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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Dec 1981
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A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE CLEANSING EFFECT OF THE VARIOUS IRRIGANTS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT QUANTITY
Yo, In-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 7~15
This study was conducted to compare the cleansing effect of various irrigants and the function of the quantity of irrigants in apical region. One hundred sixty single rooted teeth were divided into four groups and fourty teeth in each group were individually enlarged and irrigated with each of four irrigants as they would be during clinical condition. The four tested irrigants were Normal saline solution, 3.5% NaOCl, 15% EDTA, and 50% Citric acid. In each group, twenty teeth were flushed with 2cc of each irrigant and another twenty teeth with 5cc of same irrigant after use of each instrument. After final flush and dry, the roots were split longitudinally and the degree of cleansing at apical portion were evaluated under Stereoscope by three observers. The typical specimens of each group were also examined under Scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows. 1. There were no significant difference of cleansing effect among the tested irrigants. 2. 5cc flushed groups have more samples that have high degree of cleansing than 2cc flushed groups. 3. The canals irrigated with 2cc showed the presence of many dentin chips, tissue debris and smeared layer, whereas the 5cc groups revealed relatively clean canal surface and less smeared layer under Scanning electron microscope. 4. The teeth flushed with 5cc of EDTA and with 5cc of Citric acid showed the most clean canal surface at Scanning fictures.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SHAPE OF THE APICAL REGIONS OF ROOT CANALS AFTER INSTRUMENTATION BY VARIOUS ENLARGING INSTRUMENTS
Hong, Chan-Ui ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 17~24
The purpose of this study is to compare the shape of the apical regions of root canals after instrumentation by various enlarging instruments. 120 extracted, single-rooted human teeth were seperated into 4 experimental groups. Each group provided 30 teeth for experimental use. Group 1 root canals instrumented by the hand-operated Reamer. Group 2 root canals instrumented by the hand-operated H-file. Group 3 root canals instrumented by the hand-operated K-file. Group 4 root canals instrumented by the automated Giromatic file. The results were as follows: 1. The degree of the roundness of the apical regions of root canal walls: 1) Hand-operated instruments were superior to the automated Giromatic file. 2) The Reamer was the most effective instrument among hand-operated instruments 3) There was little difference between the H-file and the K-file. 2. The degree of the smoothness of the apical regions of root canal walls: 1) Root canal walls instrumented by the hand-operated Reamer, H-file and, K-file were generally smooth, and there was little difference among them. 2) Root canal walls instrumented by the automated Giromatic file showed many irregular canal walls. 3. The existance of organic debris in the apical regions of root canals: All organic debris is not removed from root canals, and there was little difference between hand-operated instruments and the automated Giromatic instrument in removing organic debris.
A STUDY OF DETERMINATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL ROOT APEX BY ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE VALUE
Yun, Ki-Bock ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 25~31
One of the most important factors for successful endodontic therapy is an accurate length determination of physiological root apex. Some methods suggested for the measurement of root canal length, include digital-tactile sense and roentgenographic technique with measuring wire, scale and grid. But these methods do not derermine an accurate working length to physiological root apex. Recently electronic measuring devices are used to locate the physiological root apex in root canal length determination and these devices are accepted as an effective apparatus. The 89 patients (116 teeth, 144 canals) among the out-patients of Yonsei University Dental Infirmary, who had had an endodontic treatment in the Department of Operative Dentistry, were measured by the Root-Canal Meter
as an electronic device, and radiographs to determine the distribution and location of physiological root apex, then the following results were made: (1) Range of
1mm from the radiographic root apex were present in 88.88% (128 canals) of the subjects. (2) Physiological root apex and radiographic root apex were coincided in 31.94% (46 canals) of the subjects. (3) The actual length of the physiological root apex of the teeth were as follow; A : in the maxillary central incisor : 0.46mm B : in the maxillary lateral incisor : 0.44mm C : in the maxillary canine : 0.44mm D : in the maxillary 1st premolar : a) Buccal : 0.59mm b) Lingual : 0.34mm E : in the maxillary 2nd premolar : 0.54mm F : in the maxillary 1st molar : a) Mesio-buccal : 0.50mm b) Disto-buccal : 0.42mm c) Lingual : 0.56mm G : in the mandibular central incisor : 0.62mm H : in the mandibular lateral incisor : 0.45mm in the mandibular canine : 0.54mm J : in the mandibular 1st premolar : 0.47mm K : in the mandibular 2nd premolar : 0.34mm L : in the mandibular 1st molar : a) Mesio-buccal : 0.54mm b) Mesio-lingual : 0.31mm c) Distal : 0.37mm.
