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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Clean Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Self-healing Engineering Materials: II. Inorganic Materials
Kim, Min-Hee ; Kang, Dong-Eun ; Yoon, Ji-Hwan ; Choi, Eun-Ji ; Shim, Sang-Eun ; Yun, Ju-Ho ; Kim, Il ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 85~96
Self-healing materials are a class of smart materials that have the structurally incorporated ability to repair damage caused by mechanical usage over time. A material (polymers, ceramics, metals, etc.) that can intrinsically correct damage caused by normal usage could lower production costs of a number of different industrial processes through longer part lifetime, reduction of inefficiency over time caused by degradation, as well as prevent costs incurred by material failure. The recent announcement from Nissan on the commercial release of scratch healing paints for use on car bodies has gained public interest on such a wonderful property of materials. This article is a second part of healing materials dealing with inorganic engineering materials such as metals, ceramics, and concrete. The healing mechanisms developed for the inorganic materials are to be discussed with the future prospect.
Study on Adsorption Kinetic of Amaranth Dye on Activated Carbon
Lee, Jong-Jib ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 97~102
The adsorption characteristics of amatanth dye by granular activated carbon were experimently investigated in the batch adsorption. Kinetic studies of adsorption of amaranth dye were carried out at 298, 308 and 318 K, using aqueous solutions with 100, 200 and 300 mg/L initial concentration of amatanth. It was established that the adsorption equilibrium of amaranth dye on granular activated carbon was successfully fitted by Langmuir isotherm equation at 298 K. The pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo second order kinetic model was the best with good correlation. Values of the rate constant (
) have been calculated as 0.1076, 0.0531, and 0.0309 g/mg h at 100, 200 and 300 mg/L initial concentration of amatanth, respectively. Thermodynamic parameter such as activation energy, standard enthalpy, standard entropy and standard free energy were evaluated. The estimated values for standard free energy were -5.08 - -8.10 kJ/mol over activated carbon at 200 mg/L, indicated toward a spontaneous process. The positive value for enthalpy, 38.89 kJ/mol indicates that adsorption interaction of amatanth dye on activated carbon is an endothermic process.
Improvement of the Throwing Power (TP) and Thickness Uniformity in the Electroless Copper Plating
Seo, Jung-Wook ; Lee, Jin-Uk ; Won, Yong-Sun ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 103~109
The process optimization was carried out to improve the throwing power (TP) and the thickness uniformity of the electroless copper (Cu) plating, which plays a seed layer for the subsequent electroplating. The DOE (design of experiment) was employed to screen key factors out of all available operation parameters to influence the TP and thickness uniformity the most. It turned out that higher Cu ion concentration and lower plating temperature are advantageous to accomplish uniform via filling and they are accounted for based on the surface reactivity. To visualize what occurred experimentally and evaluate the phenomena qualitatively, the kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was introduced. The combination of neatly designed experiments by DOE and supporting theoretical simulation is believed to be inspiring in solving similar kinds of problems in the relevant field.
Supercritical Fluid Dyeing of Polyester Fiber with Two Different Dispersion Dyes
Jung, In-Il ; Lee, Sang-Yun ; Lim, Gio-Bin ; Ryu, Jong-Hoon ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 110~116
The dyeing of polyester fiber with two different disperse dyes (Disperse Red 60 and Disperse Yellow 54) was carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide (
) as a dyeing medium at temperatures ranging from
and at pressures from 15 MPa to 30 MPa. The dye uptake of Disperse Red 60 on polyester fiber was found to increase with temperature at constant pressure and
density (700 kg/
and 30 MPa, the dye uptake on polyester fiber increased with dyeing time and the saturation concentration of Red 60 was attained within 240 min, while a longer dyeing time was required for Yellow 54 to reach its saturation concentration. When dyestuff mixtures with mixing ratios of 0.01 to 9.0 (Red 60/Yellow 54) were used, the uptake ratio of the two dyes was found to be proportional to 0.26 power of their mixing ratio. Dyed fibers showed an orange color and the depth of the color depended upon the mixing ratio of the dyestuffs.
