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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
CNU Journal of Agricultural Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Physiological properties of grape cluster portions between cultivars and the effect of postharvest cooling on the marketability
Min, Jeong-Ho ; Lim, Byung-Seon ; Choi, Yeon-Soo ; Lee, Kyung-Min ; Kim, Dal-Woo ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.001
Rapid loss of grape berry quality after harvest occurs due to poor postharvest management. Understanding physiological properties between cultivars is required to develop practical technologies to control fast quality deterioration of tables grapes. Physiological characteristics of whole cluster, rachis and berries were examined to find their effects on postharvest behaviour of table grapes. 'Tamnara' showed high respiration rate and browning of rachis compared to 'Campbell Early'. Weight loss of rachis of 'Cheongsoo' was highest of three cultivars. Berry decay in 'Cheongsoo' begins at the connection portion between peduncle and berry, and berry decay of 'Cheongsoo' was the most severe among three cultivars. Precooling at
showed better results than cooling at
regardless of cultivars but cooling effect decreased when simulated marketing period increased up to 10 days. Plastic film wrapping was effective on reducing decay in general but not at higher marketing temperature. For successful commercialization of newly developed grapes, the inhibition technology of rachis browning in 'Tamnara' is required and decay control in 'Cheongsoo' through establishment of cold chain system is recommended.
Diversity analysis of japonica rice using microsatellite markers
Xiao, Luo ; Balkunde, Sangshetty ; Yang, Paul ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Ahn, Sang-Nag ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.009
The study was conducted to evaluate the genetic similarity among commercial japonica rice varieties in Korea and China and to develop markers to differentiate between japonica cultivars developed in Korea and China. The genetic similarity and cluster of 38 accessions were analyzed using 47 SSR(simple sequence repeat) markers. The number of alleles by 47 SSR markers ranged from 2 to 9 with an average of 3.6. A total of 169 alleles were detected among these tested rice varieties. The PIC value varied from 0.05 to 0.79 with an average of 0.44. The Chinese japonica cultivars could be differentiated from the japonica cultivars in Korea by combining 2 SSR markers, RM223 and RM266. Cluster analysis showed that 38 tested varieties could be distinguished into japonica and indica based on the genetic distance.
A study on the foreign investment law and permission procedure of forestation business in Laos
Bang, Hong-Seok ; Kweon, Hyeong-Keun ; Choi, Sung-Min ; Lee, Joon-Woo ; Kong, Young-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 17~21
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.017
The purpose of this study is to review the laws on foreign investment and the changed licensing procedures in Laos and to provide the data for basic understanding of foreign forestation investment in Laos. The conclusions are as follows. The Laos government has been consistently trying to promote foreign investment. In particular, in 2004, the "Law on the Promotion of Foreign Investment" was legislated. In 2009, the Foreign Investment Promotion Act and the Domestic Investment Promotion Act to incorporate the principles of the "Law on Investment Promotion" were enacted. In Laos, the country's land is owned by the nation's community and maintained by the government. Therefore, through the procedures for registration of land, land can be conceded or leased. The ways to invest are joint ventures (where at least 10% of the total capital investment has to be made), foreign sole investment (where the investor must have a minimum capital of $100,000 or more), joint venture agreement and etc. Lastly, the forestation licensing procedures in Laos are carried out in the following order: site selection, business investments feasibility studies, environmental and social impact assessment, forestry permit application.
Molecular cloning of Prophenoloxidase (PPO) gene related to melanin formation of elytra of Harmonia axyridis
Kim, Sae-Hee ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Park, Min-Woo ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 23~28
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.023
In order to cloning of PPO gene as a melanin formation related genes involved in hardening and pigmentation of insect integument or wing, we cloned cDNA and analyzed the sequence of PPO gene of H. axyridis. PPO2 primer were designed based on the sequences of PPO genes of Tribolium castaneum and Drosophila melanogaster, and then plasmid DNA were cloned from PCR products obtained from different two color patterns. When the plasmid DNA band pattern were digested by restriction enzymes, BamH1, Xba1, and EcoR1, we found same size band pattern. However, this sequence was not homologous to sequence of T. castaneum PPO gene. Using the primer designed based on the sequence of D. melanogaster, 209 bp PCR product was observed.
Study on waxy corn hybrids - XV. Major botanical characteristic on CNU hybrids using domestic waxy corn germplasm(Zea mays L.)