A CLINICAL STUDY OF TRAUMATlC INJURIES OF ANTERIOR TEETH
Park, Sang-Duk ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 33~40
The more civilized, the more incidence had happened in our daily life, particularly in industrial factories, by traffic accident, and in sports, etc. in the dental field. The accidental trauma is usually involved the teeth and surronuding tissues. And the author intended to study of the traumatic injuries of anterior teeth by individual tooth, age, sex, cause of trauma, and how they were treated. The following results were obtained: 1. The patients with traumatic injuries of the anterior teeth were 1.8% among the total dental out-patients. 2. By the age group, the twenties was most frequent in both sexes, and the teenagers next. 3. The predominant causes of traumatic injuries in the dental field were traffic accident (23.4%), fighting (19.2%), falling (18.5%), and sports (7.3%). 4. In the classification of injuries of the teeth, uncomplicated crown fractures (31.2%), subluxations (14.7%), and the complicated crown fractures (13.2%) were presented. 5. By the individual tooth in the traumatic cases, the upper cental incisors were most frequently injuried (49.8%). 6. In the treatments fillings and endodontic treatments (33.2%), splints (13.5%), extractions (11.7%) were main after care method.
TREATMENT FOR BILATERAL PERIAPICAL PATHOLOGIC INVOLVEMENT IN PREMOLARS DUE TO DENS EVAGINATUS
Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ; Han, Soo-Boo ; Bae, Kwang-Shik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 41~45
A 19-year-old Korean woman presented with left mandibular dental pain and swelling. Periapical radiolucencies were associated with the mandibular left first molar, second molar and the mandibular right second molar. The mandibular right second molar root developed incompletely and has the open apex. Clinical examination revealed worn accessory occlusal cusps of premolars. A diagnosis of dens evaginatus with associated periapical lesion secondary to pulpal necrosis was made. The root canal of the lower right second premolar was sealed with Calcium hydroxide paste for apexification. About two months later Calcium hydroxide paste was removed and the canal was resealed with new Calcium hydroxide paste. After four months the canal was sealed permanently with guttapercha and zinc oxide-eugenol sealer. The root canals of the lower left premolars were irrigated every week with 3.5% NaOCl solution for and half month. And the canals were sealed with gutta-percha and ZOE sealer. Preventive endodontic treatment for the lower right first premolar was undertaken.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF DILUTE FORMOCRESOL AND EUGENOL AND PROPYLENE GLYCOL
Yoon, Soo-Han ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 47~52
The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial effect of Dilute Formocresol and Eugenol and Propylene glycol. The experimental drugs are Formocresol in Propylene glycol (5, 10, 20%) and Eugenol in Propylene glycol (50, 75, 100%) and Propylene glycol. The organisms selected for study were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis which are found in infected root canals and are highly resistant to antiseptics. Isolated bacteria were inoculated on blood agar plate and the plates were incubated at
for 18 hours and the zones of inhibition then measured. The results were as follows ; 1. The antibacterial action of Formocresol was effective even at 5-10 percent and the action increased when higher concentration was used. 2. The antibacterial action of Eugenol was not effective and the action decreased when higher concentration was used. 3. Propylene glycol itself possessed some antibacterial properties and showed that the antibacterial action of Propylene glycol might be almost the same as that of Eugenol. 4. Among the experimental organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most resistant to all the experimental drugs.
A STUDY ON THE ANATOMY OF THE PULP CHAMBER FLOOR OF THE PERMANENT MAXILLARY SECOND MOLAR
Kwon, Hyuk-Choon ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 53~57
A total of 130 extracted human maxillary second molars were used to study the configuration of the floor of the pulp chamber. The specimens were ground and the pulp chamber was examined with a magnifier and explored with sharp explorer. The study showed the shape of the pulp chamber, number of root canals, and the type of canal orifice. The results were as follows; 1. In so far as observing the shape of the pulp chamber of the teeth, 16.9% of the teeth were quadrilateral, 70.0% were triangle and 13.1% were ovoid shape. 2. 13.1% of the specimens have 4 root canal orifices. 73.9% have 3 root canal orifices, 11.5% have 2 root canal orifices and 1.5% have single orifice. 3. 13.1% of the specimens have 2 mesio-buccal canal orifices and among the teeth those have 3 canals, 20.8% show 'Y' shape, 29.1% show straight line and 23.8% show obtuse triangle shape.
