STUDY ON THE MICROSTRUCTURES OF THE AMALGAM ALLOYS AND AMALGAMS
Yeon, Sang-Heum ; Lee, Chung-Sik ; Lee, Myung-Jong ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 87~105
The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the compositions and phases of amalgam alloys and amalgams by using EMPA and X-ray diffractometer. Each specimen was made from Caulk Fine Cut Clow copper lathe cut amalgam), Caulk Spherical (low copper spherical amalgam), Tytin (high copper unicorn position amalgam), Dispersally (high copper admixed amalgam) and Valiant (Palladium enriched amalgam). For preparing amalgam alloys, Tytin and Valiant were used as powder forms and the others were used as tablet forms after being polished with polishing machine. For preparing amalgams, each amalgam alloy and Hg were measured, and triturated by mechanical amalgamater according to user's instructions. After triturating, the triturated mass was inserted to cylindrical metal mold and simultaneously adapted by cylindrical condenser with same diameter and condensed by Instron universal testing machine with 80kg pressure & 1mm/min speed. Each specimen was removed from the metal mold and stored at room temperature for a week. The specimen was polished with the same polishing machine for amalgam alloy. For observation of microstructure and analysis of composition of amalgam alloys and amalgams, EMPA was used to get secondary electron images, backscattered images and characteristic X-ray images of Ag, Sn, Cu, Zn, Hg. To analyze compositions of amalgam alloys and amalgams, X-ray diffractometer was used. Amalgam alloys were scanned at the range of 2
and the speed of
/min with Cuka line and amalgams were scanned at the range of 2
and the speed of
/min with Cuka line. By comparing obtained d(distance between surfaces) and d of expected phases and atoms in amalgam alloys and amalgams in ASTM card, phases and atoms were identified. The results were as follows, 1. In Caulk Fine Cut amalgam alloy typical
phase was shown, and in amalgam,
phases were observed. 2. In Caulk Spherical amalgam alloy
, Ag, Cu and
phases were shown, and in amalgam
phases were observed. 3. In Tytin amalgam alloy
, Cu and
phases were shown, and in amalgam
phases were observed. 4. In Dispersalloy
, Ag, Cu and
phases were shown, and in amalgam
phases were observed. 5. In Valiant alloy
, Cu and e phases were shown, and in amalgam
phases were observed.
A Study on Color Differences Between Composite Resins and Shade Guides
Kim, Hee-Sun ; Um, Chung-Moon ; Kahng, Myong-Whai ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 107~120
INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF ACTINOMYCES SPECIES IN PATIENTS WITH PERIAPICAL LESION
Chang, Won-Jung ; Yoon, Soo-Han ; Kwon, O-Yang ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 121~135
Actinomyces are Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, anaerobic or microaerophilic filamentous bacteria. These organisms are frequently detected from infected root canals and periapical lesion. The purpose of this study was to use indirect immunofluorescence to determine the prescence of select Actinomyces species in a survey of teeth associated with periapical lesion, to clarify the relationship between clinical symptoms of periapical lesions and the Actinomyces species and to study on the cross reaction among Actinomyces. Actinomyces israelii serotype I (ATCC 12102), Actinomyces israelii serotype II (ATCC 29322), Actinomyces viscosus serotype II (ATCC 19246), Actinomyces naslundii serotype I (ATCC 12104) were cultured in anaerobic condition. Rabbit antisera were prepared by intravenous injection of formalized whole cells. Indirect immunofluorescence method was used to achieve the purpose. The following results were obtained. 1. There was a relationship between Actinomyces and periapical disease. 2. A. israelii serotype I, II were frequently identified with Indirect Immunofluorescence and most often assosiated with periapical disease. In culture finding, there was no significant difference between each group. 3. Indirect Immunofluoresence is both more sensitive and more rapid than culture for identification of Actinomyces species in patients with periapical lesion. 4. A. israelii serotype I, II was highly isolated in infected root canals with local swelling, A. naslundii serotype I was highly isolated in those with foul odor, and A. israelii serotype I was found in higher frequncy in those with exudate than other bacteria. 5. In the Indirect Immunofluorescence (1 : 320), A positive cross reaction was obtained between A. israelii serotype I and A. israelii serotype II, also, A. viscosus serotype II and A. naslundii serotype I. There was no cross reaction between A. israelii serotype I, II and A. viscosus serotype II, A. naslundii serotype I.
THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS ALL-ETCHING AGENTS AND VARIED ETCHING TIME ON ENAMEL MORPHOLOGY AND BOND STRENGTH
Kwon, So-Ran ; Yoon, Tae-Hyun ; Park, Dong-Soo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 136~149
The effects of various All-Etching Agents (10% phosphoric acid, 10% maleic acid and 10 % citric acid) and 32 % phosphoric acid and varied etching time were evaluated by observing the morphology of the etched enamel surfaces using Scanning electron microscopy and by measuring the shear bond strength of a composite resin to human enamel. A total of 156 extracted premolar and molar teeth free of irregularities were employed in this study. Specimens for the observation of enamel morphology were divided into 12 groups of 3 teeth each, based on the type of etchant used and application time. After exposure to the etching agent specimens were washed air-dried and then glued to aluminum stubs and coated with a layer of gold for examination in the scanning electron microscope. Specimens for the evaluation of bond strength were divided into 12 groups of 10 teeth each also based on the type of etchant used and application time. After exposure to the etching agent the specimens were washed, air-dried and a thin layer of bonding agent was applied using a brush. Z 100 composite resin was light cured to the surface and stored at
, 100% humidity for 7 days. An Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to apply a shearing force at
angle from the enamel surface. It is concluded from this study that commercial All-etching agents can be used with a 15-second etching without adversely affecting retention of dental resin materials. At the same time, the acid concentration is probably a suitable compromise regarding the acid's function as a dentin demineralizing all-etch conditioning agent. The following results were obtained. 1. Specimens etched with 10 % citric acid showed a random superficial etching pattern which could not be related to prism morphology. 2. Specimens etched with 10 % and 32 % phosphoric acid and 10 % maleic acid showed a type I pattern in which core material was preferentially removed leaving the prism peripheries relatively intact or a type II pattern in which prism peripheries were preferentially removed. This delineation became more distinguished as etching time was increased. 3. All-Etching Agents and 32 % phosphoric acid showed a statistically significant higher shear bond strength at 15 seconds etching time.(p<0.05) 4. 10 % maleic acid and 32 % phosphoric acid exhibited a statistically significant higher shear bond strength than 10 % phosphoric and citric acid at 15 seconds etching time.(p<0.05).
The accuracy of the frequency dependent type apex locator
Park, Ju-Huun ; Roh, Byoung-Duck ; Lee, Seoung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 150~160
The present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the frequency dependent type apex locator, Root-ZX. The subjects included 505 root canals of 238 teeth treated by the Department of Conservative Dentistry, and 22 human premolars which were schduled to be extracted for the orthodontic reasons. The results were as follows ; 1. The working lengths determined by Root-ZX were compared with radiographic readings. Of the total 505 root canals, 66 % showed coincidence within
and the average readings of Root-ZX were
longer than those of radiographic readings. 2. The length difference between the file tip determined by Root-ZX and the apical constriction in extracted teeth were measured. Of the total 24 root canals, 70.8 % showed coincidence within
and the average readings of Root-ZX were
beyond the apical constriction. 3. The vitality of the teeth did not show any statistical difference(p>0.05) in the accuracy of the Root-ZX readings. The presence of the periapical lesions, however, significantly lowered the percentage of
accuracy in Root-ZX measurements.(p<0.05). In the presence of periapical lesions, the percentage within
was significantly lower.
THE INFLUENCE OF FLUORIDE ON REMINERALIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL DENTAL CARIES
Han, Won-Seop ; Kum, Kee-Yeon ; Lee, Chan-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 161~173
The cariostatic effect of fluoride had been established by many epidemiologic and experimental studies. But, there are still different views on the mechnism of cariostasis and remineralization, especially about the proper fluoride concentration. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the remineralization of caries lesion and influence of fluoride concentration which affect remineralization by a study based on dynamic mechanism. The subjects, sound permanent teeth without demineralization or crack, were immersed in lactic acid buffered demineralization solution for 4 days. Dental caries with surface zone and subsurface lesion were artificially produced. All specimens were immersed in lactic acid buffered remineralization solution which had fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm for 10days. Final conclusions were obtained by observing the specimens for every 10 days under polarized microscopy. 1. Remineralization of caries lesion as well as demineralization of enamel were produced by changing the degree of saturation of lactic acid buffer solution. 2. Remineralization of caries lesion was facillitated by fluoride ion in lactic acid buffer solution. but, remineralization of the entire caries lesion was not increased as fluoride ion concentration increased.
A STUDY ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESIN AND GLASS IONOMER CEMENT WITH VARYING FILLING METHODS
Hwang, Ho-Keel ; Park, Joo-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 174~186
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptability to tooth structure of composite resin and glass ionomer cement according to filling methods. In this study. two class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surface of each tooth of forty extracted human premolars. and they were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 10 teeth. The cavities of each group were filled with the CLEARFIL FII self curing resin(Control Group), Z-100 light curing resin (Group 1).
