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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Clean Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Technical Review on Methodology of Generating Exposure Scenario in eSDS of EU REACH
Choe, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Jong-Woon ; Kim, Sang-Hun ; Byun, Sung-Won ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 285~299
As one of the REACH obligations, the extended safety data sheet (eSDS) should be communicated within the supply chain under the REACH Regulation. Based on technical guidance documents published on the ECHAs website and survey of EU's recent REACH-related informations, this paper includes a study on details of how to develop exposure scenarios (ES) such as structure of ES, process of ES develpoment, standard workflows and key input data to develop ES with an introduction of eSDS concept. This paper also contains an overview on operational conditions (OCs) and risk management measures (RMMs) that are what to consider when building an ES. The structure of Chesar (Chemical Safety Assessment and Report tool) developed by European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is studied with a review of the available exposure estimation tools for workers, environment and consumers. Case example of generic exposure scenario (GES) for organic solvent is presented. To guide Korean EU-exporting companies, their participating roles in three steps of preparing ES are addressed.
Efficient Stripping of High-dose Ion-implanted Photoresist in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Kim, Do-Hoon ; Lim, Eu-Sang ; Lim, Kwon-Taek ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 300~305
A mixture of supercritical carbon dioxide and a co-solvent was employed to strip a high-dose ion-implanted photoresist (HDIPR) from the surface of semiconductor wafers. The stripping efficiency was highly improved by the physical force generated from a ultrasonication tip inside the reactor. In addition, helium gas was injected in the reactor as a barrier gas before the introduction of pure supercritical
), which reduced the rinsing time significantly. The effect of co-solvents on the stripping efficiency was investigated. The wafer surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer.
A Study on Development of Alternative Non-aqueous Cleaning Agents to Ozone Depletion Substances and its Field Application
Park, Yong-Bae ; Bae, Jae-Heum ; Lee, Min-Jae ; Lee, Jong-Gi ; Lee, Ho-Yeoul ; Bae, Soo-Jung ; Lee, Dong-Kee ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 306~313
Flux or solder is used in soldering process for manufacturing electronic parts such as printed circuit boards (PCB). After soldering process, residual flux and solder paste on the parts should be removed since their residuals could cause performance degradation or failure of parts due to their corrosion and electric leakage. Ozone depletion substances such as 1,1,1- trichloroethane (TCE) and HCFC-141b have widely been using for removal of residual flux and solder paste after soldering process In manufacturing of electronic parts until now. In this study, non-aqueous cleaning agents without flash point were developed and applied to industrial field for replacement of cleaning agents with ozone depletion. In order to develop non-aqueous cleaning agents without ethers, esters, fluoride- type solvents. And their physical properties and cleaning abilities were evaluated, and they were applied to industrial fields for cleaning of flux and solder on the PCB. And vacuum distillation apparatus were operated to determine their operating conditions and recycling yields for recycling of used cleaning agents formulated in this study. As a result of physical properties measurement of our formulated cleaning agents, they were expected to have good wetting and penetrating power since their surface tensions were relatively low as 18.0~20.4 dyne/
and their wetting indices are relatively large. And some cleaning agents holding fluoride-type solvents as their components did not have any flash point and they seemed to be safe in their handling and storage. The cleaning experimental results showed that some cleaning agents were better in their cleaning of flux and solder paste than 1,1,1-TCE and HCFC-141b. And industrial application results of the formulated cleaning agents for cleaning PCB indicated that they can be applicable to industry due to their good cleaning capability in comparison with HCFC-141b. The recycling experiments of the used formulated cleaning agents through a vacuum distillation apparatus also showed that their 91.9~97.5% could be recycled with its proper operating conditions.