Choi, Hyun-Gu ; Lee, Moon-Sub ; Bok, Tae-Gyu ; Na, Woong-Hyun ; Ko, Hyuck-Soo ; Lee, Sunck-Young ; Jo, Yang-Hee ; Lee, Hee-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 29~34
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.029
This study was carried out to identify the characteristics of 37 corn hybrids, which composed with 18 yellow colored kernel, 9 purple colored kernel, 8 white colored kernel. Days to silking of three colored waxy corn hybrids ranged from 61 to 73 days after sowing as midium-late ecotype. Ear length of hybrids ranged from 10.3 to 22.7 cm, and among them a total 22 waxy corn hybrids including CNU038 showed over 20 cm in ear length. The fresh weight per ear ranged from 58 to 289 g as the 32.9% of large coefficient of variance. In there results, we found yellow colored waxy corn hybrids showed relatively longer in ear length and heavier in fresh weight per ear compare to other colored waxy corn hybrids. In correlation relationships, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, ear length and ear weight showed positive correlation between themselves, while tip filling ratio did negative correlation with silking stage, plant height, ear length, ear weight and kernel thickness. Also, 100 kernel weight did positive correlation between traits related to ear and kernel.
Effects of various bed soil on the growth and yield of organically grown 2-year-old ginseng in the shaded plastic houses
Lee, Nu-Ri ; Kim, Jung-Sun ; Jo, Seo-Ri ; Choi, Yeong-Kyu ; Choi, Jae-Eul ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.035
This research was conducted to investigate the influence of organic bed soil substrates on growth and yield of organically grown ginseng transplantation in a shaded plastic houses. The pH and EC of the substrates used for this study were 5.93-6.78 and 0.03-0.15 dS/m, respectively. The concentrations of NH4-N and
-N were 14.01-68.63 mg/L, 5.60-58.83 mg/L respectively. and the average quantum in the shaded plastic houses was 11-15% of natural light. The maximum temperature in the shaded plastic houses is higher (
) than that of outside open field from the last part of April to early in August. Emergence date of ginseng was on March 21 in the mongolian type shaded plastic house, and was on March 29 in normal type shaded plastic house. Both roots and shoot growth of ginseng were excellent in the bed soils with PPV-2, compared with other compounds used. We concluded that the PPV-2 could be promising a good bed soil substrate for organic ginseng cultivation in shaded plastic house.
Analysis on the relationship between Hanwoo brands' growth and marketing margin
Koo, Bon-Chul ; Park, Jae-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.043
Hanwoo, Korean cattle, is traditionally an important livestock to farmers and also important meat to consumers. Recently, to make more efficient production system and provide cheaper and high-quality hanwoo meat, the scale-up via brand is emphasized. However, the price of hanwoo is getting higher and the price increase is considered to occur due to marketing margins in the distribution process. In this study, factors affecting the hanwoo marketing margin are analyzed using 2004-2009 monthly data. In the Cochrane-Orcutt estimation of marketing margin, hanwoo production, other domestic production and import, income, output index, market share of major retailers, and market share of hanwoo brands shows statistical significance in the result. The results shows basic factors of the marketing margins to hanwoo and gives some implications to the management system of hanwoo brand like a sophisticated market segmentation and a differentiated promotion.
Laying performance of two pure-line Korean native ducks at different house types
Kim, Hak-Kyu ; Hong, Eui-Chul ; Kang, Bo-Seok ; Kim, Chong-Dae ; Heo, Kang-Nyeong ; Choo, Hyo-Jun ; HwangBo, Jong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 53~60
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.053
This work was conducted to evaluate the laying performance of Korean Native Ducks (KND) Pure-Line (PL). A total of 400 female pullets were hatched from PL to keep in National Institute of Animal Science, Korea. Twenty weeks old PL female ducks were divided into 4 groups (5 replications/group, 20 head/replications). Four groups were compared in a
factorial arrangement with strain (White strains, WW; Celadon strains, CC) and house type (flat house, cage house). On first egg laying day, CC strain laid eggs earlier compared to WW strain (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between flat and cage house. Egg weight (EW) and body weight (BW) at first egg laying day have no difference among strains and houses. BW of CC strain was higher than WW strain at the age of 30 week (P<0.01). Weekly feed intake (FI) have no difference between flat and cage house, but FI of WW strain was high compared to CC strain during 20~30 weeks. There was no significant difference on EW between CC and WW strains, but EW was low at flat house compared to cage house (P<0.05). Weekly egg productions of WW strain and flat house were lower than CC strain and cage house, respectively (P<0.01). Finally, These results can provide the information that needed to introducing new strains.
