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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Sep 1997
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
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A STUDY ON THE VICKER'S HARDNESS AND DIAMETRAL TENSILE STRENGTH OF HYBRID GLASS IONOMER
Kwon, Kyun-Won ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 505~518
The objective of this investigation was to compare the effects of water storage on the aspect of hardness and diametral tensile strengths of four hybrid glass ionomer cements(two compomers and two resin-reinforced glass ionomers) with a resin composite material. One composite resin(Degufill Ultra), two compomers(Dyract, Compoglass Cavifil), and two resin-reinforced glass ionomers(Fuji Duet, Vitremer) were used in this study. Cylindrical specimens were prepared and stored at
in distilled water for 10 minutes after set, and then tested on an Instron testing machine(No.4467) at 1.0 mm/min displacement rate. Vicker's hardness and diametral tensile strengths as time elapsed were measured after aging in water for 10 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 5 days and 7 days at
. During the test of diametral tensile strength, stress-strain curves were obtained, from which the compressive modulus were calculated and compared. The structure of four set glass ionomer cement mass was observed on SEM(Hitachi, S-2300) after being etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute. The results were as follows; 1. The hardness of the experimental group(compomer and the resin reinforced glass ionomer cement) did not exceed the value of control group(Degufill Ultra). 2. Vicker's hardness of the Fuji Duet tended to increase succeedingly, Dyract was decreased after 3 hours in water, and Vitremer was the lowest. 3. The control group(Degufill Ultra) presented progressively on increased diametral tensile strength with time, Fuji Duet were decreased after 3 days, Compoglass Cavifil and Vitremer were decreased after 5 days in water storage. 4. Compressive modulus of the control group(Degufill Ultra) and Dyract were increased sharply timely, Fuji Duet and Vitremer were increased smoothly by lapse of time in water. Fuji Duet were stronger than Vitremer. On the other hand, Vitremer exhibited the lowest toughness. 5. The microstructure of compomer was similar with that of the composite resin(Degufill Ultra), and the fillers in resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements were noticed. It can be concluded that mechanical properties of hybrid glass ionomer cements is weaker than composite resin, and that the compomers or the resin-reinforced glass ionomers can not substitute the composite resins. A plenty of considerations should be done on the application of them to the area under the loading and high wear has a little adverse effect on the mechanical properties on the water storage for 7 days. The further research should be needed to confirm the advantage of the compomer.
The EFFECTS OF DENTAL LASER ON PULP FIBROBLAST IN VITRO
Jeong, Hye-Jeon ; Min, Byung-Soon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 519~535
The responses of human pulp fibroblastic cells to Ga-As Semi-Conductor-Dens-Bio Laser (Frequency: 5 Hz~10,000 Hz Model: SD-101A RCA, U.SA)) were examined in vitro using pulp fibroblastic cells obtained from the pulp tissue of human tooth. The mitogenic effect of soft laser was assessed by measuring the MTT assay. The morphologic effect for soft laser showed under the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results as follows; 1. The mitogenic response of the soft laser was not observed until 4th time of radiation, while the mitogenic response at 4th time increased mitogenic effect by as much as 1.7 fold compared to the control value. 2. The mitogenic response of the soft laser on pulp fibroblast differ from the mitogenic response on other fibroblasts. 3. In scanning electron microscopic study, The microvilli of cell surface increased gradually with width and length after laser radiation, it demonstrate that development of microvilli have close connection with differentiation of cells. 4. Under the transmission electron microscope, The laser-treated cells maintained their elongated shape and a high degree of cellular polarization. The large cell body containing a well developed Golgi complex, a large number of profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and great numbers of mitochondria. 5. The laser-treated cells maintained the long straight bundles of closely apposed microfilaments or individual filaments forming a cross-linked network. These findings suggest that the laser may have important roles in promotion of pulp healing and consequently may be useful for clinical application in pulp regenerative procedures.
CLEANLINESS AND WALL MOPHOLOGY OF ULTRASONIC ROOT-END RETROGRADE CAVITY
Kim, Sung-Kyo ; Lee, Jae-Whan ; Baek, Seung-Moo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 536~545
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the degree of cavity cleanliness and to observe cavity wall morphology when root-end retrograde cavity preparation was done with ultrasonics. Root resections were done on 20 extracted human maxillary central incisors after canal filling with gutta-percha, and retrocavities were prepared using a slow-speed round bur as a control, and stainless steel ultrasonic tips of power settings of 2 and 6 (
, EIE, SA, USA) as experimentals. The degree of the remaining cavity debris and smear layer, and wall morphology were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows : Cavity prepared with ultrasonics of either power setting showed significantly less smear layer than did slow-speed preparations (p<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in canal debris (p<0.05). Cavity prepared with ultrasonics showed hatcheted appearance of wall, while slow-speed preparation showed relatively plain one.