Synthesis and Anti-corrosion Properties of Succinic Acid Alkyl Half-amide Derivatives
Baek, Seung-Yeob ; Kim, Young-Wun ; Chung, Keun-Wo ; Yoo, Seung-Hyun ; Kim, Nam-Kyun ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 314~324
Several amide derivatives have been used as additives for base oil of metal working fluids and pressure working oils. In this paper, a series of succinic acid alkyl half-amide derivatives were synthesized as over 97% yields by ring-opening reaction of succinic anhydride and several amines and were soluble in 100 N base oil within 1 wt% concentration. The structures of the synthesized amides were confirmed by
-NMR, FT-IR spectrum and GC analysis. Anti-corrosion properties of the amides in sea water were evaluated through ASTM D665 method and weight loss method. As the results of anti-corrosion properties, the properties of the amides with shorter alkyl chain and high concentration showed better performance than those with longer alkyl chain and low concentration. Also, the dialkyl amides showed better anti-corrosion properties than those of the monoalkyl amides. Inhibition efficiency% (IE%) was over 93% in the concentration of 40 ppm and corrosion rate (CR) was below 0.5 mm/year in the same concentration.
Atom-efficient Preparation of 9, 9'-Bis[4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-acryloyloxypropoxy)phenyl]fluorene
Jung, Hyeok-Jin ; Hong, Seong-Jae ; Seo, Kwang-Beom ; Shim, Jae-Jin ; Ra, Choon-Sup ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 325~328
Atom-efficient preparation of 9, 9'-bis[4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-acryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl]fluorene (3), the extensively used building block for fluorene-containing acrylic epoxy polymers has been described. The epoxide ring opening esterification of 9, 9-bis[4-(glycidyloxy)phenyl]fluorene (1) with acrylic acid was catalyzed by some onium salts such as quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts. While the coupling reactions depend greatly on the kind of the onium salts, the reaction of 9, 9-bis[4-(glycidyloxy)phenyl]fluorene (1) with acrylic acid proceed most efficiently in the presence of a catalytic amount of tetrabutylphosphonium bromide at
with 90% yield. This reaction is a cleaner reaction that minimizes the use of reactants and the production of chemical wastes.
Gas Recycling Processes
Cho, Hoon ; Woo, Dae-Sik ; Choi, Yu-Mi ; Han, Myung-Wan ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 329~335
gas is well known as a global warming gas. Global warming potential of
gas is 22,000 times higher than that of
. Recycling of
gas is an essential technology for the sake of the environment and the economy. The recovery processes of
gas studied in this work were liquefaction, distillation, and crystallization processes because these processes were thought to be easily carried to the fields for recycling waste
gas. The processes were simulated and optimized using Aspen plus. The optimization problems were formulated to minimize energy consumption with satisfying product specification and desired recovery. The performance of the processes was compared based on the optimization results. Effects of major process variables on the recovery performance were investigated and optimal operation guide for changing product specification and product recovery was provided.
Environmental Assessment and Characteristic of Refuse Derived Fuel by Mixed Biomass with Binder
Lee, Hyung-Don ; Cho, Joon-Hyung ; Kim, In-Deuk ; Kim, Yun-Soo ; Oh, Kwang-Joong ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 336~345
The total area of forest land in Korea is 64.2%, and significant forest resources can continuously be produced. However our country didn't separate the recyclable waste wood and was illegal landfill or incinerated. In this study, waste-wood and rice husk of biomass and low-grade-anthracite made refuse derived fuel by mixing and compressing. In addition, the binding effect of binders and additives were analyzed. Physical and chemical characteristics of manufactured refuse derived fuel were analyzed and evaluated suitability by compared with quality standards. A result of change with compressed and relaxed density, added 20% anthracite and 10% rice husk is optimal density change and average density increased large range when 20 wt.% P.V.A., guargum, molasses and 10 wt.% starch were added. All fuel samples be distributed over 3,500 kcal/kg LHV and grade of No. 3~4 fuels appeared. A result of the characteristics of physical and chemical compressed biomass refuse derived fuel with addictive, 12.9% of durability improvement appeared when is mixing asphalt and 5.8% of durability improvement appeared when is mixing rice bran by pretreatment of NaOH 5%.
