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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
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THE EFFECT OF PDGF-BB AND IGF-I COMBINATION ON THE HEALING OF ARTIFICIAL PERIAPICAL LESIONS IN BEAGLE DOGS
Kim, Mi-Ri ; Kim, Min-Kyum ; Yoon, Soo-Han ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 1~16
It is difficult to treat the endodontic apical perforation successfully. In this study, we hypothesized that the application of PDGF-BB and IGF-I into periapical perforation site may accelerate periapical healing and lead to bone deposition. And the specificity of osteonectin in periapical healing was investigated. The experiments were performed on the upper and lower 51 premolar teeth of 4 beagle dogs. The pulp chamber of each tooth was opened and the dental plaque was inserted into the canal for developing the periapical lesion for 5 weeks. Then, the roots were artificially perforated at the apex with the number 4 profile of .06 taper. In each step, standard periapical radiographs were taken to compare the size of lesion each other. The radiographs were scanned and analyzed by image analysis system. The mean and standard deviation of periradicular radiolucency ratios were calculated in each group. ANOVA was used for comparison. 51 premolars were grouped into 3 groups; control group, calcium hydroxide-treated group and calcium hydroxide plus growth factors-treated group. In the control group, the apical perforations were not sealed and obturated with gutta-percha and ZOE sealer by lateral condensation technique. In the experimental groups, the apical perforation were sealed with calcium hydroxide and with/without
of PDGF-BB & IGF-I in cellulose gel and obturated by lateral condensation technique. Fluorescent bone markers were used to measure new bone formation. Following 2, 4, 12 weeks after experiment the dogs were sacrificed and histologic sections were prepared. Each tooth block including periapical lesion was sectioned mesiodistally. One half of the sections were decalcified with 6% nitric acid and processed by standard paraffin embedding technique. The sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for osteonectin. Histomorphometrical measurement of neoformed bone was performed using a light microscope. And the other half of the sections were prepared by undecalcified preparation, and confocal laser scanning microscopic investigations were done.
THE MICROHARDNESS AND THE DEGREE OF CONVERSION OF LIGHT CURED COMPOSITE RESIN AND DUAL CURED RESIN CEMENTS UNDER PORCELAIN INLAY
Kim, Seung-Soo ; Cho, Sung-Sik ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 17~40
Resin cements are used for cementing indirect esthetic restorations such as resin or porcelain inlays. Because of its limitations in curing of purely light cured resin cements due to attenuation of the curing light by intervening materials, dual cured resin cements are recommended for cementing restorations. The physical properties of resin cements are greatly influenced by the extent to which a resin cures and the degree of cure is an important factor in the success of the inlay. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of porcelain thickness and exposure time on the polymerization of resin cements by measuring the microhardness and the degree of conversion, to investigate the nature of the correlation between two methods mentioned above, and to determine the exposure time needed to harden resin cements through various thickness of porcelain. The degree of resin cure was evaluated by the measurements of microhardness [Vickers Hardness Number(VHN)] and degree of conversion(DC), as determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR) on one light cured composite resin [Z-100(Z)] and three dual cured resin cements [Duo cement(D), 3M Resin cement(R), and Dual cement(DA)] which were cured under porcelain discs thickness of 0mm, 1mm, 2mm, 3mm with light exposure time of 40sec, 80sec, 120sec, and regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between VHN and DC. In addition, to determine the exposure time needed to harden resin cements under various thickness of porcelain discs, the changes of the intensity of light attenuated by 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm thickness of porcelain discs were measured using the curing radiometer. The results were obtained as follows ; 1. The values of microhardness and the degree of conversion of resin cements without intervening porcelain discs were 31~109VHN and 51~63%, respectively. In the microhardness Z was the highest, followed by R, D, DA. In the degree of conversion, D and DA was significantly greater than Z and R(p<0.05). 2. The microhardness and the degree of conversion of the resin cements decreased with increasing thickness of porcelain discs, and increased with increasing exposure time, D and R showed great variation with inlay thickness and exposure time, whereas, DA showed a little variation. 3. The intensity of light through 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm porcelain inlays decreased by 0.43, 0.25, and 0.14 times compared to direct illumination, and the respective needed exposure times are 53 sec, 70 sec, and 93 sec. In D and R, 40 sec of light irradiation through 2mm porcelain disc and 80 sec of light irradiation through 3mm porcelain disc were not enough to complete curing. 4. The microhardness and the degree of conversion of the resin cements showed a positive correlationship(R=0.791~0.965) in the order of R, D, Z, DA. As the thickness of porcelain discs increased, the decreasing pattern of microhardness was different from that of the degree of conversion, however.