EFFICIENCY OF ULTRASONIC ROOT-END RETROGRADE CAVITY PREPARATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TOOTH STRUCTURE
Lee, Jae-Whan ; Kim, Sung-Kyo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 546~559
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of cavity preparation and to determine the incidence of tooth crack when root-end retrograde cavity preparation was done with ultrasonics. 91 distobuccal root-ends of extracted human maxillary first molars were cut by 3 mm perpendicularly to the long axis of tooth using a slow speed diamond saw, retrocavities were prepared using a slow-speed no. 2 round bur as controls, and stainless steel ultrasonic tips of power settings of 1 through 10 as experimentals. Time consumed and the number of strokes used for the cavity preparation were measured and evaluated, and the incidence of tooth cracks was observed under a stereomicroscope. The results were as follows : For the retrograde cavity preparation, time and number of strokes used were decreased as the ultrasonic power setting increased (p<0.001). High power setting of ultrasonics induced significantly more tooth cracks than did the slow-speed bur or low- and medium power setting of ultrasonics (p<0.05). Teeth with previous crack induced significantly more tooth cracks than those without previous one when high power setting of ultrasonics were used for the retrograde cavity preparation (p<0.001). Teeth with initial apical canal size of no. 10 induced significantly more crack than did those with size of no. 15 when low power setting of ultrasonics were used for the retrograde cavity preparation (p<0.05).
EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION AND SEED MATERIAL ON SEEDED CRYSTAL GROWTH
Oh, Seung-Yeon ; Jung, Il-Young ; Kum, Kee-Yeon ; Lee, Chan-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 560~574
The present study was undertaken to investigate the crystal growth onto human enamel mineral and synthetic hydroxyapatite(HA) seeds in media resembling the enamel fluid composition. Effects of fluoride at high concentrations on the precipitation were also examined in a bench-top crystal growth model adopting a miniaturized reaction column. The Ca, P and F concentrations and pH values of the inlet and outlet solutions were determined. The recovered solid samples were weighed to assess the amount of minerals precipitated during the experimental period, and finally viewed under a scanning electron microscope. Remarkable findings were that 1) both biological and synthetic seeds with the same total surface areas yielded similar amounts of crystal growth, 2) the amount of crystal growth was accelerated in a manner depending on fluoride concentrations in the media, 3) SEM observations disclosed that without the addition of fluoride, precipitation of thin, plate-like OCP crystals became prominent, but by increasing the fluoride concentration(beyond 1ppm F), rod-like crystals having a pointed edge were most frequently observed, without any evidence for precipitation of the plate-like crystals. Furthermore, the dimension of rod-like crystals was increased in proportion to fluoride concentrations, 4) there was no difference in the morphological feature of precipitated mineral phase upon seeding between human enamel seed and synthetic HA seed. The overall results support the view that the seeded crystal growth model is of value to gain insight into the mechanism of enamel crystal growth under fluoride regimens.
THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE, BISPHOSPHONATE AND GALLIUM ON DENTIN RESORPTION IN VITRO
Baek, Eun-Young ; Yu, Yun-Jung ; Roh, Byoung-Duck ; Choi, Yun-Jeong ; Lee, Seung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 575~595
Replacement resorption is followed by the delayed replantation of an avulsed tooth. Currently no effective treatment is substantiated for replacement resorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stannous fluoride, bisphosphonate (etidronate disodium) and gallium nitrate, which have been shown to reduce dentin resorption, on human dentin. Osteoclasts were collected from tibeas of chick embryo. The cells were well agitated to prevent adhesion and seeded onto the sliced human dentin wafers which had been soaked in either culture media (control), or several different concentrations of stannous fluoride, etidronate disodium (l-hydroxyethylidene -1,1-bisphosphonate disodium), and gallium nitrate. Resorption was measured by counting the number of resorptive pit produced by the cells. Results are as follows. Stannous fluoride and etidronate disodium showed statistically significant reduction of dentin resorption(p<0.05) but the effect of stannous fluoride seemed to be its high cytotoxicity. Etidronate disodium did not show cytotoxicities in all experimented concentrations. Gallium nitrate did not show differences in resorption either between different concentrations or from the control group.
EVALUATION OF APICAL MICROLEAKAGE AND ADAPTATION TO THE DENTINAL WALL OF THE GLASS-IONOMER ROOT CANAL CEMENT
Kim, Hyeon-A ; Choi, Gi-Woon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 596~608
The purpose of this study was to compare the apical leakage and adaptation to the dentinal wall of a glass ionomer root canal cement(Ketac-Endo) with those of AH-26 and Tubli-Seal. 102 single-rooted teeth were insrumented with step-back technique and randomly divided into four groups according to kinds of root canal cements: Ketac-Endo, AH-26, Tubli-Seal, and no root canal cement. Four experimental groups were as follows; Group 1 : Filling with gutta-percha and Ketac-Endo Group 2 : Filling with gutta-percha and AH-26 Group 3 : Filling with gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal Group 4 : Filling with gutta-percha without root canal cement All the specimens were obturated with lateral condensation technique, and stored in 100% humidity for 4 days. 20 teeth in each group were placed in centrifuge tube filled with India ink, and then centrifuged for 20 minutes at 3,000 rpm. And they were evaluated for linear dye leakage using a stereoscope and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. 22 teeth were split longitudinally and evaluated the adaptation to the dentinal wall using scanning electron microscope(4 teeth in each group) and stereoscope(2 teeth in 1, 2, 3 group). The obtained results were as follows ; 1. In case of not used root canal cement(Group 4), there was showed much degree of dye penetration comparerd with used root canal cements (Group 1, 2, 3)(P<0.01). 2. In the case of used root canal cements(Group 1, 2, 3), there was no significant difference in linear leakage in groups(P>0.01). 3. In the case of used root canal cements(Group 1, 2, 3), there was showed intimate adaptation to the dentinal wall independent on kinds of root canal cements. 4. Fractured surfaces indicated failure of cohesion in Ketac-Endo, and failure of adhesion to dentine in AH-26 and Tubli-Seal. 5. According to similar apical leakage and adaptability to the dentinal wall to another root canal cements, it is possible to be used glass-ionomer cement as root canal cement.