A STUDY ON THE ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF HUMAN MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLAR WITH TRANSPARENT SPECIMENS
Lee, Chung-Sik ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 59~63
Ninety four human mandibular third molars were chosen to study the anatomy of the root canal. The experimental teeth were injected with china ink, decalcified, cleared and used in study, in vitro, to determine the number of root, the number of root canals, canals per root, frequency and location of transverse anastomoses, frequency and location of lateral canals and frequency of the apical deltas. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the teeth showed two canals, but 17.0% of the teeth were found to have one canal, 17.0% of them three canals, 3.2% of them four canals and l.1% of them five canals. 2. In so far as observing one canal per root, 17.0% of the teeth were found to have one canal in single-rooted tooth, 48.9% of them in mesial root and 58.5% of them in distal root. 3. In roots with two or three canals, the separated apical foramen appeared in 55.6% in single-rooted tooth, 64.3% in mesial side and 80.0% in distal side, and the common apical foramen appeared in 44.4% in single-rooted tooth, 35.7% in mesial side and 20.0% in distal side. 4. Of the two root canals in one root, 19.1% of the canals were found to have transverse anastomoses and were usually located in the apical third of the root. 5. 63.8% of 94 teeth were found to have lateral canals, and ramifications were mainly located in the apical third of the root.
A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE CLEANSING EFFECT OF RC-PREP ON THE DENTINAL WALLS OF THE ROOT CANAL
Lim, Sung-Sam ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 65~69
This study was conducted to evaluate the cleansing effect of RC-Prep (10% Urea-peroxide, 15% EDTA) on apical third of root canal. Thirty single rooted human teeth were divided into three groups, and ten canals in each group were all enlarged three sizes greater than their original diameter with K-type files and irrigated with each of three irrigants. The three used irrigants were RC-prep (Premier Co.) in combination with 3.5% Sodium hypochlorite, Normal saline, 3.5% Na OCL. In each group, one of three irrigants were used in conjunction with instrumentation as they would be during clinical condition. After final irrigation, the canals were dried with paper points and the teeth were split longitudinally. The cleanness of canal walls iii the apical region were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. The following results were drawn. 1. The use of Rc-Prep in combination with 3.5% NaOCl showed more clean canal surface than the use of other two irrigants. 2. The canals used RC-Prep in combination with 3.5% NaOCl revealed remnants of pulp tissue and smeared layer, but the openings of dentinal tubules were relatively clean and wide. 3. There was no significant difference in the debridement effect of 3.5% NaOCl and Saline solution. 4. The use of Saline solution showed great amount of remnants of pulp tissue which couldn't find in the use of 3.5% NaOCl.
A STUDY ON POROSITY FORMATION IN COMPOSITE RESIN FILLING MATERIALS
Kim, Yung-Hai ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 71~75
Five different labelled composite resin, Hypol (Korea), Glass-Ionomer (Japan), Simulate (U.S.A.), Durafil (U.S.A.) and Microfil (U.S.A.) were collected to employ for this experimental study. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of finger pressure technic and traditional filling by means of plastic instruments on porosity formation in composite materials. Each material with pressure and non-pressure cases were carefully examined under electron microscope. Following were the results obtained through the study. 1. Pressured cases showed smaller number of porosity and the size of porosity was significantly smaller than non-pressured cases in each mateial. 2. Glass-Ionomer with pressure cases were seen as tube-like appearance because of pressured small porosities communicate in a certain direction. 3. Durafil cases both pressured and non pressured, appeared the least porosity formation. among the materiats. 4. Border line between the outmost periphery of the porosity and matrix of the resin in both pressured or non-pressured eases were found characteristically clear in Mierofil cases.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BONDING FORCE OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENT
Lee, Myung-Jong ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 77~83
The purpose of this study was to observe the bonding strength between tooth surface (enamel and dentin) and restorative filling materials which are two composite resins (Clearfil and Concise) and Glass ionomer cement, after etching with 50% phoshoric acid and 37% citric acid. To measure the bonding strength in enamel, the labial surface of upper anterior tooth was cut flatly with using carborundum disk and polished with sand paper disk, and to measure in dentin, the dentin surface was prepared by grinding upper part of posterior tooth horizontally. After washing the tooth surface with water and drying with air blast, the prepared tooth surface was etched. In glass ionomer cement, 50% phosphoric acid and 37% citric acid were used, in Clearfil 40% phosphoric acid was used and in Concise, 50% phosphoric acid and 37% citric acid were used as etchant for 1 minute. After the copper band which is 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height was fixed on the prepared surface and each filling material was inserted into the copper band, the hooking loop was inserted into filled material in the copper band before setting to make it easily that the load is applied on the specimen. After all specimens were immersed in water at