MICROLEAKAGE OF CLASS V COMPOMER RESTORATIONS
Yoo, Hyeon-Mee ; Park, Dong-Sung ; Oh, Tae-Seok ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 41~45
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of compomers. In this in vitro study, class V cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces of thirty extracted human premolars and molars on cementum cervical margin. The experimental teeth were randomly divided into five groups of six samples (12 surfaces) each, Group 1 : Dyract AP, Group 2 : F2000 compomer(non-etch), Group 3 : F2000 compomer(etch), Group 4 : Elan, Group 5 : Compoglass. The bonding agents and compomer were applied for each group following the manufacturer's instructions. After 500 thermocycling between
, the 30 teeth were placed 1% methylene blue dye for 24 hours then rinsed with tab water. The specimens were embedded in clear resin, then sectioned buccolingually through the center of the restoration with a low speed diamond saw. The dye penetration on each of the specimen was observed with a stereomicroscope. The results of study were statistically analyzed using the Student-Newmann-Kaul' s Test. The results were obtained as follows. 1. All compomer restoration systems did not completely prevent marginal leakage. 2. In enamel margin, F2000 compomer(etch) group showed lower leakage value than other systems. Elan and Compoglass groups showed lower leakage value than Dyract AP and F2000 compomer(non-etch) groups (p<0.05). 3. In cementum margin, F2000 compomer(etch) and F2000 compomer (non-etch) groups showed lower leakage value than other systems. Dyract AP and Elan groups showed lower leakage value than Compoglass group (p<0.05).
MARGINAL MICROLEAKAGE AND SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN ACCORDING TO TREATMENT METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL SALIVA-CONTAMINATED SURFACE AFTER PRIMING
Cho, Young-Gon ; Ko, Kee-Jong ; Lee, Suk-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 46~55
During bonding procedure of composite resin, the prepared cavity can be contaminated by saliva. In this study, marginal microleakage and shear bond strength of a composite resin to primed enamel and dentin treated with artificial saliva(Taliva
) were evaluated. For the marginal microleakage test, Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal surfaces of fifty molars. The samples were randomly assigned into 5 groups with 10 samples in each group. Control group was applied with a bonding system (Scotchbond
Multi-Purpose plus) according to manufacture's directions without saliva contamination. Experimental groups were divided into 4 groups and contaminated with artificial saliva for 30 seconds after priming: Experimental 1 group ; artificial saliva was dried with compressed air only, Experimental 2 group ; artificial saliva was rinsed and dried. Experimental 3 group ; cavities were etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds after rinsing and drying artificial saliva. Experimental 4 group ; cavities were etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and primer was reapplied after rinsing and drying artificial saliva. All the cavities were applied a bonding agent and filled with a composite resin (Z-100
). Specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 hours and embedded in transparent acrylic resin and sectioned buccolingually with diamond wheel saw. Four sections were obtained from one specimen. Degree of marginal leakage was scored under stereomicroscope and their scores were averaged from four sections. The data were analyzed by Kruscal-Wallis test and Fisher's LSD. For the shear bond strength test, the buccal or occlusal surfaces of one hundred molar teeth were ground to expose enamel(n=50) or dentin(n=50) using diamond wheel saw and its surface was smoothed with Lapping and Polishing Machine(South Bay Technology Co., U.S.A.). Samples were divided into 5 groups. Treatment of saliva-contaminated enamel and dentin surfaces was same as the marginal microleakage test and composite resin was bonded via a gelatin capsule. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 48 hours. The shear bond strengths were measured by universal testing machine (AGS-1000 4D, Shimaduzu Co., Japan) with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute. Failure mode of fracture sites was examined under stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's studentized range test. The results of this study were as follows : 1. Enamel marginal microleakage showed no significant difference among groups. 2. Dentinal marginal microleakages of control, experimental 2 and 4 groups were lower than those of experimental 1 and 3 groups (p<0.05). 3. The shear bond strength to enamel was the highest value in control group (20.03
4.47MPa) and the lowest value in experimental 1 group (13.28
6.52MPa). There were significant differences between experimental 1 group and other groups (p<0.05). 4. The shear bond strength to dentin was higher in control group (17.87
4.02MPa) and experimental 4 group (16.38
3.23MPa) than in other groups, its value was low in experimental 1 group (3.95
2.51 MPa) and experimental 2 group (6.72
2.26MPa)(p<0.05). 5. Failure mode of fractured site on the enamel showed mostly adhesive failures in experimental 1 and 3 groups. 6. Failure mode of fractured site on the dentin did not show adhesive failures in control group, but showed mostly adhesive failure in experimental groups. As a summary of above results, if the primed tooth surface was contaminated with artificial saliva, primer should be reapplied after re-etching it.
COMPARISON OF MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF WEDGE-SHAPED CLASS V CAVITY ACCORDING TO RESTORATIVE MATERIALS
Jang, Hyun-Joo ; Lee, Hee-Joo ; Hur, Bock ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 56~62
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of restorative materials on the marginal leakage of wedge-shaped class V cavity. The study was performed in vitro in 25 defect-free permanent, extracted teeth. Wedge-shaped class V cavities were prepared and then the teeth were randomly selected and restored according to the following. Group A : restoration with Tetric Ceram(composite resin) Group B : restoration with Tetric flow(flowable resin) Group C : restoration with Compoglass after acid etching(compomer) Group D : restoration with Compoglass(compomer) Group E : restoration with Fuji II LC improved(resin-modified GIC) After thermocycling, the specimens were immersed in 5% basic fuchsin solution for 6 hours and sectioned longitudinally through the center of the restoration. The degree of marginal leakage was measured as the extent of dye penetration under the stereomicroscope. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. When significant differences found, multiple comparisons were made using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results were as follows: 1. The occlusal margins of all groups except for Fuji II LC improved showed lesser leakage than gingival margins and there was statistically significant difference(p<0.05). 2. At the occlusal margins, group A, B showed same marginal leakage scores, and others were decreased as group C, D, E in that order. There were statistically significant difference between group A, Band group D, E, group C and group E(p<0.05). 3. At the gingival margins, group B, C showed same marginal leakage scores, and others were decreased as group A, D, E in that order. But there was statistically significant difference between group B, C and group E(p<0.05). 4. In the Compoglass restoration, acid-etching technique was beneficial for marginal sealing ability at all of margins. But there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In the restorations for wedge-shaped class V cavities, resin restoration with acid etching technique is recommended.
BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF RETROGRADE FILLING MATERIALS
Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 63~70
The properties of ideal retrograde filling materials include the ability to seal the root canal system in three dimensions and well tolerated by periradicular tissues. Biocompatibility testing has been done mainly with cytotoxicity tests using cell culture. Little attention has been paid to the potential adverse influence on the inflammatory and immune reaction in the periapical tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of retrograde filling materials on human mononuclear cells in vitro. Freshly mixed and set specimens from six materials (Z100, Tetric Ceram, Fuji II, Fuji II LC, F2000, Compoglass Flow, and ZOE) were eluated with cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxic effects of these extracts were evaluated by determining cell viability and enzyme activity using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LD). The production of inflammatoy bone resorptive cytokine, TNF-
was measured from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to the extracts by means of Endogen Human TNF-
ELISA kit (Wobrun, MA, U.S.A.). Eluates and diluted (1 : 10) eluates with cell culture medium from freshly mixed Fuji IT had cytotoxic effects on mononuclear cells using MTT and LD. However, eluates from set Fuji II were not cytotoxic. Eluates form set ZOE exhibited cytotoxicity with LD test. TNF-
levels were high in eluates from freshly mixed Fuji II and Z100. Diluted eluates from freshly mixed Z100 and F2000 stimulated the production of TNF-
. However, there were no significant difference in TNF-
levels compared to controls. These results indicate that some materials could possibly stimulate bone resorption in the periapical tissue by means of the production of bone resorptive cytokine.
THE COLOR CHANGE OF VISIBLE LIGHT-CURED COMPOSITE RESINS AND COMPOMERS ACCORDING TO THE THICKNESS AND BACKGROUND COLOR
Im, Ju-Hwan ; Han, Jin-Sun ; Lee, Su-Jong ; Im, Mi-Kyung ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 71~77
The color of an esthetic restorative material is controlled primarily by thickness of the material and background color. Although the effects of the two factors on the color coordinates of esthetic dental materials have been reported, the mechanism has not been clarified well enough to explain the effects quantitatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of thickness and background color on the color of tooth colored restorative materials quantitatively. One hundred sixty samples were fabricated from two commercial light-cured composite resins and two commercial compomers. The color characteristics and changes in the color coordinates were measured by a tristimulus colorimeter (Model TC-6FX, Tokyo Denshoku Co. Japan) using the CIELAB system. The results were as follows: 1. As thickness increased from 1.0 to 4.0mm, values of
changed irregulary for white and dentin color background, but showed no obvious difference in color for black background. 2. The colors of composite resins and compomers were significantly influenced by background color. 3. The color difference was recognized even the same shade name in four representative kinds of composite resins and compomers. 4. As thickness changed, values of color difference for same products and same background color showed constancy, but showed difference for different background color.
COMPARISON OF SHAPING ABILITY OF NICKEL-TITANIUM ROTARY FILES WITH DIFFERENT TAPER IN SIMULATED RESIN CANALS
Kum, Kee-Yeon ; Lim, Kyoung-Ran ; Jung, Il-Young ; Lee, Sung-Jong ; Lee, Chan-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 78~84
The aim of this study was to compare shaping ability of nickel-titanium rotary files with different taper in simulated resin canals. The instruments used in this study were GT with .04 taper ProFile with ISO-sized tip, .04 taper ProFile with ISO-sized tip alone, and .02 taper Naviflex file and all canals were prepared by crown-down technique. A total of 30 composite images were made from pre- and post-canal scanned images using Scanjet 4C scanner and Corel photopaint 8.0 and then, prevalence of canal aberrations was measured. The amount of coronal substance the instruments removed was also calculated two-dimensionally on digitized images with the Brain C software to compare the relative enlarging efficiency. Finally, the prepared internal canal form was evaluated three-dimensionally with impression technique. The results were as follows; 1. The incidence of zipping in Naviflex group was significantly high compared to the other two groups(P<.05). 2. The amount of coronal substance the GT combined group removed was significantly larger than the other two groups(P<.05). 3. The GT combined group produced canals with good taper and flow. Under the conditionas of this study, the combined use of larger tapered nickel-titanium rotary files prepared simulated canals safely, efficiently and with good three-dimensional form.