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF LIGHT CURED GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS TO CONTAMINATED DENTIN
Kim, Kyoung-Hwa ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 609~621
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of three light-cured glass ionomer cements to blood contaminated bovine dentin. The materials used in this study were Fuji II LC, Dyract and Variglass VLC. The dentin conditioners were 10% polyacrylic acid, 10% maleic acid and 10% phosphoric acid. 180 lower anterior bovine teeth were selected in this study. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and were grounded with 320 to 600 grit silicon carbide paper to create a flat dentin surface. The teeth were divided into SIX groups. The experimental procedures in six groups were as follows; Group l(GF) : Samples bonded to dentin surface with Fuji II LC after 10% polyacrylic acid treatment. Group 2(BGF) : Samples bonded to dentin surface with Fuji II LC after 10% polyacrylic acid treatment and blood contamination. Group 3(MD) : Samples bonded to dentin surface with Dyract after 10% maleic acid treatment. Group 4(BMD) : Samples bonded to dentin surface with Dyract after 10% maleic acid treatment and blood contamination. Group 5(PV) : Samples bonded to dentin surface with Variglass VLC after 10% phosphoric acid treatment. Group 6(BPV) : Samples bonded-to dentin surface with Variglass VLC after 10% phosphoric acid treatment and blood contamination. Group 1,3 and 5 were classified into the control groups, while group 2,4 and 6 were classified into the experimental groups. Each group contained 30 samples. After 24 hours water storage at
, all smples were subjected to a shear load to fracture at a cross head speed of 1.0 mm/min with Instron universal testing machine(No. 4467). Debonded surfaces were observed under Scanning Electron Microscope(Hitachi S-2300) at 20kvp. The data were evaluated statistically at the 95% confidence level with Student's t-test. The following results obtained; 1. Shear bond strengths were higher in the control groups(1,3,5 group) than in the experimental groups(2,4,6 group). 2. The shear bond strength of group 5(PV) was the highest in the control groups, and the group 5 was significantly higher than the group l(GF) on the shear bond strength. 3. The group 4(BMD) was the highest on the shear bond strength, and the group 2(BGF) was the lowest in the experimental groups. The group 4(BMD) and 6(BPV) showed a significant difference with the group 2 on the shear bond strength. 4. All the groups showed an adhesive-cohesive failure. except the group 2(BGF) showing adhesive failure.
COLOR CHANGE WITH CEMENT THICKNESS AND COLOR SHIFT PATTERN OF EACH SHADE ERIES IN GI CEMENT
Park, Ki-Yeon ; Shin, Dong-Hoo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 622~636
Glass ionomer cements, which had been developed in 1972, were widely used as an agent for cementation, base, pit and fissure sealant, and esthetic filling material with the advantages of excellent biocompatibility, anti-cariogenic fluoride release. Specimens were made to evaluate the color change of Glass ionomer cement with a newly developed improved Fuji II Le. Specimens for color change study with cement thickness of 1, 2, 3mm were made and those for the study of color shift pattern were made with the assumption that new mid-shade can be made by mixing of equal amount of both shades in 2mm thickness. After 24 hours in a
incubator, CIELAB color spaces were evaluated with a spectrophotometer. The results were as follows ; 1. All specimens discolored to dark and blue with an increased thickness in all shades (p<0.05). 2. There were significant
space (red-green direction) changes in every A, B, C, D shade series except the relationship between 1mm and 2mm thickness groups in B shade series. But the changes were irregular, i.e., each shade series has its own pattern. 3. Each shade series showed its own specific color shift pattern in all
spaces. 4. B shade series showed less amont of changes in
than those of A and C shade series (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in
within each shade series.
THE EFFECTS OF CONCENTRATION AND pH OF LACTIC ACID ON THE FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL ROOT CARIES LESION
Lim, Yoo-Koung ; Hur, Bok ; Lee, Hee-Ju ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 637~647
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentration and pH of lactic acid on the formation of artificial root caries lesions formation in bovine teeth. The characterictics of artificially produced early root lesions were observed with polarized light microscope and the depth of lesions were mearsured with measuring microscope The results were as follows: 1. In the group of low pH and high concentration of lactic acid, the progress of lesion formation was faster than that of high pH and low concentration lactic acid group. 2. In the same group, initial lesion progress faster, but progression rate was reduced as time goes by. 3. In the development of initial root caries, cementum was act as a barrier to protect dentin from lesion progression.
