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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
CNU Journal of Agricultural Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Adaptability test of the existing seeder in Foxtail millet & Sorghum
Choi, Il-Su ; Chung, Sun-Ok ; Jun, Hyeon-Jong ; Choi, Yong ; Choi, Duck-Kyu ; Kang, Tae-Gyoung ; Hyun, Chang-Sik ; Lee, Choung-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 259~264
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.259
This research was conducted to find design factors of seed metering device for developing seeder. It can be sowed precisely 1~3 seeds of Foxtail millet & Sorghum. To obtain fundamental information for designing seed metering device, we conducted adaptability test of the existing seeder in Foxtail millet & Sorghum. Major findings were as followings. Except of Model-A which was adapted sorghum(by seeding metering cup of width 3.9mm and length 4.5mm), seeders which were used in experiment showed that high value of miss-planted rates and more than four-planted rates. So to enhance precision of seeding in Foxtail millet & Sorghum, existing seeders were considered necessary by some supplementation.
Shelf-life comparison of two Korean golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) cultivars under low temperature storage
Lee, Ah-Youn ; Bae, Tae-Min ; Cho, Youn-Sup ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 265~274
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.265
Physiological characteristics of two Korean golden kiwifruit cultivars, 'Halla Gold' and 'Haehyang', were compared to determine the storage potential of fruit. The soluble solid levels of the fruit were 8.9 and 6.9 oBrix in 'Halla Gold' and 'Haehyang' at harvest, respectively but increased up to 15.4 in 'Halla Gold' and 17.5 oBrix in 'Haehyang' after 2 months of storage. Major sugars were fructose and glucose, and sucrose content was relatively low regardless of cultivar. The edible quality of 'Haehyang' was better than 'Halla Gold' because of higher amount of sugars. Firmness of the fruits gradually decreased as the increase of storage period in 'Halla Gold' in both flesh and core tissue. Th firmness loss of 'Haehyang' fruit was faster in the first 2 months and then became slow. After 75 days of storage, the firmness of 'Haehyang' fruit was only 5.2% at harvest. Core tissue was soften enough to eat at ripe stage. Wall modifying enzyme activities including xylanase,
-galactosidase were consistently higher in 'Haehyang' and the activity of pectate lyase was more increased than 'Halla Gold' after 2 months of storage. Respiration rate of 'Haehyang' was higher than 'Halla Gold' and further increased after 2 months of storage. Weight loss was much higher in 'Haehyang' which showed higher rate of the firmness loss. The storage potential of golden kiwifruit was estimated to be about 2 months for 'Haehyang' and 3 months for 'Halla Gold' when determined on the basis of the fruit firmness.
Changes in photosynthesis and carbohydrate synthesis in response to elevated UV-B environment
Yun, Hyejin ; Sung, Jwakyung ; Lee, Suyeon ; Lee, Yejin ; Ha, Sangkeun ; Sonn, Yeonkyu ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 275~281
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.275
The ozone depletion has caused plants to be exposed to an increased penetration of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Enhanced UV-B radiation may have influence on biological functions of plant in many aspects including inhibition of photosynthesis. It is evident that UV-B can potentially impair the performance of all three main component processes of photosynthesis, the photophosphorylation reactions of the thylakoid membrane, the
-fixation reactions of the Calvin cycle and stomatal control of
supply. Owing to these depressed reactions, the production and allocation of carbohydrates might be markedly affected, and therefore, the growth and development of plant are distinctly reduced. In this review paper, we provide basic theory and further researches in terms of photosynthesis and carbohydrate synthesis in response to elevated UV-B radiation.
Growth and Flowering of Calla (Zantedeschia elliottiana cv. 'Black Magic') with various mulching materials and GA
Nam, Chun-Woo ; Yoo, Dong-Lim ; Kim, Su-Jeong ; Suh, Jong-Teak ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ; Lee, Sang Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 283~290
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.283
This experiment had been conducted to determine optimal culture conditions for the growth and cut flowers of Calla (Zantedeschia 'Black Magic' 'Golden Affair') in highlands. Tubers of calla 'Black Magic' was treated with 0, 100, and
. ABA content in tubers and roots were twice higher (
) in control than in
treated tubers and roots. ABA contents in tubers was not consistent but ABA contents in roots increased with increasing
concentration. However ABA is in inverse proportion to GA. It was mean that GA of high contents was ABA of low contents. Calla 'Golden Affair' was treated with different mulching materials (Control, black PE, Reflective film, Rice hull) and
concentrations (0, 50, 100 and
). It was largest in the length of flower at mulching of reflective film, Rice hull and it was greatest in the number of cut flowers at the treated with
, Therefore the proper condition was at
with reflective film mulching.