INFLUENCE OF LOW-INTENSITY CURING AND POLISHING PERIOD ON MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Jeong, Il-Young ; Roh, Byoung-Duck ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 85~90
For more esthetic treatments the use of composite in molar areas are increasing. But polymerzation shrinkage that cause marginal leakage and cuspal deflection has been the problems of composites. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of low intensity curing and polishing period on marginal leakage. Cavities were prepared on the buccal or lingual surface of forty five sound extracted human teeth and etching, application of bonding agent and filling of composite was done. Group 1 was light cured at intensity of 600
for 41 seconds and polished. Group 2 was light cured at intensity of 300
for 2 seconds and polished and after polishing it was light cured for 40 seconds at 600
. Group 3 was light cured at intensity of 300
for 2 seconds and waited for 5 minutes and after curing at 600
for 40 seconds polishing was done. The specimens were thermocycled at
for 1000 cycles and immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Composite-tooth interface was examined under stereobinocular microscope for dye penetration. The results were as follows : 1. Group which were cured at low intensity and polished after curing at high intensity showed less marginal leakage than group which were cured at high intensity for 41 seconds(p<0.05). 2. Marginal leakage between group which were cured at low intensity and polished immediately and group which were cured at high intensity for 41 second were not significantly different. Light curing at low intensity can reduce marginal leakage but polishing immediately after curing at low intensity for short time can affect marginal leakage.
FINITE ELEMENT STRESS ANALYSIS OF CLASS V COMPOSITE RESIN RESTORATION SUBJECTED TO CAVITY FORMS AND PLACEMENT METHODS
Son, Yoon-Hee ; Cho, Byeong-Hoon ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 91~108
Most of cervical abrasion and erosion lesions show gingival margin where the cavosurface angle is on cementum or dentin. Composite resin restoration of cervical lesion shrink toward enamel margin due to polymerization contraction. This shrinkage has clinical problem such as microleakage and secondary caries. Several methods to diminish contraction stress of composite resin restoration, such as modifying cavity form and building up restorations in several increments have been attempted. The purpose of this study was to compare polymerization contraction stress of composite resin in Class V cavity subjected to cavity forms and placement methods. In this study, finite element model of 5 types of Class V cavity was developed on computer tomogram of maxillary central incisor. The types are : 1) Box cavity 2) Box cavity with incisal bevel 3) V shape cavity 4) V shape cavity with incisal bevel 5) Saucer shape cavity. The placement methods are 1) Incisal first oblique incremental curing 2) Bulk curing. An FEM based program for light activated polymerization is not available. For simulation of curing dynamics, time dependent transient thermal conduction analysis was conducted on each cavity and each placement method. For simulation of polymerization shrinkage, thermal stress analysis was performed with each cavity and each placement method. The time-temperature dependent volume shrinkage rate, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio were determined in thermal conduction data. The results were as follows : 1. With all five Class V cavifies, the highest Von Mises stress at the composite-tooth interface occurred at gingival margin. 2. With box cavity, V shape cavity and saucer cavity, Von Mises stress at gingival margin of V shape cavity was lower than the others. And that of box cavity was lower than that of saucer cavity. 3. Preparing bevel at incisal cavosurface margin decreased the rate of stress development in early polymerization stage. 4. Preparing bevel at incisal cavosurface margin of V shape cavity increased the Von Mises stress at gingival margin, but decreased at incisal margin. 5. At incisal margin, stress development by bulk curing method was rapid at early stage. Stress development by first increment of incremental curing method was also rapid but lower than that by bulk curing method, however after second increment curing final stress was the same for two placement methods. 6. At gingival margin, stress development by incremental curing method was suddenly rapid at early stage of second increment curing, but final stress was the same for two placement methods.