The EFFECTS OF VARIOUS INSTRUMENTATION TECHNIQUES IN CURVED CANALS OF RESIN BLOCKS
Jung, Il-Young ; Yoon, Tai-Cheol ; Lee, Seung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 648~658
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various techniques on the quality and quantity of instrumentation in curved canals. Instrumentation time was evaluated too. Forty eight canals of resin blocks(
) were divided into three groups and filed. In group A, 16 blocks were instrumented using a step-back technique with stainless steel(SS) K-file(Mani, Matsutani Seisakusho Co.,Japan). In group B, canals were prepared with SS K-files using the Endo-Angle (Nakanishi Dental MFG.CO.,LTD.,Japan). Group C was prepared using N i-Ti engine-driven instruments (Quantec Series
system). Group A and B were filed from # 5 to # 25 at the apex followed by a 1 mm stepback technique, and the coronal half of the canals were flared with Gates Glidden burs(#2,3,4). Group C was instrumented from # 1 to # 8. After the instrumentation time was measured, canals were filled with India ink, and photographed, which to magnify the canal images 8 times. Using these photographs the apical portions were evaluated And scored from 1 to 4 according to the severity of ledging and zipping. On the same photographs, the area of the coronal two thirds of the canals were measured using a personal computer with the computer program Brain and Digitizer (SummaSketch III). The following results were obtained. 1. Instrumentation time was significantly shorter for group C, as opposed to group A and B(ANOVA, P<0.05). 2. The qualitative evaluation of the apical portions of the canals showed no significant difference between the groups(Kruscal-Wallis, p>0.05). 3. The area removed by group C was significantly smaller than group A and B(ANOVA, P<0.05).
A STUDY ON THE ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY CHANGE BY NICKEL-TITANIUM AND STAINLESS STEEL FILE INSTRUMENTATION USING COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY
So, Mun-Seop ; Im, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Keon-Il ; Lee, Yong-Keun ; Lee, Su-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 659~669
The goals of root canal instrumentation are complete debridement of pulp tissue, removal of microbes and affected dentin, and proper cleaning and shaping of the root canal space before obturation. Instrumentation with stainless steel files has been shown to produce undesirable results in canals, regardless of the improved technique or modified file type used. Nickel-Titanium(Ni-Ti) alloy has been shown to be exceptionally elastic, having a lower bending moment and lower permanent set after torsion, compared with similar gauge stainless steel. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of root canal prepared by Ni-Ti rotary and stainless steel instruments. Thirty-four single rooted teeth of similar shape and canal size were divided into three groups. The teeth were scanned by computed tomography before instrumentation. In group 1, canals were instrumented using a step-back technique with K-file. In group 2, canals were prepared with K-flex file using the same technique as group 1. Group 3 was prepared with nickel-titanium(Ni-Ti) rotary instrument using a manufacture's instruction. Instrumented teeth were again scanned using computed tomography, and reformated images of the uninstrumented canals were compared with images of the instrumented canals. K-flex file and Ni-Ti file caused significantly less canal transportation than K-file in the 8mm root canal section from the apex(p<0.05). K-flex file and Ni-Ti file produced more centered canal preparation than K-file in the 2mm section(p<0.05). Ni-Ti file maintained more precisely the center of the canal than K-flex file in the 10mm section (p<0.05). There was no difference in the removed volume of canals among each groups.
ALKALINITY CHANGE IN ROOT DENTIN FOLLOWING CALCIUM HYDROXIDE DRESSING
Lee, Kyung-Ha ; Ahn, Yun-Sil ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 670~679
The pH changes in 4 small cavities prepared at the facial inner dentin and lingual outer dentin of the cervical and apical portion of root filled with calcium hydroxide pastes were investigated. Forty extracted permanent teeth with single canal were instrumented with step-back method, and then 4 small cavities were prepared. Two inner dentin cavities were cut a distance of about 1.0mm from the canal wall and two outer dentin cavities were cut to a depth of about 0.5mm from the root surface. Root canals and prepared cavities were flushed with 17% EDTA, and then irrigated with 5% NaOCl to remove smear layer. Teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Control group was not filled and the remaining other groups were filled with mixture of calcium hydroxide and distilled water, Vitapex
paste and Pulpdent
paste respectively. The pH change of the dentin in each cavity was measured at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 days with pH microelectrode(WPI Co., USA). The results were as follows : 1. The groups obturated with Pulpdent
paste and Aqueous calcium hydroxide produced the increased pH level at 1 day and maintained plateau over next 3weeks and decreased after 3weeks. 2. The group obturated with Vitapex
paste observed no significant pH change until 2weeks and slight increased pH at 3weeks and sequential increasing after 3weeks. But, the pH in the group obturated with Vitapex
paste remained significantly below the pH measured in the other two experimental groups(P<0.05). 3. All experimental groups showed pH level similar to control group after 28 days. 4. The pH of outer dentin is slightly higher than that of inner dentin. There is no significant difference in pH level between apical and cervical dentin throughout the duration of the experiment, though apical dentin showed slightly higher pH than cervical dentin at 1 day(P<0.05).