Effect of dietary supplementation of quercetin on antioxidant activity and meat quality of beef cattle
Kang, Min-Gu ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Jang, Ae-Ra ; Gam, Dong-Keun ; Yun, Gwan-Sik ; Jo, Cheo-Run ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 61~68
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.061
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of quercetin (
, QR) on antioxidative activity and meat quality of beef cattle (Holstein-Friesian). Beef cattle were divided into 3 groups; dietary supplementation of QR at 21 (n=4) and 42 ppm (n=3), and non-supplemented control (n=4). The QR comprised of 10% of quercetin. After slaughtering the beef cattle, loins were obtained and analyzed. Dietary supplementation of QR at 42 ppm showed significantly higher final pH of loin but did not affect the water holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss, surface color, total phenolics content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Dietary QR showed no difference in both 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values. Textural characteristic results also showed no difference, except for cohesiveness. Cohesiveness was significantly higher in loin from beef cattle treated by dietary QR at 42 ppm when compared to control. Results suggest that dietary QR, which has only 10% of quercetin is not sufficient to have positive biochemical effects on beef meat quality.
Screening of aldose reductase inhibitory activity of white-color natural products
Mok, So-Youn ; Shin, Hyun-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 69~73
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.069
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of naturally occurring aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors from white-color natural products (Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus, Chionanthus retusa, Cosmos bipinnatus, Hibiscus syriacus, Hydrangea paniculata, Magnolia denudata, Prunus padus, Robinia pseudo-accacia, Rhododendron mucronulatum for. albiflorum, Spiraea blumei, and Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora). The MeOH extract of white-color natural products were tested on rat lens AR inhibition in vitro. Among them, the MeOH extract of R. mucronulatum for. albiflorum showed highest inhibition on AR (
). These results suggested that R. mucronulatum for. albiflorum, a white-color natural product, could be a useful resource in the development of a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic complications.
Increased antioxidative effects of Seolitae Chungkukjang added with green tea powders
Cho, Eun-Ju ; Park, Hyun-Young ; Kim, Hyun-Young ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 75~79
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.075
To increase antioxidative activity and minimize off-flavor of Chungkukjang, Seoliate as main ingredient and green tea as minor ingredient were selected. The protective efffect of green tea for Chungkukjang was evaluated under in vitro. Seolitae Chungkukjang added with green tea (SCG) was prepared on the basis of the protective effect of green tea from oxidative stress. Green tea showed the strong protective effect against nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (
) radicals. The SCG perparation method was as follows. Seolitae was cleaned and washed, soaked in 1.5-fold water (
) of Seolitae weight for 48 hr. Seolitae was steamed about 40 min by autoclave and then cooled about
. Bacillus subtilis was inoculated and 5.0-fold green tea of weight was added, and then it was fermented for 60 hr at
. According to the preparation method, Seolitae Chungkukjang (SC) and Seolitae Chungkukjang added with green tea 5.0% (SCG5.0) were prepared. Among the Chungkukjang groups SCG5.0 exerted more effective scavenging activity of NO than SC. In addition, SC added with green tea 5.0% showed high
scavenging effect. These results suggest the antioxidative potential against free radical-induced oxidative damage of SCG.
Free radical scavenging effect and protective activity from oxidative stress of broccoli flowers and sprouts
Kim, Hyun-Young ; Lee, Young-A ; Cho, Eun-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 81~86
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.081
In this study, the antioxidative effect and protective potential against oxidative damage of extract and fractions from broccoli were investigated under in vitro and cellular system. The methanol (MeOH) extracts of broccoli flowers and sprouts were partitioned as dichloromethane, n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous fractions. The comparison of antioxidative effect of broccoli flowers and sprouts showed that broccoli sprouts exerted the more effective protective activity from 2,2'-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in LLC-
porcine renal epithelial cell. In addition, the extract and fractions from broccoli sprouts showed strong scavenging effect of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and the BuOH fraction exerted the strongest activity. Therefore, the BuOH fraction was evaluated as the most active fraction with strong radical scavenging activity among the fractions of broccoli flowers and sprouts. The present study suggests the antioxidative potential against free radical-induced oxidative damage of flowers and sprouts of broccoli. In addition, the BuOH fraction of broccoli is considered as the active fraction with antioxidative effect.