Effect of high temperature on mineral uptake, Soluble carbohydrates partitioning and cucumber yield
Sung, Jwakyung ; Lee, Suyeon ; Lee, Yejin ; Ha, Sangkeun ; Sonn, Yeonkyu ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 291~298
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.291
Plastic film houses are directly associated with increases in plant growth and yield of vegetable crops through a year round cultivation, however, at the same time temperature stresses are one of fates which are difficult to avoid during crop growth. The objective of this study was to examine the translocation and distribution of minerals (N, P, K) and carbohydrates as well as seasonal fluctuation of mineral uptake and carbohydrate production in cucumber plant grown under moderately high temperature. The temperature treatments consisted of 2-layers film houses (optimal temp.) and 3-layers (high temp.). Shoot growth of cucumber plants were linearly increased until 14 weeks after transplanting (WAT) without any significant difference between both temperatures, and the slowdown was observed from 16 WAT. The level of soluble sugar and starch was slightly greater in optimal temperature compared to the high. Cumulative accumulation of soluble sugar was significantly different before and after 12 WAT in both treatments, whereas starch level represented a constant increase. Monthly production of soluble sugar reached the peak between 12 to 16 WAT, and starch peaked between 4 to 8 WAT and 12 to 16 WAT. Total uptake of N, P and K in optimal and high temperature conditions was
and 17.6 for N, 4.7 and 5.1 for P, and 37.7 and 36.2 for K, respectively, and the pattern of monthly N uptake between optimal and high temperatures was greater in early growth stage, whereas was greater in mid growth stage in both P and K. Thus, this study suggests that moderately high temperature influences much greater to photosynthesis and carbohydrate production than plant biomass and mineral uptake. On the basis of the present result, it is required to indentify analysis of respiration rates from plant and soil by constantly increasing temperature conditions and field studies where elevated temperatures are monitored and manipulated.
A white double flowering freesia 'Shiny Bell' with high yielding for cut flower
Choi, Youn Jung ; Jeong, Hyang Young ; Goo, Dae Heo ; Kang, Yun Im ; Cho, Hae Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 299~302
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.299
A freesia (Freesia hybrida Hort.) 'Shiny Bell' was developed for the cut flower in the National Institute of Horticultural Herbal Science in 2012. This hybrid was selected from a crossing between cn. 'Teresa' and 'Rossini', which is white semi-double flowering and red double flowering, respectively. in 2004. Morphological characteristics of the selected hybrid were investigated for 3 years from 2009 to 2011, and then it was named 'Shiny Bell'. 'Shiny Bell' had red color of RHS W155C, and double flower. The growth of the plant was vigorous and the average height was 109.3 cm. The average flower width was 5.8 mm, number of floret per stalk was 11.3, and stalk length was 8.5 cm. The average yield, 7.3 Branches per plant, was 3 stems per plant more than the control cultivar. The average days to first flowering of 'Shiny Bell', was 143.3 days, and it was approximately 7 days later than the control cultivar. The average yield of 'Shiny Bell' was 4.0 cormlets per plant.
Occurrence and distribution characteristics of weed species on upland Chinese cabbage fields in Chungnam province
Hwang, Ki Seon ; Eom, Min Yong ; Park, Su Hyuk ; Won, Ok Jae ; Suh, Su Jeoung ; Lee, In Yong ; Park, Kee Woong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 303~308
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.303
This study was conducted in order to utilize the basic data for weed control by surveying the occurrence of weed species. Total 63 sites of upland Chinese cabbage fields in Chungnam Provinces were investigated. The result of survey, 71 weed species in 25 families were identified and classified to 39 annuals, 16 biennials and 16 perennials. Based on the occurrence ratio, the most weed species belonged to Compositae (20 species). 8, 6 and 5 weed species belonged to Poaceae, Cruciferae and Polygonaceae, respectively, and these 10 weed species in the most six families accounted for 50% of total weed occurrence. The most dominant weed species in upland Chinese cabbage fields were Portulaca oleracea (8.07%), followed by Digitaria ciliaris (7.54%), Rorippa palustris (6.44%), Chenopodium album (5.73%), Echinochloa crus-galli (5.02%) and Cyperus amuricus (3.95).