Selection of Alternative Cleaning Agents for Ultrasonic Cleaning Process in Remanufacturing of Used Laser Copy Machine
Park, Yong-Bae ; Bae, Jae-Heum ; Chang, Yoon-Sang ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 117~123
In this study, evaluation tests for cleaning performance of various cleaning agents and selection of optimal ultrasonic cleaning parameters were executed to develop an efficient cleaning process in remanufacturing of laser copy machine. Cleaning performance tests were executed with 8 cleaning agents (A~H) to remove the contaminants of oil-ink, toner particles, and shoe polish. Physical properties and foamability tests were also applied. For 3 types of contaminants, cleaning agent G showed superior cleaning performance compared to agent A which has being used at a remanufacturing of laser copy machine in Korea. With cleaning agents selected in pre-tests, ultrasonic cleaning tests were executed to remove real contaminants on the parts of used digital laser copy machine parts. Cleaning agent G at 28 kHz ultrasonic frequency showed faster cleaning performance compared to agent A and other frequencies. The productivity and economic efficiency in remanufacturing of laser copy machine are expected to increase by adapting agent G and 28 kHz frequency at ultrasonic cleaning process.
Case Study on Determination of the Level of New RoHS II Substances in Domestic Electronic and Electrical Equipments
Song, Moon-Hwan ; Son, Seung-Hwan ; Cho, Young-Dal ; Choe, Eun-Kyung ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 124~133
In addition to six substances regulated in EU RoHS including lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), priority substances are identified in new RoHS II as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). In this study, 20 plastic samples were collected from 12 domestic electrotechnical companies and levels of four restricted substances were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Among 20 parts that compose washer, refrigerator or microwave oven, HBCDD was detected in three samples of NBR material with the amount of 42~381 mg/kg while DBP and BBP was not detected in any samples collected respectively, implying that these substance may not be used widely in plastic materials for EEE. However, DEHP was detected in all samples of NBR, PP, PBT, EPDM and PVC materials with the amount of 42 up to 59,400 mg/kg that exceeds the limit value of 0.1 wt% (1,000 mg/kg). Presence of a restricted substance in polymer material makes a great negative influence on a number of final product. To cope with coming RoHS II as well as REACH, action not to use DEHP in plastic material or the relevant notification in case of REACH seems to be needed. Screening test of Arsenic compounds such as diarsenic pentaoxide, diarsenic trioxide, lead hydrogen arsenate, triethyl arsenate that are included in REACH SVHC was done by ICP measurement Arsenium was detected in four samples made of NBR and PBT materials in the level of 15~700 mg/kg. By considering the screening method used in this study, the amount of arsenium compounds in the thermistor made of PBT material has a high chance of exceeding the regulated limit value.
Effect of Nitrogen Compounds and Organic Carbon Concentrations on
Emission during Denitrification
Kim, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Heon-Ki ; Kim, Yu-Ri ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 134~141
The effects of the compounds and concentrations of nitrogenous electron acceptor, the ratio of electron donor/electron acceptor (C/N), and the complexity of electron donor on the emission of
during wastewater denitrification were quantitatively investigated in this study. The higher
concentrations, the more
emission was observed.
has strong effect on
emission as it emitted morc
, 50 mg/L of
-N gave the highest conversion (9.3%) and yield (9.8%) of
-N (50 mg/L) gave 5.6% conversion and 11.0% yield. Lower C/N ratio decreases nitrogen removal efficiency, but it increases the conversion of
because of the incomplete denitrification by the limited organic carbon. When real domestic wastewater is used as the electron donor of the denitrification,
emission is reduced to 1/10 of the emission when single carbon (acetate) is used. It is thought that multiple carbon source utilizes many denitrification pathways and it seems to be helpful for the reduction of
Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of NO,
over Mixed Oxide Catalysts of AlCoPd (1/1/0.05) and AlCoFe (1/1/2)
Han, A-Reum ; Hwang, Young-Ae ; Chang, Kil-Sang ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 142~149
The adsorption and desorption behaviors of NO and
over two mixed oxide catalysts, AlCoPd (1/1/0.05) and AlCoFe (1/1/2), have been investigated for the lean
trap applications. The catalysts showed good adsorption capabilities for NO and
without needing oxidation step. The adsorption decreased a lot when they are co-adsorbed with oxygen. While NO kept high adsorbability and selectivity with respect to oxygen, those of
decreased sharply. From the TPD results, NO and
are considered to decompose into nitrogen and oxygen in the higher temperature range and the oxygen seems to be strongly attached to the catalysts even at high temperature.
A Simulation Study on the Removal Process of the Heavy Metal Ion in Aqueous Solution by the Functionalized Silica Beads
Woo, Yoon-Hwan ; Choo, Chang-Upp ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 150~155
The removal process of heavy metal ion in aqueous solution by the functionalized silica bead was simulated using the finite difference method. Equilibrium model and non-equilibrium model were proposed and the effects of dimensionless groups and various parameters were investigated. Freundlich isotherm was used in equilibrium model and 1st order adsorption rate expression was assumed in non-equilibrium model. The comparison results by the predictions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium models showed good agreement. The predictions of equilibrium model were compared with experimental results reported in literature and showed the marginal agreement.