Assessment of the Urban Heat Island Effects with LANDSAT and KOMPSAT-2 Data in Cheongju
Na, Sang-Il ; Park, Jong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 87~95
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.087
Land surface temperature (LST) is an important factor in human health, thermal environment, heat balance, global change studies, and as control for climate change. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Effects on the LST and NDVI in Cheongju, Korea. The aim was to evaluate the effect of urban thermal environment for LST comparison of satellite-derived and in situ measured temperature. In this study, LANDSAT TM and KOMPSAT scene were used. The results indicated that the minimum LST is observed over dense forest as about
and maximum LST is observed over industrial area of about
. The estimated LST showed that industrial area, bare soils and built-up areas exhibit higher surface temperatures, while forest, water bodies, agricultural croplands, and dense vegetations have lower surface temperatures during the summer daytime. Result corroborates the fact that LST over land use/land cover (LULC) types are greatly influenced by the amount of vegetation and water bodies present. The LST of industrial area and urban center is higher than that of suburban area, so it is clearly proved that there are obvious UHIE in Cheongju.
Safety evaluation of agricultural reservoir embankment according to backside extension
Lee, Dal-Won ; Noh, Jae-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 97~110
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.097
This study was carried out for safety evaluation, the practical application and improvement of design method of the agricultural reservoir embankment according to backside extension. Seepage analysis, slope stability analysis and finite element analysis were performed for steady state and transient conditions. Also, the pore water pressure, seepage quantity, safety factor and stress-strain behavior according to high water level and rapid drawdown were compared and analyzed. The pore water pressure at contact region between backside extension and old embankment was kept high after rapid drawdown. Therefore, backside extension is recommended that design method is required to be improved and reinforced more than the others raising embankment. The hydraulic gradients before and after backside extension showed high value at the base of the core, but they showed stable state at the upstream slope and downstream slope. The seepage quantity per 1 day and the leakage per 100 m for the steady state and transient conditions appeared to be safe against the piping. The safety factor of slope stability showed high at the steady state, and transient conditions did not show differences depending on the rapid drawdown. The safety factor was appeared high at the upstream slope before backside extension and downstream slope after extension. The excess pore water pressure for steady state and transient conditions showed negative(-) at the upstream slope, it was small at the downstream slope. The mean effective stress (p') showed high at the base of the core and to be wild distribution after the extension. The displacement after extension showed 0.02-0.06 m in the upstream slope, the maximum shear strain after extension was smaller than that before extension.
Study on non-destructive sorting technique for lettuce(Lactuca sativa L) seed using fourier transform near-Infrared spectrometer
Ahn, Chi-Kook ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Kang, Jum-Soon ; Lee, Kang-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 111~116
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.111
Nondestructive evaluation of seed viability is one of the highly demanding technologies for seed production industry. Conventional seed sorting technologies, such as tetrazolium and standard germination test are destructive, time consuming, and labor intensive methods. Near infrared spectroscopy technique has shown good potential for nondestructive quality measurements for food and agricultural products. In this study, FT-NIR spectroscopy was used to classify normal and artificially aged lettuce seeds. The spectra with the range of 1100~2500 nm were scanned for lettuce seeds and analyzed using the principal component analysis(PCA) method. To classify viable seeds from nonviable seeds, a calibration modeling set was developed with a partial least square(PLS) method. The calibration model developed from PLS resulted in 98% classification accuracy with the Savitzky-Golay
derivative preprocessing method. The prediction accuracy for the test data set was 93% with the MSC(Multiplicative Scatter Correction) preprocessing method. The results show that FT-NIR has good potential for discriminating non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.