THE MICROHARDNESS OF RESTORATIVE COMPOSITE AND DUAL-CURED COMPOSITE CEMENT UNDER THE PRECURED COMPOSITE OVERLAY
Park, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 109~115
This study was designed to evaluate the microhardness of restorative composite resin and dual-cured composite resin cement which were light cured through the 1.5mm thickness composite overlay. For restorative materials, Z100 and Tetric Ceram were used. For dual cured composite cements, Variolink II((VL II) of three consistency (low, high, ultra high) were used. To determine the optimal microhardness of Z100, Tetric Ceram and Variolink II, each material was packed into the 1mm thickness teflon mold without composite overlay and light cured for 60 seconds. Then the microhardnesses of each sample were measured, averaged and regarded as optimal hardness of each material. To evaluate the microhardness of restorative composite resin and dual-cured composite resin cement which were light cured through the 1.5mm thickness composite overlay, the composites were packed into 1mm thickness teflon mold, coverd with celluloid strip, and then precured composite overlay which was made of Targis(Ivoclar/Vivadent, Liechtenstein) was positioned. 2 types of visible light curing machine, the power density of one of which was 400
and the other was 900
, and one type of argon laser were used to cure the restorative composite and dual cured cement. For each group, 10 sample were assigned. The light curing tip was positioned over the composite overlay and light cured for 1min., 2min. or 3min with visible light curing machine or 15sec, 30 sec, 45sec, and 60 sec with argon laser. The Vickers hardnesses of upper and lower surface of Z100, Tetric Ceram, and 3 types of VL II cement were measured. When the 900
curing light was used, 2min. was needed for optimal curing of Z100 and Tetric Ceram. Variolink II did not be cured optimally even though the curing time was extended to 3min. When 400
curing light was used, 3min. was necessary for Z100, whereas 3min. was not enough for Tetric Ceram. Variolink II was not cured optimally even though the curing time was extended to 3min. When argon laser was used, Z100, Tetric Ceram and Variolink II were not cured optimally in 60 seconds.
SEM STUDY ON THE BACTERIAL ADHESION TO THE DENTIN OF THE ROOT CANAL
Jeong, Sang-Kyun ; Oh, Tae-Seok ; Bae, Kwang-Shik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 116~122
On the instrumented root canal wall, amorphous, irregular smear layer can be observed with Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the presence or absence of smear layer on the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to the dentin of the root canal. Human incisors, extracted within 7 days, with no caries, no fracture, no calcification of canal, were selected. After cutting crown portion at cemento-enamel junction, root canal preparation was done by modified crown-down technique using Profile and Gates - Glidden Drill. During canal preparation, 10ml physiologic saline solution(group1&3) or 10ml 3.5% NaOCl(group2&4) was used as irrigation solution. And 10ml physiologic saline solution(group1&3) or 10ml 0.5M EDTA(group2&4) was applicated for final flush. After vertical sectioning and ethylene oxide gas sterilization, samples(group1&2) were immersed into BHIYHM broth inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 31153) and incubated for 3hrs at
. All samples were prepared for and observed with SEM(JEOL JSM840S). The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney rank sum test. The conclusions are as follows ; 1. Smear layer covers entire root canal surface after root canal preparation. 2. Smear layer has been removed away and the entrances of dentinal tubules have opened widely, when applying 0.5M EDTA and 3.5% NaOCl. 3. A significantly higher number of bacteria were adhered to the root canal dentin without smear layer(p<0.0001). 4. Smear layer produced during root canal preparation impedes bacterial adhesion and colonization to dentin matrix, therefore inhibits canal reinfection.