light curing glass ionomer cement(Group 2) and Z-100 light curing resin over the
liner(Group 3). The specimens underwent temperature changed from
five hundred times. After thermocycling. specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution and stored in 100% relative humidity at
for 24 hours. And then. the specimens sectioned buccolingually. Degree of dye penetration at tooth-restoration interfaces were examined by Tool maker's microscope(x 200) and Image analyzer. The results were as follows : 1. On the occlusal margin. among the experimental groups. the group 2 showed the highest dye penetration(
) and the group 3 showed the lowest dye penetration(
). There was significant difference among the experimental groups(p<0.001). 2. On the gingival margin, among the experimental groups, the group 1 showed the highest dye penetration(
) and the group 2 showed the lowest dye penetration(
). There was significant difference among the experimental groups(p>0.001). 3. About total degree of dye penetration, the group 1 showed the highest dye penetration(
) and the group 3 showed the lowest dye penetration (
). There was significant difference among the experimental groups(p<0.001). 4. The sum of dye penetration at occlusal margin was less than gingival margin. There was significant difference between occlusal margin and gingival margin (p<0.001). The results showed that differences were more pronounced at the gingival margin. Composite restorations inserted over the glass-ionomer liner demonstrated significantly less leakage than single restoration that used composite resin or glass-ionomer cement.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SEALING ABILITY OF A CALCIUM HYDROXIDE PLUG TREATED WITH DENTIN BONDING AGENT
Kim, Pyung-Sik ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 187~201
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of a calcium hydroxide plug treated with a bonding agent. Ninety extracted human anterior teeth and premolars with single canal were used in this study. Crowns were removed. the canal's were instrumented. and the roots were randomly divided into three groups of 30 each. In control group. a single apical seat was prepared with #60 K file 1mm short of the apex and the root canal was obturated with Gutta-percha and Sealapex by the lateral condensation method. In experimental group 1 and group 2. to prepare an apical isthmus of 1mm in length. the first apical seat was prepared with a #45 K file 1mm short of the anatomical apex and with a #60 K file 2mm short for the second apical seat. Dry calcium hydroxide powders were packed in the apical isthmus with a hand plugger and #60 K file and then. the root canal was obturated with Gutta-percha and Seal apex by the lateral condensation method. In experimental group 2. following an application of the bonding agent to the plug. the root canal was obturated in the same way. The teeth of each group were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye solution. for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The distance from the tip of the cone to the deepest penetration was measured using the Tool maker's microscope. The results were as follows : 1. The teeth having the calcium hydroxide plug treated with the dentin bonding agent (experimental group 2) showed the lowest leakage with 1.4705mm and the control group without apical plug(no apical isthmus) showed the highest leakage with 3.1735mm. 2. The control group without apical plug showed higher leakage than experimental group 1 having the calcium hydroxide plug treated without the dentin bonding agent(p>0.05). 3. The control group without apical plug and experimental group 1, having the calcium hydroxide plug treated without the dentin bonding agent. showed higher leakage than experimental group 2. having the calcium hydroxide plug treated with the dentin bonding agent(p<0.001). 4. The immersion time had no significant effect on the degree of leakage. In conclusion, the results showed that the calcium hydroxide plug treated with the dentin bonding agent could decrease the microleakage from the root apex effectively.
A STUDY ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF ROOT CANAL SEALERS
Cho, Ji-Sun ; Hwang, Ho-Keel ; Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 202~217
The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of microleakage of Glass-Ionomer root canal sealer possessed several enviable properties with that of the other sealers and to evaluate clinical performance. One hundred twenty single-rooted teeth were used in this experiment. The teeth were cleaned mechanically and immersed for 24 hours in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and clinical crowns then were removed. After the root canals were instrumented using a step-back technique. one hundred twenty single-rooted teeth were divided into five groups of 24 in each. Group 1 : Tubli-Seal(Kerr Co., MI, U.S.A/ZOE-based), lateral condensation Group 2 : Sealapex(Kerr/Sybron, Romulus, MI/
-based), lateral condensation Group 3 : AH 26(De Trey Co., Zurich Switzerland/Resin-based), lateral condensation Group 4 : Ketac-Endo(ESPE GMBH & CO. KG Seefeld:oberbay. Germany/ Glass Ionomer Cement-based), lateral condensation Control group : no sealer. lateral condensation And then. the root canals were obturated by lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and experimental sealers. The control group were obturated without sealer. The teeth were placed in a vacuum chamber for 15 minutes and immersed 2% methylene blue under vacuum for 15 minutes. The teeth were passively stained for 1 week and 2 weeks and were cleared and evaluated for linear dye leakage using Tool maker's microscope(
). The results were as follows: 1. There were statistically significant differences in the degree of dye penetration between the control group and experimental groups(p<0.05). 2. In the experimental groups, Sealapex(
) exhibited the lowest mean value of dye penetration, followed by Ketac-Endo(
), AH 26(
) and Tubli-Seal(
)(p>0.05). 3. There were statistically significant differences in the variation of microleakage between 1 week and 2weeks in Tubli-Seal and Seal apex groups (p<0.05). 4. The degree of dye penetration of all groups were increased as the time elapsed and AH 26 showed the lowest variation(+0.11) and Tubli-Seal(+ 1.03) showed the highest variation (p<0.001).
THERMAL CHANGE OF THE DENTIN BY USE OF PULSED Nd : YAG LASER
Kim, Young-Il ; Hwang, In-Nam ; Oh, Won-Mann ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 218~226
This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of pulpal damage by measuring temperature change occured in dentin according to the thickness of dentin, the time of irradiation and the output of laser energy when the dentin surfaces were irradiated with Nd-YAG laser under water coolant and no water coolant. Sound upper and lower molar teeth were sectioned with 1mm, 1.5mm and 2mm thickness of dentin discs and divided into 4 groups by dentin thiness. 0.5 watt, 1 watt, 1.5 watt and 2 watt-energied beam of pulsed 10 p.p.s of Nd : YAG laser was applied respectively to dentin surfaces for 8 secs and 16 secs when water coolant is used or not.Ant then the temperature changes occurd in dentin were measured at opposite surfaces of laser-irradiated dentin surfaces with digital thermometer. The results were as follow. 1. When the amount of irradiated energy was same, the temperatue changes of dentin were higher as the thickness of dentin discs was thinner(p<0.01). 2. When the amount of irradiated energy and the thickness of dentins were same, The temperature changes of dentin were lower under water coolant than under no water coolant in all groups(p<0.01). 3. With the increase of time of irradiation, the temperature changes of Dentin became higher in all groups and were steeply increased at initial period of irradiation of laser. 4. Under the same thickness of dentin, the temperature changes of dentin became higher as irradiated energy was increased. These results suggest that when the beam of Nd : YAG Laser is irradiated to dential hard tissue, amount of irradiating energy, thickness of dentin, using water coolant must be considered in order to minimize thermal damage of the pulp.