A STUDY ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTHS AND MICROLEAKAGES OF THREE BONDING AGENTS ON DENTIN
Kim, Jeong-Ho ; Cho, Young-Gon ; Moon, Joo-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 680~692
New bonding agent systems have been supplied which operators can simply apply to conditioned tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths and the microleakages of three bonding agents and composite resins to dentin. Seventy-five extracted human maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were used in this study. For the shear bond strength test, the entire occlusal dentin surfaces of thirty teeth were exposed with Diamond Wheel Saw and smoothed with Lapping and Polishing Machine (South Bay Technology Co., U.S.A). For the microleakage test, Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal surfaces of fourtyfive teeth. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to dentin bonding agents (
Multi-Purpose plus, ONE-
and Prime &
)and composite resins (Z-100,
) to be used. Bonding agents and composite resins were bonded to exposed dentin surfaces of the tooth crown and to Class V cavities on the buccal surfaces respectively according to manufacturer's directions. The shear bond strengths were measured by universal testing machine(
AGS-100, Japan). In addition, the degree of micro leakage at the occlusal and gingival margin was examined by 2 % methylene blue and stereomicroscope(Olymous SZH 10, Japan). The results were as follows: 1. The shear bond strength to dentin was the highest value in SBMP-Plus group(
MPa) and the lowest value in Prime & Bond group(
MPa), but there was no significant difference of shear bond strength among three groups. 2. The degree of microleakage at both occlusal and gingival margin was showed the lowest in SBMP-Plus group and the highest in ONE-STEP group. 3. At both occlusal and gingival margin, there was significant difference of microleakage between SBMP-Plus and ONE-STEP/ Prime & Bond groups(p<0.05), but no significant difference of microleakage between ONE-STEP and Prime & Bond group(p>0.05).
DIFFERENTIATION OF PREVOTELLA INTERMEDIA AND P. NIGRESCENS USING SDS-PAGE
Bae, Kwang-Shik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 693~701
In 1992, Prevotella intermedia was shown to be comprised of another spoecies now known as Prevotella nigrescens. Strain ATCC 33563 is now designated the type strain of P. nigrescens while strain ATCC 25611 is remains the type strain of P. intermedia. The purpose of this study was to find the differences in protein profiles of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens, using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which can be used for differentiation of those two species. A partial amino acid sequence of the 18.6 kDa protein band, which was specific in P. nigrescens, was also determined. The cellular proteins were extracted from the cell pellets of pure cultures of P. intermedia. and P. nigrescens by either sonication or being shaken continuously for 20 min at
with 1 % SDS or being boiled for 3 min with 1 % SDS. SDS-PAGE was performed according to the method of laemmli using either 12% (w/v) gels or 18% (w/v) gels. Results were as follows ; 1. The similar electrophoretic protein profiles were shown by 3 cellular protein extraction methods for each strain. (Fig. 1 and 2) 2. the 18.6 kDa band which was specific only in P. nigrescens could be used for the differentiation of P. intermedia. and P. nigrescens. (Fig. 1 and 2, Table 1) 3. A total of 4 different tryptic fragments from the 18.6 kDa protein were sequenced. the resulting amino acid sequences were fragment 1.GNPVNIGGEW, 2.FNVVR, 3.NYLT-VAPY, and 4.GGDNVTTYQVLPEIGYN. By comparison to the sequences of known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and PIR database. 90 % matching between fragment 1 and serine hydroxymethyl transferase(P24060) in the Swiss-Prot, and 90% matching between fragment 1 and glycine hydroxymethyl transferase(S15203) in the PIR were shown, but the identity and function of the 18.6 kDa protein remains unknown.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF CAD/CAM-FABRICATED CERAMIC INLAY
Cho, Byeong-Hoon ; Lee, Myung-Jong ; Im, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 702~709
To compare the marginal leakage of CAD/CAM-fabricated ceramic inlay, gold inlay and amalgam, forty extracted caries-free premolars were prepared with Class II MO cavity design. The teeth were divided into four groups of ten samples each. Group 1 was restored with CAD/CAM-fabricated ceramic inlays cemented with Scotchbond Resin Cement / Scotchbond Multi-purpose plus. Group 2 was restored with gold inlays cemented with Scotchbond Resin Cement / Scotchbond Multi-purpose plus. Group 3 was restored with gold inlays cemented with zinc phosphate cement. And, Group 4 was restored with amalgam. All samples were thermocycled, and stored in 1 % methylene blue. Marginal leakage was examined at four margins, that is, occlusal distal, priximal gingival, occlusal facial and occlusal lingual margins from sectioned samples under stereomicroscope(x15). The results were as follows : 1. Group 1 and 2 showed no statistically significant difference among marginal leakage at all four examined margins(p>0.05). 2. Group 3 and 4 showed significant marginal leakage at proximal gingival margin compared with other margins(p<0.05). 3. Significantly increased marginal leakage at priximal gingival, occlusal facial and occlusal lingual margins in group 3 were observed compared with other groups (p<0.05).