A COMPARISON OF THE SETTING CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN RESIN-MODIFIED GLASS-IONOMERS AND COMPOMERS
Ko, Yong-Joon ; Yoo, Hyeon-Mee ; Um, Chung-Moon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 123~132
To overcome problems of conventional glass ionomers, resin components have been added to glass ionomers. On a continuum between glass ionomers and composites are a variety of blends, employing different proportions of acid-base and free radical reactions to bring about cure. Popular groups defined between the ends are resin-modified glass-ionomers(RMGIs), polyacid-modified composite resins(Compomers) and ionomer modified resins. These groups show different clinical properties, and in selecting these materials for a restoration, one should sufficiently understand these different setting properties. In this study, some difference in the setting characteristics of different groups of hybrid ionomers were examined. Two RMGIs (Fuji2 LC,GC / Vitremer, 3M), three Compomers (Dyract AP, Dentsply / F2000, 3M / Elan, Kerr) were involved in this study. The identification of the setting characteristics of different groups was achieved by a two-stage study. First, thermal analysis was performed by a differential scanning calorimeter, and then the hardness of each group at different depth and time were measured by a micro-hardness tester. Thermal analysis was performed to identify the inorganic filler content and to record the heat change during setting process. The setting process was progressed for each material by chemical set mode and light-cured mode. In the hardness test, samples of materials were prepared with a 6mm-diameter metal ring, and the hardness was measured at the top, and 1mm, 2.5mm, 4mm below at just after a 40 second-cure, and after 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 7 days. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney rank sum test to assess significant differences between set modes and types of materials, and by ANOVA and T-test to evaluate the statistical meanings of data at different times and depths of each materials. Followings are findings and conclusions derived from this study. Thermal analysis; 1. Compomers show no evidence of chemical setting while RMGIs exhibit heat output during the process of chemical setting. 2. Heat of cure of RMGIs exceed Compomers. 3. The net heat output of RMGIs through light-cured mode is higher than through chemically set mode. Hardness test; 1. Initial hardness of RMGIs immediately after light cure is relatively low, but the hardness increases as time goes by. On the contrary, Comomers do not show evident increase of the hardness following time. 2. Compomers show a marked decrease of setting degree as the depth of the material increases. In RMGIs, the setting degree at different depths does not significantly differ.
A Comparison of Stainless Steel K-file, Profile .04, and Quantec LX Instruments to Shape Curved Root Canals in vitro
Lim, Kyung-A ; Yoon, Soo-Han ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 133~143
THE EFFECT OF INTRACANAL BASE TO PROTECT THE CERVICAL LEAKAGE OF BLEACHING AGENTS
Kwon, Su-Mi ; Hwang, Su-Jin ; Lee, Se-Joon ; Lee, Kwang-Won ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 25, issue 1, 2000, Pages 144~152
Intracoronal bleaching is currently disregarded by many clinicians because of the potential consequence of cervical resorption. To prevent this complication it is recommended that intra coronal barrier materials be placed over the root canal obturation and sodium perborate be used with water rather than with hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of the hydrogen peroxide penetration according to the difference in intracanal base materials and sodium perborate preparation. Fifty extracted intact premolars were instrumented, and filled with gutta-percha. And then the outer surface of the teeth was sealed with wax exposing the CEJ. The prepared teeth were placed in plastic tubes containing 1.5ml distilled water with their entire root submerged into the solution, The teeth were divided into the following five groups. In the first two groups gutta-percha was removed without placement of barrier, and then water or superoxole(30%
) with sodium perborate were used respectively for bleaching. In the other three groups, after removal of gutta-percha, an intracanal isolating barrier(ZPC, IRM, Fuji II LC) was placed and then bleached with sodium perborate and superoxole. The bleaching procedure was performed 4 times with 1 week interval. The results were as follows : 1. All the groups showed a tendency of increasing penetration amount with increasing treatment times(P<0.05). 2. After the 1st and 2nd treatments, there was no significant difference in microleakage among the groups. 3. After the 3rd bleaching with superoxole and sodium perborate, there was no significant difference in microleakage between gutta-percha alone group and gutta-percha with ZPC, Fuji II LC barrier group. But significant difference was found between IRM barrier group and other groups(P<0.01). 4. After the 4th bleaching with superoxole and sodium perborate, there was no significant difference between gutta-percha alone group and gutta-percha with barrier groups. 5. After the 4th treatment, the group bleached with sodium perborate and water without barrier showed lower hydrogen peroxide penetration than that of other groups(P<0.01).