EFFECT OF COLLAGEN DISSOLUTION IN ACID CONDITIONED DENTIN ON RESIN-DENTIN HYBRID LAYER
Jeon, Seong-Min ; Son, Ho-Hyun ; Lee, Kwang-Won ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 227~241
The effect of collagen dissolution in acid conditioned dentin was morphologically examined by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. 18 freshly extracted human molars and dentin bonding systems of All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multipurpose, Superbond D-Liner were used in this study. For SEM preparation, each 3 of ~ exposed dentin surfaces were acid conditioned by using various acids within the above three bonding systems respectively. After acid conditioning of the other 3 exposed dentin surfaces as above, they were treated with 1.7% NaOCl for 2 minutes. The remaining 3 dentin surfaces were acid conditioned and treated with 3.3 % NaOCl for 2 minutes. All of the specimens were then fixed in 4 % glutaraldehyde for 12 h at
and dehydrated in ethanols grades from 50 % to 100 %, then surface changes of the specimens were observed by using SEM. For TEM preparation, exposed dentin surfaces were acid conditioned with the same acid as SEM specimens and treated with 1.7%, 3.3 % NaOCl respectively, then applied with corresponding bonding agents. After the procedures were finished, composite resin were applied on the dentin surfaces and light cured. Small, rectangular sticks with end dimensions of approximately 1 by 1 mm were sectioned and further sample preparative techniques for transmission electron microscopy were performed in accordance with the procedures used for ultrastructural TEM observations of calcified tissues. The results were as follows : 1. In the 1.7 % NaOCl retreated specimens after acid conditioning, the porous dentin surface of intertubular dentin and wide opening of dentinal tubules were appeared. And there were fine irregularities on the intertubular dentin, indicating a clear difference as compared with the acid conditioned specimens. 2. In the 3.3% NaOCl retreated specimens after acid conditioning, the intertubular dentin was further eroded causing a more porous and wider opening of dentinal tubules. Moreover, sharp irregularities on the intertubular dentin were more evident than those of acid conditioned and 1.7% NaOCl retreated specimens. 3. In all of the acid conditioned specimens, the resin-dentin hybrid layer of approximately 3.5mm thickness was formed and the collapsed collagen layer was observed on the uppermost part of hybrid layer in the specimens applied with All Bond 2. The collgen fibrils of intertubular dentin in specimens applied with Scotchbond Multipurpose were running perpendicular to the interface, and electron dense black layer demarcated from the deep unaltered dentin was more evident in the specimen applied with Superbond D-Liner than any other specimens. 4. In the 1.7 % NaOCl retreated specimens after acid conditioning, the resin-dentin hybrid layer of approximately 2.5-3.0mm thickness was formed and the collapsed collagen layer and longitudinally running collagen fibrils as shown in the acid conditioned specimens were observed in the specimens applied with All Bond 2 and Superbond D-Liner. 5. In all of the 3.3% NaOCl retreated specimens after acid conditioning, the evidence of resin-dentin hybrid layer was not identified ; nevertheless, the longitudinally running collagen fibrils remained slightly in the specimens applied with All Bond 2.
DIFFERENCE IN DYE PENETRATION INTO DENTINAL TUBULES IN VIVO AND IN VITRO
Jang, In-Ho ; Kim, Myung-Su ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 242~253
Penetration degree of several dyes into dentinal tubules in vivo was compared with in vitro, and experimental sensitivity of those dyes was investigated in 64 canines of 16 cats. Dentin 1mm below cusp tip was exposed by cross-sectioning with diamond disc. Pulp of 32 canines were extirpated through cervical cavities. In the presence of smear layer or after add-etching with 37% phosphoric acid to the exposed dentin surface, acrylic collar and resin cap was attached to keep dyes. 52 mmol/
Evans' blue, 2% Methylene blue, 10 % Silver nitrate and 5% Fluorescene were then applicated on each 4 canines respectively for 30 minutes. After rinsing, the canines were ground-sectioned longitudinally and linear dye penetration was measured under microscope. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. Evans' blue and Methylene blue penetrated significantly(P<0.05) more in vitro than in vivo only in the cases that exposed dentin surfaces were not etched with acid. 2. Silver nitrate penetrated significantly(P<0.05) more in vitro than in vivo in both cases that exposed dentin surfaces remained intact and were etched with acid. 3. The penetration degree of Fluorescene did not show statistical significance between in vivo and in vitro or in acid-etched and in not acid-etched cases.
IN VIVO EFFECT OF WET BONDING AND COLLAGEN DISSOLUTION IN ACID CONDITIONED DENTIN ON MARGINAL LEAKAGE
Hwang, Su-Jin ; Kim, Myung-Su ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 254~266
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of marginal leakage that is made by wet bonding to dentin and dissolution of dentinal collagen layer in vivo and in vitro. Class V cavities were prepared to 32 cat's canine teeth and they were randomly assigned into the following 4 groups : Group 1 (not acid conditioned) ; Group 2 (acid-conditioned and blot-dried) ; Group 3 (acid-conditioned and air-dried for 30 seconds) ; Group 4 (acid-conditioned and retreated with 10% NaOCl solution). The acetone-based primer and bonding agent of All Bond 2(Bisco Inc., U.S.A.) and composite resin(Z-100, 3M. Dent. Prod., U.S.A.) were then applied. The resin collar and cap attached to each specimen and 50% silver nitrate solution was placed inside the resin cap for 3 hours. After the canine tooth was resected in level of cervical third, specimens were highly polished and observed the degree of the dye penetration on incisal and gingival margins. The results were as follows ; 1. There was no significant difference of marginal leakage in all the groups between in vivo and in vitro. 2. In vivo, the degree of leakage on the gingival margin showed the lowerest in group 4 and followed by group 2, 3 and group 1 with ascending order. However, there was no statistical difference among all the groups(p>0.05). 3. In vitro, the degree of leakage on the gingival margin showed the lowerest in group 2 and followed by group 4, 3 and group 1 with ascending order. However, there was no significant difference among the experimental groups(p>0.05). 4. The marginal leakage of the incisal margin in vitro was significantly higher in group 1 than the remaining groups(p<0.05).