Material and Heat Balances of Bioethanol Production Process by Concentrated Acid Saccharification Process from Lignocellulosic Biomass
Kim, Hee-Young ; Lee, Eui-Soo ; Kim, Won-Seok ; Suh, Dong-Jin ; Ahn, Byoung-Sung ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 156~165
The process for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass was studied through process simulation using PRO/II. Process integration was conducted with concentrated acid pretreatment, hydrolysis process, SMB (simulated moving bed chromatography) process and pervaporation process. Energy consumption could be minimized by the heat recovery process. In addition, material and energy balance were calculated based on the results from the simulation and literature data. A net production yield of 4.07 kg-biomass and energy consumption value of 3,572 kcal per 1 kg ethanol were calculated, which is indicating that 26% yield increase and 30% energy saving compared to the bioethanol production process with dilute-acid hydrolysis (SRI report). In order to make it possible, sugar conversion yield of cellulose and hemi-cellulose is to be reached up to 90% and fermentation of xylose needs to be developed. In order to reduce the energy consumption up to 30%, the concentration of acid solution after being separated by 5MB should exceed 20%. If acid/sugar separation by SMB process is to be practical, the bioethanol process designed in this study can be commercially feasible.
CO Oxidation Over Pt Supported on Al-Ce Mixed Oxide Catalysts with Different Mole Ratios of Al/(Al+Ce)
Park, Jung-Hyun ; Cho, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Yun-Jung ; Shin, Chae-Ho ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 166~174
The xAl-yCe oxide catalysts with different mol ratios of Al/(Al+Ce) were prepared by a co-precipitation method and Pt supported on xAl-yCe oxide catalysts were synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD),
/CO-temperature programmed reduction (
/CO-TPR) to correlate with catalytic activities in co oxidation. Among the catalysts studied here, Pt/1Al-9Ce oxide catalyst showed the highest activity in dry and wet reaction conditions and the catalytic activity showed a typical volcano-shape curve with respect to Al/(Al+Ce) mol ratio. When the presence of 5% water vapor in the feed, the temperature of
was shifted ca.
to lower temperature region than that in dry condition. From CO-TPR, the desorption peak of
on Pt/1Al-9Ce oxide catalyst showed the highest value and well correlated the catalytic performance. It indicates that the Pt/1Al-9Ce oxide catalyst has a large amount of active sites which can be adsorbed by co and easy to supplies the needed oxygen. In addition, the amount of pentacoordinated
sites obtained through
NMR analysis is well correlated the catalytic performance.
Design for Wastewater Neutralization Network in Yeosu Petrochemical Complex by Multi-Criteria Decision Making Strategy
Lee, Tai-Yong ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 175~180
A novel multi-criteria decision making strategy is developed for the construction of industrial symbiosis network in eco-industrial park and the strategy is applied to the construction of acid/alkali wastewater neutralization network in Yeosu industrial complex. Acid (or alkali) wastewater is commonly generated in chemical industries, and it can be used as neutralizing agent for alkali (or acid) wastewater generated from another source. As a consequence, a large-scale industrial symbiosis network for wastewater neutralization can be constructed in petrochemical complexes where a large amount of acid/alkali wastewater is generated. In this study, substance flow model is constructed which describes the wastewater neutralization network and multi-criteria decision making strategy is applied to find a few candidate for industrial symbiosis network.
Analysis of the Effects of Public R&D Subsidy on Private R&D Investment in the Cleaner Production - Complementary or Crowding-out Effect -
Ju, Hong-Shin ; Kim, Jum-Su ; Park, Jung-Gu ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 2, 2011, Pages 181~188
In this study, the complementary or crowding-out effects of public R&D subsidy on private R&D investment in the cleaner production were analysed between the effects and the major determinants (company size, R&D investment intensity, ratio of government investment, R&D manpower intensity). Among 207 firms' projects, the number of the complementary effect was 95 (45.9%) while that of crowding-out effect was 38 (18.4%). Resulting from logistic regression, the higher the R&D investment of sponsored companies is, the more complementary effect they show, responding to public R&D subsidy, and increase own R&D investment. The other determinants, however, showed no significant effects on firms' R&D investment. To heighten the effect of public cleaner production R&D, it is need to increase the priority of R&D investment intensity among the determinants. And to increase the performance of governmental R&D investment, further studies for the individual public R&D programs are necessary.