Study on Adsorption Kinetic Characteristics of Propineb Pesticide on Activated Carbon
Lee, Jong-Jib ; Cho, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 346~352
The adsorption characteristics of propineb pesticide onto activated carbon has been investigated for the adsorption in aqueous solution with respect to initial concentration, contact time and temperature in batch experiment. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to described the equilibrium isotherms and isotherm constants were also determined. The Freundlich model agrees with experimental data well. slope of isotherm line indicate that activated carbon could be employed as effective treatment for removal of propineb. The pseudo first order, pseudo second order kinetic models were use to describe the kinetic data and rate constants were evaluated. The adsorption process followed a pseudo second order model, and the adsorption rate constant(
) decreased with increasing initial concentration of propineb. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were also calculated to predict the nature adsorption. The estimated values for change of free energy were -7.28, -8.27 and -11.66 kJ/mol over activated carbon at 298, 308 and 318 K, respectively. The results indicated toward a spontaneous process. The positive value for change of enthalpy, 54.46 kJ/mol, found that the adsorption of propineb on activated carbon is an endothermic process.
A Study on the Rainwater Quality Monitoring and the Improvement, Collection and Storage System
Kim, Chul-Kyung ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 353~362
In our nature, the utilization of rainwater is essential for healthy water recirculation. This is one of the solutions of the increment of impermeability surface according to the development of new cities; this study of the improvement of rainwater quality has been carried on through the improvement of collecting and restoring system of rainwater. The southwestern region of Daejeon City, the rainwater coefficient of run off was 0.40 and this number had computed to 0.59 after the development. After filtration of rainwater, the heavy metal (Cu, As, Cr, Fe, Mn) contents level were lower than underground water. Moreover, collected rainwater showed better quality than underground water in following criteria; hardness, permanganate consumption quality, chloride, evaporation residue, sulfates and nitrate nitrogen. This water quality met the gray water quality standards. The rainwater quality was still suitable to use as bathroom flushing and gardening after 100 days of storage. This study proved that modification (installation of cover with gutter to existing rainwater collection system, proper filtering, and installation of underground storage tank) of collection system could improve quality of water and maintain this approximately 100 days.
Effects of Operating Parameters on the Removal Performance of Ammonia Nitrogen by Electrodialysis
Yoon, Tae-Kyung ; Lee, Gang-Choon ; Jung, Byung-Gil ; Han, Young-Rip ; Sung, Nak-Chang ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 363~369
To evaluate the feasibility of electrodialysis for ammonia nitrogen removal from wastewater, the effects of operating parameters such as diluate concentration, applied voltage and flow rate on the removal of ammonia nitrogen were experimentally estimated. The removal rate was evaluated by measuring the elapsed time for ammonia nitrogen concentration of diluate to reach 20 mg/L. Limiting current density (LCD) linearly increased with ammonia nitrogen concentration and flow rate. The elapsed time was linearly proportional to initial concentration of diluate. Due to relatively large equivalent ion conductivity and ion mobility of ammonia nitrogen, the removal rate increased consistently with flow rate. Increase in the applied voltage gave positive effect to removal rate. From the operation of the electrodialysis module used in this research, the flow rate of 3.2 L/min and 80~90% of applied voltage for LCD are recommended as the optimum operating condition for the removal from high concentrate ammonia nitrogen solution.
-based SCR Catalyst for the Oxidation of Gas-phase Elemental Mercury
Hong, Hyun-Jo ; Ham, Sung-Won ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 370~378
Catalytic activity of
-based SCR catalyst was examined for the oxidation of gas-phase elemental mercury to oxidized mercury. Mercury species was not detected on the commercial SCR catalyst after the oxidation reaction of elemental mercury, regadless of the presence of HCl acting as oxidant and the reaction conditions. This suggests that elemental mercury oxidation by HCl could occur via a Eley-Rideal mechanism with gas phase or weakly-bound mercury on the surface of
SCR catalyst. The activity for mercury oxidation was significantly increased with the increase of
loading, which indicates that
is the active site. However, turnover frequency for mercury oxidation was decreased with the increase of
loading, indicating the activity for mercury oxidation was strongly dependent on the surface structure of vanadia species. The activity for oxidation of elemental mercury under SCR condition was much less than that under oxidation condition at the same HCl concentration and reaction temperature.