A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT IN DENTINAL TUBULES
An, Jung-Mo ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 267~279
Microorganisms are implicated the endodontic treatment failures. Persistent endodontic infection may be the result of retention of microorganisms in the dentin of the root canal walls. Dentinal tubules of the root canal walls have been shown to harbor microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the invasion of microorganism into the root dentin and dentinal tubules. The effects of irrigation solutions and smear layer on bacterial colonization of root canal were evaluated using a scanning electron microscopy. Canals of extracted human teeth with single and straight canals were stepback prepared using normal saline. Tooth samples were divided into four groups according to the irrigation solutions -5 % sodium hypochlorite and normal saline-and smear layer treatment. The smear layer was removed by 5% NaOCl and 20% EDTA for 10 min respectively. After sterilization, they were incubated with each strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Sodium hypochlorite solution reduced the adhesion of microorganisms effectively compared to normal saline. The smear layer inhibited colonization of E. faecalis, S. aureus and E. coli in the root canals due to their blocking of dentianl tubules. But S. sanguis invaded dentinal tubules in the root canals without smear layer. It was suggested that bacterial attachment might be different according to the strains. Sodium hypochlorite inhibited bacterial attachment in the dentinal tubules dramatically. The absence or presence of smear layer affected bacterial invasion of the dentinal tubules.
COMPARISON OF SHEAR BOND STRENGTHS OF FOUR DENTINAL ADHESIVES
Cho, Kyeong-Mee ; Hur, Bock ; Lee, Hee-Joo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 280~288
The purpose of this study was to assess comparatively the shear bond strength on dentin of four dentin bonding agents used in conjunction with light-curing composite resins. Clearfil New Bond, Scotchbond Multipurpose Dentin Adhesive, All-Bond 2 and X-R Bond were applicated on labial dentin surfaces just below dentin - enamel juction of bovine incisor teeth. After shear bond strength testing with the universal testing machine, the bonding interface of the specimens were observed under light stereomicroscope. Following results were obtained. 1. The shear bond strength was high in the order of B,C,D,A and group B Scotchbond Multipurpose Dentine Adhesive revealed greater bond strength than Clearfil New Bond and X-R Bond. (p<.001) 2. When using ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test, there were statistical differences among the four groups, except between group Band C,group D and A. 3. There was no relationship between mode of failure and shear bond strength.
IN VIVO EVALUATION OF ACCURACY OF TWO ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATORS
Kim, Hee-Jung ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 289~299
It is necessary to measure the length of a root canal in order to attain a satisfactory prognosis after root canal therapy. There are several methods for determining root canal length, such as tactile sensation by the dental practitioner, the utilization of x-ray film, and electronic root canal measurement. Among these, the electrical measurement methods, in which the impedence between the oral mucous membrane and periodontal membrane is determined, have advantages of simplicity and accuracy. During root canal treatment, the root canal contains a solution of high electrical conductivity such as pus, blood, sodium hypochlorite and so on. Recently a new electronic root canal measurement device of frequency-dependent type has been developed, which is capable of measuring the length of root canal under moist conditions. Endex and Root ZX, which are frequency-dependent type, were evaluated for accuracy of measuring root canal length in vivo by stereomicroscope. The result were as follows ; 1. 82.5% of Endex and 87.5% of Root ZX measured in the range of
mm from the apical foramen and both showed 57.5 % in the range of 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm. 2. Endex showed significantly higher accuracy in vital teeth than nonvital teeth(p<0.05). But in case of Root ZX, there was no significant difference between vital and nonvital teeth. 3. As a result of this study, there was no significant difference in accuracy between Endex and Root ZX, and both devices showed file passes the apical foramen in more than half of the cases, and it is thought that this must be considered clinically.
DYE PENETRATION AND SURFACE CHANGE OF ROOT CANAL WALL BY Nd : YAG LASER IRRADIATION
Lee, Kyoung-Beom ; Shin, Dong-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 300~310
Recently, there have been attempts to obstruct the dentinal tubules and remove the smear layer by way of laser irradiation in the root canal during endodontic treatment. This treatment was designed to make the root canal to be nonporous. Using 33 extracted single rooted teeth, 30 teeth were divided into 3 groups (10 each), and 3 teeth were used as samples for SEM. Using Nd : YAG laser, the control group was not irradiated, experimental group l(1W group) was irradiated with 1W, 15pps, 15sec., 3 times, 6.7mJ and experimental group 2(3W group) was irradiated with 3W, 15pps, 15sec., 3 times 20mJ. Thereafter the roots were immersed in methylene blue for 8 hours, and the dye infiltration pattern was observed under stereomicroscope and canal wall surface change was observed under SEM. The results are as following ; 1. As a result of evaluating the dye infiltration rate of the apical and middle 1/3, there was significant difference between control group and 1W group, control group and 3W group and there was no significant difference between 1 W group and 3W group. 2. In each group, as a result of comparing the dye infiltration rate of the apical and middle 1/3, there was no significant difference in control and 1W group but significant difference in 3W group. 3. In the control group smear layer was scarecely found and many dentinal tubules were found to be open. 4. In the 1W group, the number of dentinal tubules were decreased and gradual changes of the dentin surface could be seen and 3W group, almost no dentinal tubules could be found and the dentin surface was changed a little more and showed signs of partial fusion.