Development of non-destructive measurement method for discriminating disease-infected seed potato using visible/near-Infrared reflectance technique
Kim, Dae-Yong ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Lee, Youn-Su ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.117
Pathogenic fungi and bacteria such as Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Verticillium albo-atrum, and Rhizoctonia solani were the major microorganism which causes diseases in seed potato during postharvest process. Current detection method for disease-infected seed potato relies on human inspection, which is subjective, inaccurate and labor-intensive method. In this study, a reflectance spectroscopy was used to classify sound and disease-infected seed potatoes with the spectral range from 400 to 1100 nm. Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with various preprocessing methods was used to investigate the feasibility of classification between sound and disease-infected seed potatoes. The classification accuracy was above 97 % for discriminating disease seed potatoes from sound ones. The results show that Vis/NIR reflectance method has good potential for non-destructive sorting for disease-infected seed potatoes.
The analysis on the effects of change of international grain price on the processed food price in Korea
Kim, Soung-Hun ; Koo, Seung-Mo ; Son, Chang-Soo ; Lee, Kye-Oh ; Han, Suk-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 125~132
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.125
The 2009 Agricultural Survey is one of the most important official statistics about agricultural sector, which is mostly used by experts. However users have kept claiming about the problems of the 2009 Agricultural Survey, which need to be discussed in the academic area. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the 2009 Agricultural Survey and the level of satisfaction of users and to evaluate the 2009 Agricultural Survey. Then, the paper presents some suggestions to upgrade the 2009 Agricultural Survey. The results of studies present a few findings: First, the 2009 Agricultural Survey shows overall excellence but should focus on adding more various topics in agricultural sector, Second, the 2009 Agricultural Survey need to consider offering micro level data for experts such as data in the city or county level, Third, the 2009 Agricultural Survey had better to offer more specific examination and guide line for general users.
A study on consideration factors affecting to purchase for animal welfare egg - Focused on ranked logit model -
Ohh, Sang-Jip ; Jung, Yun-Pil ; Hong, Seung-Jee ; Choi, Myung-Rae ; Kim, Yong-Bog ; Lee, Jong-In ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 133~142
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.133
In this paper, animal welfare egg was focused in Korea. This study was built to establish marketing strategies for the animal welfare egg. Data were collected by consumer survey on November 4th, 2011 at Chuncheon Hanaromart in Chuncheon. 355 questionnaires were distributed and collected. SAS 9.1 and Excel 2007 were used as statistical packages and ranked logit model was used to analyze. From the results of the study the following improving plans were suggested for the consideration factors affecting to purchase for animal welfare egg. First, strategies using public relations are needed only for package design. The package design will be able to complements gaps for low advertisement. Moreover, when consumer will be provided information on packaging for consumers, the consumer will be able to reduce anxiety. Second, package design of identity strategies are needed. There are so many package designs in market. The package design of identity may give competition power to the animal welfare egg.
Analysis of operation status on leading group of agro-food export
Kim, Kyung-Phil ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 143~149
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.143
It is necessary to construct the supply system which is stable and quality assured for professional performance of agro-food export. The purpose of this study is to present the basic information about the improvement directions on the Leading Group of Agro-food Export. The result of analysis is presented by the achievement of business objective, farm-organization and large scale-up, marketing achievement, and the fidelity of group operations etc.
Consumers' purchasing behavior and preference for small packaged apple
Cho, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Han-Sung ; Lee, Sang-Hak ; Kim, Tae-Kyun ; Hong, Na-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 39, issue 1, 2012, Pages 151~159
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2012.39.1.151
This paper analyzes the consumers' preference for packaged apple and derives the measures to vitalize the distribution of packaged apple. To do this, survey was conducted for consumers in large cities, Seoul, Busan, and Daegu to observe their purchasing behavior and satisfaction both for packaged and unpackaged apple. Survey was focused to how they are satisfied with several attributes of package such as size, appearance, content, material, and label. On the basis of the survey results, the values of the package attributes were estimated. Survey results show that consumers tend to buy unpackaged apple rather than packaged apple. About 34 percent out of 313 respondents have ever purchased apple packed with paper box while only 10.5 percent have an experience to buy packaged apple with transparent box. Most respondents answered they preferred the package of five to six apples and 1.3 kilograms most. They preferred mid or large size apple. Estimation of the values of the package attributes using the conjoint analysis shows that consumers are giving the highest value to the price of packing material. It means that consumers are reluctant to the extra payment resulted from packing the apple. Therefore, the efforts to reduce the cost of packing apple should be made steadily. In order to vitalize the distribution of small packaged apple, the package should contain high quality apple with high sugar content, proper size, good appearance, and so on. And it needs to be promoted to the consumers that small packaged apple are not inferior to apple packed with paper box.