for 1 week, this specimen was placed on the load cell of tensile test apparatus, and specimen was pulled at the cross-head speed of 0.8 mm per minute. The following results were obtained 1) In glass ionomer cement, the bond strength obtained by 37% citric acid was higher than one obtained by 50% phosphoric acid in enamel and dentin surfaces. The bond strength obtained in non-etched surface was much less than one by etchants in enamel and dentin surface. 2) In Clearfil, the bond strength obtained by 40% phosphoric acid was 4 times more than one obtained by non etch ant. 3) In Concise, the bond strength obtained by 50% phosphoric acid was almost same as one obtained by 37% citric acid, and the bond strength obtained by non etch ant was much less than one obtained by etchants.
Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Root Canal Disinfectants and Root Canal Sealers on L Cells in Vitro
Chung, Choong-Mo ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 85~99
This study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of three root canal disinfectants (formocresol, camphorated phenol and eugenol) and ten root canal sealers(Cavitec, Hypo-cal, Vitapex, AH26, Canals, Mynol,
-Medical, Z. O. E. and Calvital) in vitro. The experiments were performed in four differrent modes. In the first and second experiment, the "long-distance" cytotoxicity of three root canal disinfectants were tested on L cells. In the third exeriment, ten root canal sealers were tested for cytotoxicity by means of the tissue culture-agar overlay method immediately, 4 and 24 hours after the experiment. In the fourth experiment, the study with radioactively labeled L cells were employed to determine the relative cytotoxicity of ten root canal sealers. The results were as follows; 1. Every vapors from disinfectants showed more or less cytotoxicity. Of the three disinfectats, formocresol appeared to be the highest cytotoxic effect and camphorated phenol was the lowest. 2. Root canal sealers tested in tbis study showed cytotoxicity at every stage of time intervals. 3. The highest cytotoxic effect was freshly mixed
also revealed the highest cytotoxic effect after 4 or 24 hours among these materials. Vitapex was found the lowest cytotoxic effect at all experimental stage. 4. Root canal sealers except N2 and Mynol showed cytotoxic effect were decreased cytotoxicity according to the time elapsed.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF GLASS IONOMER CEMENT
Joo, Kwang-Seop ; Yoo, Kun-Won ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 101~106
The purpose of this study was to estimate the ability of the marginal fit of Glass ionomer cement. Using the human extracted teeth and 2% acqueous solution of methylene blue, the author investigated the marginal penetration of dye in restorative materials such as Amalgam, Hi-Pol, Glass ionomer cement, Estic microfill and Restodent. The results were as follows. 1. All filling materials showed some degree of marginal penetration. 2. Glass ionomer cement revealed nearly the same microleakage as Estic microfill and Hi-Pol, but showed inferior effect of the marginal seal as compared with Restodent. 3. It is appeared that Amalgam has more effective ability of the marginal fit than the others within a week.
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PULP CAPPING AGENTS ON RATS MOLARS
Kim, Gil-Tae ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 107~115
The purpose of this investigation was to study histopathological chronology and differences of the proprietary pulpcapping agents. One hundred eighty molars from thrity rats (Srague-Dawley species), weighing about 130gm, were divided into six groups. Cavities were prepared in their maxillary molars under intraperitoneal anesthesia with Secobarbital. The cavities in the right first and second molars were filled with Dycal
and the left ones were with Cavitec
. Each group of rats were sacrificed at the intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days following operation. The rats were decapituated, and the jaws were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Then the specimens were decalcified, embedded in paraffin or celloid, and sectioned at 6-8
in thickness through the cavities included and pulp mesiodistally. They were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and examined by lightmicroscope. The results were as follow: 1. The pattern of pulp healing was dependent upon the presence and character of the pulpcapping agents above. 2. Dentin bridge formation as a sign of pulp healing occurred in the 14 days after operation. 3. Dycal
reparation appeared to favor pulp bealing rather than Cavitec
preparation. 4. In the odontoblastic layer and pulp tissue specific vaculoes were showed at the 3, 5 and 7 days of the Dycal filling.