Concentration Levels and Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Ambient Air in Industrial Complex Area
Jung, Jong-Hyeon ; Phee, Young-Gyu ; Cho, Sang-Won ; Ok, Gon ; Shon, Byung-Hyun ; Lee, Kwan ; Lim, Hyun-Sul ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 379~388
The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels, distribution characteristics and blood concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at ambient air in Industrial Complex Area. The samples were collected at 4 sites in Industrial Complex Area and its vicinities. The result indicated that there was the difference of PAHs concentration as followed local characteristics. The level of average concentration of PAHs in the air in Industrial Complex Area was
. The level of average concentration of six materials with possibility of cancer creation was
. The concentrations of PAHs were generally low, but Jechul-dong is considered an area where consistent monitoring of PAHs is required. In addition, benzo(a)pyrene was detected in every atmospheric sample, however the concentration was not high. The level of concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in the air in the Jechul-dong was
. But, the concentration of the PAHs in Jechul-dong showed that the Benzo(a)pyrene concentration is above
of air quality standard(EU). The results of the concentration level of PAHs in the blood from 240 persons who were exposed directly were surveyed, it was
for man and
for woman. It was indicated that the difference between the genders was very little. The accumulation inside human was anticipated as the PAHs concentration in the blood for the aged was very high. Industrial Complex Area and its vicinities are an area which has been greatly influenced by PAHs and environmental contaminants. It is necessary to control the emission sources of PAHs and to construct an observation system at Industrial Complex Area from now on. It is time to reduce the risk factors for health and environmental disease to protect the health of resident in Industrial Complex Area and its vicinities.
Mixture by Pressure Swing Adsorption
Cho, Woo-Ram ; Jeong, Gu-Hyun ; Shin, Young-Hwan ; Yoo, Hee-Chan ; Na, Byung-Ki ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 389~394
A compact adsorption-based process for removal of carbon dioxide and nitrogen from natural gas has been discussed. Among the adsorption-based processes, especially, the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process has been a suitable unit operation for the purification and separation of gas because of low operation energy and cost. A step cycle is made up of pressurization, feed, equalization, blowdown and rinse. In this work, the PSA process is composed of zeolite 13X and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) for removal of carbon dioxide and nitrogen from mixed gas containing
(75:21:4 vol%). A CMS selectively removes carbon dioxide and a zeolite 13X separates nitrogen from methane. CMS is investigated experimentally due to the high throughput of the faster diffusing component (
). The gas composition of top, bottom and feed tank was measured with the gas chromatography (GC) using TCD detector, helium as carrier gas and packed column for analysis of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.
Chemical Properties of Sea Tangle (Saccharina. japonica) Cultured in the Different Depths of Seawater
Shin, Tai-Sun ; Xue, Zheng ; Do, Ye-Won ; Jeong, Sang-Il ; Woo, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Nam-Gil ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 395~405
To develop the technology for cultivation of high-density seaweed, sea tangle was cultured from varying depths(0.5 m, 3 m) of seawater at Gijang and Wando area. Proximate composition, component sugar, total amino acid, fatty acid composition, and element composition of different parts of sea tangle (Saccharina japonica) have been examined. Significant differences were found in the amount of crude protein and ash content in lower, middle, and upper parts of algal blades. The upper parts of the sea tangle was rich in crude protein, while lower parts was rich in crude ash. Crude lipid content was higher in the middle parts than those of the other parts. The component sugars were not significantly different from all parts of algal blades. The highest content of most of the amino acids were found in the upper parts of the blades. The amount of saturated fatty acids concentrated mostly in lower parts of blades, while the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrated in the upper parts. The highest N element contents were found in upper part of algal blades. However, the contents of those chemical component were not affected by the depths of seawater.
An Analysis on the Construction of Energy Exchange Network to Recover Waste Heat Energy in Pohang Steel Industrial Complex
Lee, Gwang-Goo ; Jung, In-Gyung ; Chun, Hee-Dong ;
Clean Technology, volume 17, issue 4, 2011, Pages 406~411
A detailed database of waste heat is built to propose energy exchange networks to recover waste energy in Pohang Steel Industrial Complex. A visualized technique is used to figure out the status of waste heat energy and to suggest potential energy exchange networks. Several energy networks are proposed in terms of temperature level, the amount of available energy, distance, and construction cost. A simple economical assessment is applied to the energy exchange networks which have higher economic potential. Their average payback period is estimated to be 2.8 years. The total amount of energy saving by constructing the proposed energy exchange networks is 4,778 TOE per year. It corresponds to 11,160 ton
reduction with the assumption that the recycled waste energy replaces the use of LNG in energy-demanding companies.