THE EFFECT OF ND : YAG LASER ON DENTINAL TUBULE SEAL AFTER ROOT END RESECTION
Shin, Kwang-Chul ; Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 311~320
If root and resection is done during surgical endodontic treatment, newly exposed dentinal tubules form pathways between the canal and the peripheral tissue. Nd : YAG laser was used to block this phenomenon, and its effect was studied with dye penetration and SEM techniques. 40 intact single rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups(10 each) : control group and test groups, in which retrograde cavity surface, cutting surface, retrograde cavity surface & cutting surface were treated with laser(1 watt 15pps) and finally retrograde filling with IRM was conducted. After that, they were stained with 2 % methylene blue, sectioned and evaluated by the maximum infiltration depth. And to observe surface change, they were prepared for SEM. The results were as follows ; 1. All experimental groups showed microleakage with variation in amount. 2. The 2nd group which treated both the retrograde cavity and cutting surface showed significantly less microleakage than the other groups(p<0.05). There was no significant difference between groups treated on one side only. 3. As a result of SEM observation of dentin surface, obstruction of dentinal tubules with marble shaped granules, which were different from normal dentin could be seen. Cracks could be seen also. 4. In summary of this experiment, it is thought that effort to obstruct the exposed dentinal tubules as well as retrograde cavity after root end resection is needed.
THE EFFECT OF MOISTENING OF ETCHED DENTIN AND ENAMEL SURFACE ON THE MICROLEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESINS
Jeon, Cheol-Min ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ; Lee, Chung-Sik ; Lee, Myung-Jon ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 321~338
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of moistening and air-drying of acid conditioned dentin and enamel on the marginal microleakage. In this study, Class V cavity were prepared on both buccal and lingual surface of sixty extracted human premolars with cementum margin. These specimens were randomly devided into three groups and three dentin adhesives(Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, All bond 2, Prisma Universal Bond 3) were applied to each group. The specimens in each group were subdevided into four groups (Wet/primed, Dry/primed, Wet/not primed, Dry/not primed) and the etched dentin and enamel surface were treated these four surface treatments prior to the placement of a bonding agent or adhesive. Wet/primed group was simply blot-dried with a damp facial tissue before primer placement ; Dry/primed group was air dried for 30 seconds before the placement of a primer ; Wet/not primed group and Dry/not primed group were not primed after blot dried and air dried for 30 seconds each group. The bonding agent and composite resin were applied for each group. All specimens were exposed to 500 cycle of thermal stress. Specimens were placed in a silver nitrate solution and then sectioned buccolingually through the center of the restoration. The dye penetrations of the specimens were observed with a stereo microscope. The statistical test were applied to the results using a one way analysis variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test. The aspects of silver ion penetration into the resin/dentin interface were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The results were as follows. 1. In all groups, the enamel margin showed significantly lower leakage value than the cementum margin (p<0.05). 2. Regardless of various surface treatment and dentin adhesives, there was no significant difference at the enamel margins (p>0.05). 3. At the dentin margins, the leakage values of Dry/not primed group showed significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05). The leakage values of Wet/primed group showed significantly lower than that of the other groups, but, there was no significant difference between Wet group and Dry group. 4. There was no significantly difference between the dentin adhesives regarding the surface treatments in all groups(p>0.05). 5. On the backscatterd scanning electron microscopy observation, the penetration of the silver ion occured at the bonding resin/dentin interface. In the Wet/primed group, resindentin hybrid zone and resin penetration into the dentin was observed. The resin tags were compactively formed to a thickness of
at the upper part of dentinal tubules. In the Dry/primed group, the thickness of the hybrid zone and the diameter, depth of the resin tags diminished. In the Non-primed groups, the hybrid zone was not identified and few resin tag was observed. There was the gap formation in the resin/dentin interface.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF RESTORATION AFTER ROOT CANAL THERAPY
Lee, Chung-Sik ; Lee, Jae-Young ; Cho, Hyo-Sun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 339~352
Many dentists have been taken an interest in restoration of severly damaged teeth after endodontic treatment and it is a true that there are lots of studies about it. In these days, although we have used Para-Post, pins, threaded steel post, cast gold post and core, and so on, as a method of restoration frequently, it has been in controversy with the effects of them on the teeth and surrounding periodontal tissue. In this study, we assume that the crown of the upper 1st premolar was severly damaged, and after the root canal therapy, two most common types of restoration were carried out ; 1) coronal-radicular amalgam restoration, 2) after setting up the Para-Post, restore with amalgam core and gold crown. After restoration, in order to present the concentration of stress at internal portion of the tooth and the surrounding periodontal tissue, we doveloped a 2-dimensional finite element model of labiopalatal section, then loaded forces from 2 long perpendicular to the lingual incline of buccal ridge an the middle point, parallel to the long direction axis of tooth at the fossa-were applied. The analyzed results were as follows : 1. Stress of the normal first premolar was concentrated on the most weakest anatomical structure, that is, cervical area, and no stress on the bifurcated area of the canal. 2. Crown restoration after root canal therapy causes large stress concentration on the bifurcated area of the canal. This stress concentration has larger value in case of lateral movement of mandible, and there are decrease in the stress concentration compared with natural tooth. 3. Coronal-radicular amalgam restoration method transports more stress to the tooth structure than restoration using Para-Post. 4. There are more stress concentration around Para-Post in the case of lateral movement, and we have more favo rable result when restored with Para-Post. 5. Generally, stress in the lateral movement is larger than stress in the perpendicular load.