A CLINICAL STUDY ON BOOT CANAL TREATED PATIENTS
Lee, Jong-Man ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 117~124
In order to observe the frequency of visits and the distribution of endodontically treated patients according to age, sex, diagnosis, type of teeth, the author had surveyed the 17,250 outpatients of the Infirmary of the College Dentistry, Yonsei University from January 1976 to December 1978. 773 cases, 660 patients among 728 endodontically treated patients were studied. The obtained results were as follow; 1. The average frequency of visits were 5.95 in uppers and 5.88 in lowers. 2. The average frequency of visits were 5.79 in males and 6.02 in females. 3. At the age of under 14, the average frequency of visits were 7.42 in uppers and 6.76 in lowers. 4. According to diagnoses, the average frequency of visits in periapical granuloma or cyst were 2.80 in uppers and 3.16 in lowers. 5. The number of endodontically treated teeth had revealed as follow; upper incisors 27.94%, lower molars 25.87%, and upper molars 15.13% 6. The number of endodontically treated teeth by diagnoses were as follow; periapical abscess 45.27%, pulpit is 37.51%, tooth fracture 8.40%. 7. The number of endodontically treated teeth were 51.99% in the age of from 20 to 34.
A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE ON THE BACTERICIDAL ACTlON OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
Kim, Jae-Young ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 125~130
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of concentration and temperature on the bactericidal action of sodium hypochlorite by means of comparing the killing time of several kinds of microorganism on each different concentration and temperature of sodium hypochlorite. The results were as follows: 1. As the concentration of sodium hypochlorite was increased, the bactericidal action of sodium hypochlorite was increased in all specimens. 2. The bactericidal action of sodium hypochlorite at
was more potent than that of sodium hypochlorite at
. 3. Among the 3 experimental microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant to sodium hypochlorite, then comes staphylococcus aureus, and the least resistant microorganism was Streptococcus mutans.
A STUDY ON THE MARGINAL LEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESIN
Cho, Jin-Ho ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 131~138
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal leakage of composite resin. Preparing 144 class V cavities on freshly extracted noncarious teeth, composite resins were prepared and inserted by one dentist according to the manufacturer's instructions. The experiments were performed in two different groups; In group I; Class V cavities with
cavosurface angle, In group II; Class V cavities with
cavosurface angle. And each group was divided 2 subgroups; In control group; composite resin restoraions without acid etch technique. In experimental group; composite resin restorations with acid etch technique. All specimens were immersed in 0.05% crystal violet solution. Before examination, the restored teeth were subjected to thermal stress. The specimens were sectioned occlusogingivally through the center of the restorations with a diamond disk. The sections were examined under a reflected light microscope at 1 day, 7 days and 30 days after immersing the specimens in dye solution. The results were as follows; 1. Control group of group I and group II showed marginal leakage. 2. The degree of marginal leakage in experimental group was greater reduced than control group. 3. In control group, the degree of marginal leakage in group I was greater than group II. 4. In experimental group, there is not statistical differences of the degree of marginal leakage between group I & group II.
A STUDY ON THE ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF HUMAN MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH TRANSPARENT SPECIMENS
Han, Young-Chul ;
Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, volume 7, issue 1, 1981, Pages 139~144
Eighty four human maxillary first premolars were injected with china ink, decalcified, cleared and used in study, in vitro, to determine the number of root canals, the frequency and location of lateral canals, the frequency and location of transverse anastomoses, the curvature of root canals, the location of apical foramens, and the frequency of apical deltas. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the teeth demonstrated two canals, but 20.2% of the teeth were found to have one canal. 2. Of the 151 canals studied, 38.4% of the canals were found to have lateral canals and these ramifications were usually located in the apical third of the root. 3. Of the two root canals in one root, 35.7% of the canals were found to have transverse anastomoses and were usually located in the middle third of the root. 4. 15.2% of apical foramens were located directly on the root apex and 84.8% of them laterally, and 52.3% of canals showed distal curvature.