THE EFFECT OF IRIDOID COMPOUND ON THE REMAINING PULP TISSUE AFTER PULPOTOMY
Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ; Park, Dong-Sung ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 710~719
Aucubin, an iridoid glucoside, which is isolated from Aucuba japonica, has some biological effects. This study was to investigate the effect of aucubin on the remainig pulp tissues after pulpotomy. Mongrel dog's coronal pulps were mechanically exposed with a sterile round bur and excised with sterile sharp excarvator. After bleeding was controlled, in control group,
powder was applied on the remaining pulps and the cavities were sealed with Z.O.E. cement. In experimental group 1, mixed powder with
and aucubin(l : 1 by weight) was applied on the pulpotomized pulp surfaces. After the cavities were covered with sterile aluminum foil, they were sealed with Z.O.E. cement. In experimental group 2, only aucubin powder was applied on the remaining pulps and then they were treated the same as experimental group 1. In the all groups, the pulps were histopathologically observed by light microscope at the time intervals of 1, 2 and 4 weeks after experiment. The results were as follows : 1. In control and experimental groups, mild vascular congestion and bleeding were found in most of the specimens. Less inflammatory infiltration was observed in experimental groups than in control group. 2. Dentin bridge formation was found after 1 week at both control and experimental group 1. Dentin birdge had discontinuous osteodentin like appearance or contained some dentin chips. In experimental group 2, dentin bridge was not seen. 3. The coagulation necrosis layer on the remaining pulp tissues was seen in all groups. In experimental group 2, the thickest layer was observed. And in control group, coagulation necrosis layer was similar as in experimental group 1.
THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE RESPONSE OF THE REMAINING PULP TISSUES TO THE ADHESIVE RESIN AFTER PULPOTOMY
Lim, Sung-Sam ; Park, Dong-Sung ; Son, Ho-Hyun ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 720~730
This study was performed to observe the histopathological response to the bonding resin directly applied on the remaining pulp tissues. 40 teeth from 3 adult dogs were pulpotomized with a sterile round bur and sharp excarvater. In the control group,
powder was applied on the pulp tissue and the cavities were sealed with IRM cement. In the experimental group 1, Superbond C&B was applied on the remaining pulp and the cavities conditioned with 10-3 solution were filled with the mixture of the MMA liquid, PMMA powder and Catalyst. Multi-purpose adhesive was used on the remaining pulp tissue in the experimental group 2 and Z-100 was filled in the cavities. In the experimental group 3, Clearfil photobond applied and directly photo-cured on the pulp tissue, then the cavities were treated with CA agent (10% citric acid and 20%
aqueous solution) for 20 seconds, washed and applied with Clearfil photobond then filled with Protect liner. The experimental animals were sacrified at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th week. The specimens were routinely processed and stained with H-E for light microscopic observation. The results were as followed : 1. In the experimental group 1, the number and characteristics of the dentin bridge formation case was similar to those in the control group and less cases were observed in the experimental group 2 and 3 than experimental group 3. The inflammatory response in experimental group 1 was less than that in the control group at 1st week but there had been little difference at between 2nd and 4th week. 2. The number of the dentin bridge in experimental group 2 was less than that in control group and experimental group 1. The inflammatory response of the experimental group 1 was similar to that of experimental group 1 but less than that of the control group. A number of bleeding and vascular congestion were observed. The least inflammatory response was seen in the experimental group 2 among all groups. 3. In the experimental group 3, one case of the dentin bridge formation was observed and that was the same as that in the experimental group 2 but smaller than that of the control and experimental group 1. The inflammatory response of the experimental group 3 was least at the 1st week and most at the 4th week in the all group.
A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ENDODONTICALLY TREATED MANDIBULAR MOLARS IN A KOREAN POPULATION
Jung, Il-Young ; Kum, Kee-Yeon ; Lee, Seung-Jong ; Lee, Chan-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 731~738
A retrospective in vivo study of endodontically treated mandiblar molars was conducted. The radilographs and clinical records of mandibular molars that had been treated endodontically in the Dental hospital of Yonsei University from 1986 to July 1997 were reviewed and categorized. A total of 1751 cases were studied and following results were obtained. 1. The number of root canals in mandibular first permanent molar in a Korean population revealed three in 53.2 %, four in 23.0 %, two in 18.4 %, C-shaped canal in 5.0 %, and one in 0.4 %. 2. In mandibular second molar, three canals was observed in 53.2 %, four in 22.2 %, two in 14.9%, C-shaped canal in 9.1 %, and one in 0.6%. 3. In the results of the percentage of 4 canals of mandibular first molars at various age, before age 20, 37.7 % was obtained whereas 19.3 % after 30. 4. 7.94 % of mandibular first molars examined were found to have three roots. 5. The mandibular second molar had C-shaped canals in 9.1 %.
THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND HEALING EFFECT OF CALCIUM SULFATE-HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOUND ON ROOT PERFORATION
Lee, Seung-Jong ; Kim, Kyoung-Nam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 739~750
Treatment of root perforation elicits special considerations due to its blood-contaminated circumstances. It is known that conventional dental restorative materials are all leaking. Calcium sulfate is the material which react with water to become chemically set. This study, therefore, was performed to develop a new compound containing calcium sulfate and to evaluate its physical and biological characteristics. Three materials were used, IRM, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate-hydroxyapatite compound. The composition of the calcium sulfate-hydroxyapatite compound was basically 50 % of calcium sulfate and 50 % of hydroxyapatite mixed with guajacol. The materials were mixed in conventional way and underwent four physical test procedures, setting time, solubility test, compressive strength, and marginal leakage test. All materials were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope to examine the marginal sealing ability. Animal experiment was also performed to test the materials' tissue response. Twenty-four dog's premolars were tested with either furcation perforations or apical retro-fillings. From the results, we found that calcium sulfate possess the good marginal sealing ability. However, calcium sulfate creates many voids which is caused by crystal thrusting action when it reacts with water. It seemed that the voids caused disintegration of the material which eventually lead to tissue reaction. By compounding calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite, we were able to obtain the better physical properties but it showed larger marginal gap between the material and the root surface. Within the six weeks observation period, both IRM and calcium sulfate-hydroxyapatite compound showed good tissue responses in animal experiment. It is concluded that calcium sulfate would be the material of choice in root perforation repair, but the physical property needs to be further improved.
BI-AXIAL FRACTURE STRENGTH OF RESIN MODIFIED GLASS IONOMERS
Lee, Yong-Keun ; Im, Mi-Kyung ; Koo, Dae-Hoi ; Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 751~760
Resin-modified glass ionomers were introduced in 1988 to overcome the problems of moisture sensitivity and low early mechanical strengths of the conventional glass ionomers, and to maintain their dinical advantages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bi-axial fracture strength of four resinmodified glass-ionomers(Fuji II LC, Vitremer, Dyract, VariGlass), one resin composite material(Z-100), and one conventional glass-ionomer(Fuji II). Three specimens of each material and shade combination were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Materials were condensed into metal mold with a diameter of 10mm and a thickness of 2.0mm and pressed between two glass plates. Resin-modified glass ionomers were polymerized using a Visilux II light curing unit by irradiating for 60 seconds from both sides, and conventional glass ionomer was cured chemically. After specimens were removed from the molds, surfaces were polished sequentially on wet sandpapers up to No. 600 silicone carbide paper. The specimens were thermocycled for 2,000 cycles between
distilled water. After thermocycling, bi-axial fracture strengths were measured using a compressive-tensile tester(Zwick 1456 Z020, Germany) with the cross head speed of 0.5mm/minute. The results were as follows: 1. Two factors of the kind and color of materials had a main effect on bi-axial fracture strength (p<0.01), and bi-axial fracture strength was influenced significantly by the kinds of materials (p<0.01). But there was no significant interaction between two variables of the kind and color of materials (p>0.05). 2. Comparing the mechanical properties of the materials, the elastic modulus of Z100 was higher than any other material, and there was no difference in the displacement at fracture among materials. The bi-axial fracture strength of Z100 was significantly higher than any other material, and that of resin-modified glass ionomers was significantly higher than that of conventional glass ionomer (p<0.05). 3. In the same material group, the color of material had little influence on the mechanical properties.
EFFECT OF CULTURE SUPERNATANT OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM INFECTED ROOT CANALS ON CELL LINES
Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 761~768
Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major causes of pulpal and periapical pathosis. The role of microorganisms in endodotic infection has been studied regarding the prevalence of particular organisms found in root canal and periapical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of culture supernatants of several oral microorganims isolated from infected root canals on the viability of cultured cell lines using colorimetirc assay. S. simulans, S. sciuri, E. faecium, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. sanguis and S. uberis were incubated in Todd-Hewitt broth for 16 hours. 20 and 100ul of filtered bacterial cell culture supernatants were added to MK and Hep-2 cells. Cell viability was measured using MIT colorimetric assay. 20ul and 100u1 of S. sanguis supernatant showed significant cytotoxicity compared to control on MK cells. 100ul of S. sanguis supernatant significantly depressed viability of HEp-2 cells. E. faecium and S. intermedius did not affect the viability of MK and HEp-2 cells.
COLORIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTED HUMAN TEETH AND FIVE SHADE GUIDES
Hwang, In-Nam ; Oh, Won-Man ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 769~781
The tristimulus values of 180 extracted maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth were measured by colorimeter. And it were colnverted to Munsell color order system(Hue, Value, Chroma) and CIE
color coordinates. The commonly used Vita, and Bioform shade guides, 2 composite resin shade guides(Prisma APH and Z-100), and a glass-ionomer shade guide(Fuji II) were compared with these teeth. At the middle facial surface, color distributions of teeth were Hue(0.56YR to 9.77Y), Value(2.46 to 7.9), and Chroma(0.14 to 2.02). And the aberaged values and standard deviations for
. The shade guide did not match well with the color space of the human teeth. Especially, the lacks of the Yellow-red Hues and higher values were prominent. Compare with other measurements, the Hues of the teeth measured in this study were broadly distributed(most of ranges in Y and YR were included), while the Value and chroma were shown to the lower.
GFAP IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN TRIGEMINAL GANGLION SATELLITE CELLS AFTER PULP EXPOSURE IN RAT
Kim, Heung-Jung ; Moon, Joo-Hoon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 782~791
Glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) are a group of intermediate filaments that are distributed in the cytoplasm of many type of glial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine change of GFAP immunoreactivity(GFAP-IR) in rat trigeminal ganglion satellite cells in response to pulp exposure. The immunohistochemistry was carried out using the avidinbiotin-peroxidase complex(ABC) method and subsequently stained with AEC(3-aminoethyl-9-carbasol). 1. Contol group; Central root astrocytes had strong GFAP-IR, but ganglion satellite cells occasionlly had GFAP-IR. This reaction patterns of ganglion satellite cells was not concenturated in any specific region of trigeminal ganglion. 2. Three day pulp exposure group; There was a highly GFAP-IR in satellite cells of trigeminal ganglion in maxillary region. GFAP-IR in neighboring mandibular and ophthalmic regions was less intense compared to maxillary region. 3. Seven day pulp exposure group; In this group, GFAP-IR that was increased compared to control group was seen in the maxillary region. But GFAP-IR was less intense compared to three day pulp exposure group. These results suggest that GFAP in satellite cell increase in specific region of trigeminal ganglion after pulp exposure and offer useful tool in trigeminal pain research.
ADAPTATION OF RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT TO DENTIN
Cho, Young-Gon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 792~800
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of self-cured glass ionomer cement and resin-modified glass ionomer cement and polyacid-modified resin composite, which are light-cured giass ionomer cements, to dentin surface. Twelve extracted human maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were used in this study. The entire occlusal dentin surfaces of teeth were exposed with Diamond Wheel Saw and smoothed with sand papers (300, 600, 1200grits). They were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to glass ionomer cements used; Control group- Fuji II, Expeimental group 1 - Fuji II LC, Expeimental group 2 - Dyract. According to the manufacturer's directions, three glass ionomer cements were bonded to exposed dentin surfaces of the tooth crown and cured. Crowns and glass ionomers were trimmed after 24hrs and sectioned horizontally and vertically with diamond saw. The interface of glass ionomer cements and dentin was examined under SEM. The results were as follows : 1. Good adatation between glass ionomer cement and dentin on the horizontal section was showed in control and experimental group 1, but the gap of
, which was observed distinct separation between glass ionomer cement and dentin, was showed in experimental group 2. 2. Good adatation between glass ionomer cements and dentin on the vertical section was showed in control and experimental group 1, but the gap of 80-
was showed in experimental group 2. 3. Cohesive fracture within glass ionomer cements in control and experimental group 1 was showed, but no cohesive fracture was showed in experimental group 2.
A STUDY ON THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF ARECA CATECHU L. ON THE ACID PRODUCTION OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS JC-2 AND ITS CYTOTXICITY
Lee, Gwang-Hee ; Nam, Yong-Ok ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 801~808
In order to develop natural anticariogenic agents, we investigated inhibitory effects of Areca catechu L. extracts on the acid production of Streptococcus mutans JC-2 and its cytotoxicity on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were also examined. The results are as follows : 1. Major organic acid produced by Streptococcus mutans JC-2 were lactic acid and acetic acid, and their productions were decreased by additions of Areca catechu L. extracts. 2. Areca catechu L. extracts were showed noncytotoxicity on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT TYPE APEX LOCTOR ; VOLTAGE DIFFERENCE COMPENSATING TYPE
Lee, Seung-Jong ; Kim, Deok-Won ; Nam, Ki-Chang ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 22, issue 2, 1997, Pages 809~819
The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate frequency-dependent type apex locator. To compensate the impedence differences of different canal contents, voltage differences were pre-measured and stored for saline, HOsb1/
and NaOCl. The circuit was adjusted to recognize the different voltages of each solution, thereby the machine could automatically compensate the voltage differences. In the process of this study, the following informations were observed. 1. Most stable apical reading was obtained at 500Hz and 10kHz. 2. There were no differences in accuracy among three different frequency types, sign wave, triangular wave and rectangular wave(p>0.05). 3. Before the compensation of voltage differences, saline, H2O2 and NaOCl showed different readings at the apex even with the frequency-type (p<0.05). 4. After compensating the voltage difference, the accuracy was enhanced from + 0.42 to +0.32 in H2O2(p<0.05), from -0.34 to -0.12 in NaOCl(p<0.05).