A STUDY ON THE CONCENTRATIONS OF LEUKOTRIENE B4 IN RELATION TO THE CLINICAL SYMPTOM OF PULPITIS IN HUMAN DENTAL PULP
Lim, Sung-Sam ; Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ; Yoon, Soo-Han ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 353~359
The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentrations of Leukotriene B4 in relation to the clinical symptom of pulpitis in human dental pulp. Pulps obtained from 3 groups of teeth: normal uniflamed teeth(N=22), asymptomatic teeth with deep caries or large restorations(N = 21) and symptomatic teeth with the clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis(N = 15). Pulps were dissected from normal un inflamed teeth and extirpated from asymptomatic and symptomatic teeth during routine endodontic treatment and stored in liquid nitrogen (
). The levels of Leukotriene B4 in individual or pooled pulps were measured by radioimmunoassay and the mean levels of each group were compared statistically(Kruskall-Wallis oneway ANOVA test). The results were as followings : 1. In normal pulp, low levels of Leukotriene B4 were measured. 2. In pulps from asymptomatic and symptomatic teeth had significantly higher levels of Leukotriene B4 than normal pulps(p<0.01). 3. The levels of Leukotriene B4 in pulps from symptomatic teeth were significantly higher than those of pulps from asymptomatic teeth(p<0.01). These results suggest that Leukotriene B4 play a cretain role in inflammatory process of dental pulp and have a relationship with clinical symptoms of pulpitis.
THE RELATIVE DEGREE OF CONVERSION OF THE COMPOSITE RESIN SURFACE
Park, Seong-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 360~365
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the degree of conversion on a composite resin surface following heat treatment and mylar strip finishing. The effects of the time interval between the light-curing and heat-curing process were also evaluated. The composite resin surface which had been covered with a coverglass showed a lower conversion rate than the surface from which a layer of
was ground away. The composite resin surface was definitely affected by oxygen during the heat curing process when it had not been insulated. When the composite resins were heat cured after 3 days of storage following the light curing process, the increased in the degree of conversion through heatcuring was limited.
TESTING OF NEUROPEPTIDE Y INVOLVEMENT IN BLOOD FLOW REGULATION IN THE FELINE DENTAL PULP USING D-MYO-INOSITOL-1,2,6-TRISPHOSPHATE
Kim, Sung-Kyo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 366~374
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether D-myo-inositol-l,2,6-trisphosphate (PP56) can effectively antagonize vasoconstriction caused by neuropeptide Y in the dental pulp, and to understand involvement of neuropeptide Y in the regulation of microcirculation in the dental pulp with the aim of elucidating neurogenic inflammation. Experiments were performed on 7 cats anesthetised with sodium pentobarbital, and neuropeptide Y and a neuropeptide Y antagonist PP56 were injected close intra-arterially into the dental pulp. The probe of laser Doppler flowmeter was placed on the buccal surface of ipsilateral canine teeth to the drug administration and pulpal blood flow was measured. Intra-arterial injection of neuropeptide Y (1.3-
/kg) resulted in pulpal blood flow decrease of
SEM) (n=9). Intra-arterial injection of PP56(0.3 mg/kg) alone changed pulpal blood flow little by 1.03 % reduction. The effect of neuropeptide Y in the presence of PP56 resulted in significantly less decreases in pulpal blood flow ranging from
from control as compared with neuropeptide Y alone(n = 13). In effect, PP56 attenuated pulpal blood flow caused by neuropeptide Y. Results of the present study have provided evidences that a non-peptide PP56 is capable of antagonizing vasoconstriction caused by neuropeptide Y in the feline dental pulp. In addition, they show functional evidences that neuropeptide Y plays an active role in modulating the microcirculation of the dental pulp.
ROLE OF SYMPATHETIC NERVE ON THE CONTROL OF MICROCIRCULATION IN THE FELINE DENTAL PULP
Kim, Sung-Kyo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 375~384
The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional involvement of sympathetic nerve in the control of the microcirculation in the dental pulp with the aim of elucidation of the involvement of neuropeptides and sympathetic nerve in neurogenic inflammation. Experiments were done on the 7 cats anesthetised with sodium pentobarbital, and sympathetic nerve to the' dental pulp was stimulated electrically (10 Hz, 4 V, 1.5 ms, 3.5 mins). Ana-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine and a neuropeptide Y antagonist D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate (PP56) were injected close intra-arterially into the dental pulp without changing the systemic blood pressure. The probe of laser Doppler flowmeter was placed on the buccal surface of ipsilateral canine teeth to the stimulation, and pulpal blood flow was measured. Stimulation of the sympathetic nerve decreased pulpal blood flow by
SEM, n = 13). Stimulation of the sympathetic nerve following the injection of the
-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (
/kg) caused decrease of pulpal blood flow by
SEM, n=5). Phentolamine attenuated the sympathetic nerve-induced pulpal blood flow decrease by
SEM) Stimulation of the sympathetic nerve following the injection of the neuropeptide Y antagonist PP56 (2.3 mg/kg) caused decrease of pulpal blood flow by
SEM, n=6). PP56 attenuated the sympathetic nerve-induced pulpal blood flow decrease by
SEM). These data provide evidences of the co-contribution of nerepinephrine and neuropeptide Y on the sympathetic nerve-induced vasoconstriction in the feline dental pulp. In addition, they show functional evidences that sympathetic nerve plays an active role in controlling the microcirculation of the dental pulp.
EFFECT OF SEVERAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS ON ULRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF L929 CELLS USING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 385~402
Cytotoxicity of dental restorative materials using cell culture technique has been extensively studied by various quantitative assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructural change of damaged L292 cells which could not observed with light microscope. Cytotoxic effect of ZOE, Prisma APH (Densply International Inc., U.S.A.), Clearfil FII(Kuraray Co., Japan), Fuji II(GC Co., Japan) and Fuji II LC(GC Co., Japan) on cultured L292 cells were observed. Irreversible cell damage and cytolysis were found in ZOE and Fuji II groups. In Clearfil FII, mild to moderate cell damage was observed. APH group showed variable cytotoxicity. Moderate cell damage was found in Fuji II LC group. Cytotoxic effect were as follows : A condensation of the chromatin occureds along or adjacent to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelops. The nuclear envelope remained resonably intact but the contents were partially or completely lost. The cell nucleus contains clusters of markedly electron-dense interchromatin granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum were dilated. In some mitochondira, matrix was disoriented and fused cristae were discernible. Mitochondiral swelling and woolly appearance were recognized. Large vacuoles and autolysosmes were found in cytoplasm. Some breaks of the cytoplasmic membrane and even cytolysis could be seen in dying cells.
CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF RETROGRADE FILLING MATERIALS INCLUDING GLASS IONMER CEMENT ACCORDING TO CELL LINES AND ASSAY METHODS
Im, Mi-Kyung ; Koo, Dae-Hoi ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 403~424
Cell culture methods have been used to assess the cytotoxicity of dental materials. Different paramaters are used to monitor cytotoxic effects. But it is difficult to compare each investigator's results with different methods. The objective of this study was to investigate cytotoxic effect of several retrograde filling materials according to cell lines and assay methods. Cytotoxicity of Bestalloy (Dogmyung, Korea), Prisma APH(Densply International Inc., U.S.A.), Clearfil FII (Kuraray Co., Japan), Fuji II (GC Co., Japan), Fuji II LC (GC Co., Japan) and IRM (Densply Co., U.S.A.) on L929, 3T3 and KB permanent cell lines was measured. Radiochromium, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release method and colorimetric assays, namely neutral red (NR) and MTT were used. Each material was mixed according to the manufacturer's instruction. They were tested as solid and extracted state. Cell culture media were added to each mixed or solid materials then the solution was collected and used as extract solutions. Solid Fuji II showed mild cytotoxicity on three cell lines using radiochromium release method. There was no difference in cytotoxicity of extract solution group using radiochromium release method. In colorimetric assay immediate Fuji II group and all the IRM groups showed severe cytotoxic effect. Difference in cyctotoxicity was due to rather kinds of cell lines than assay methods. Solid Fuji II and IRM showed mild cytotoxicity on three cell lines. But extract solutions had different cytotoxic effect according to cell lines using LDH release assay. Light-cured glass ionomer had mild to moderate degree of cytotoxicity on three cell lines. Cytotoxicity was affected by specimen prepaton. Susceptibility of each cell ines were also affected by assay emthods. It was suggested that cytotoxicity study using only one cell line and/or assay method might not accurately reflect the real toxic nature of dental biomaterials.
IN VIVO EFFECTS OF DENTIN BONDING AGENTS ON DENTINAL FLUID MOVEMENT AND INTRADENTAL NERVE ACTIVITY
Son, Ho-Hyun ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Park, Soo-Jung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 21, issue 1, 1996, Pages 425~435
The effect of application of dentin bonding agent to the exposed dentin on the intradental nerve activity (INA), dentinal fluid movement and sealing of the dentinal tubules, was investigated in this study. The INA was recorded from the single pulp nerve unit dissected from the inferior alveolar nerve. And specimen of dentin was observed by SEM. Dentinal fluid 'movement through exposed dentin surface was measured before and after the application of dentin bonding agent. 1. Eight Ao-fiber units (conduction velocity:
/sec) were identified. 4M NaCl evoked an irregular burst of action potentials which ceased immediately after washing. 2. In 4
-fiber units, appliction of All Bond 2 completely abolished the INA induced by 4M NaCl. Also, application of Scotchbond Multipurpose(SBMP) totally abolished the INA induced by 4M NaCl in 4
-fiber units. 3. Before the application of dentin bonding agent, outward dentinal fluid movement of
was obsered. But after the application of dentin bonding agent the movement of dentinal fluid was stopped. 4. The gap width of 2-
was formed between exposed dentin and adhesive resin in the specimens applied with dentin bonding agents of All Bone 2 and SBMP. But the formation of hybrid layer and the penetration of resin into were dentinal tubules were not clearly observed in interface between dentin and adhesive resin.