Morphological characterization of Korean and Turkish watermelon germplasm
Huh, Yun Chan ; Choi, Hak Soon ; Solmaz, Ilknur ; Sari, Nebahat ; Kim, Su ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.309
A total of 67 watermelon accessions which include 37 accessions from Korean and 27 accessions from Turkish germplasm and 3 accessions of other related species from USA were investigated for morphological characteristics. The UPOV descriptor list for 56 characters (6 seedlings, 4 plants, 11 leaves, 5 flowers, 23 fruits and 7 seeds) was used in characterization. In addition, eight quantitative characters, hypocotyl length, cotyledon width, cotyledon length, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, thickness of outer layer of pericarp and soluble solid content were also measured. The 56 qualitatively scored characters were analyzed by principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) while the eight quantitative ones were subjected to principle component analysis (PCA). Morphological characterization result demonstrated that the accessions displayed high morphological diversity(how much percent?). A high level of phenotypic diversity was observed from the results of morphological characterization. However, plant growth habit and leaf blade flecking showed constant characters for all of the accessions. The Korean and Turkish watermelon genotypes are diverse groups and can be separated by both multivariate analysis of morphological characters although the grouping was more apparent in PCoS results.
Occurrence and distribution of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) in strawberry greenhouse
Choi, Yong-Seok ; Hwang, In-Su ; Kim, Kyu-Sang ; Jo, Hyo-Ryu ; Seo, Jeong-Hak ; Park, Deok-Gee ; Lee, Young-Su ; Yu, Yong-Man ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 315~319
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.315
Mean densities of two-spotted spider mite (TSM), Tetranichus urticae Koch adults from January to April in 2014 to investigate the occurrence and dispersion pattern of T. urticae on purpose of developing a monitoring method in the strawberry PVC house. Difference of density of T. urticae adult on middle and both side of leaf wasn't significantly. Density of T. urticae in investigation at different furrows and investigating points was the highest at the right and left sides of a furrow in strawberry PVC house. In results of comparing the dispersion incides of Taylor's power law (TPL) with Iwao's patchiness regression (IPR), TPL described better mean-relationship for the dispersion indieces compared to IPR. Slopes and intercepts of TPL from leaf samples did not differ among surveyed regions. Also, Distribution of T. urticae in a strawberry PVC house was the gravitation of the distribution because b and
values of TPL and IPR was bigger than 1.
Photosynthetic characteristics and growth analysis of Angelica gigas according to different hydroponics methods
Park, Jong-Seok ; Kim, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Hong-Ju ; Choi, Jong-Myung ; Lee, Gong-In ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 321~326
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.321
The aim of this study was to investigate which hydroponic system is the optimum for growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Angelica gigas during experiment. Angelica gigas 'Manchu' were sowed and managed under a growth room chamber. The environmental conditions (temperature
(day/night), relative humidity 50-70%, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)
) were maintained for 3 weeks. Forty eight seedlings with 4-5 leaves were transplanted in deep flow technique (DFT), substrate, and spray culture systems [culture bed: 800 (L)
400 mm(H)] under
PPFD provided with fluorescence lamps and cultivated for 11 weeks. At the end of the experiment, fresh and dry weights, leaf lenghth and width, SPAD, root fresh, and dry weights, and root volume of Anglica gigas were measured. Photosynthetic rate of Anglica gigas were measured with portable photosynthesis systems to investigate optimum PPFD,
concentration, and air temperature conditions. Fresh and dry weights of Anglica gigas grown in substrate were significantly greater than DFT-treated, but there were not significant with spray treatment. Leaf photosynthesis of Anglica gigas showed the tendency to sharply increase as PPFD was increased from 50 to
saturation point was around
, increase in air temperature from 16 to
did not quite affect photosynthesis of Anglica gigas. In conclusion, Anglica gigas may be optimally cultivated with a spray culture system as air temperature, PPFD, and
concentration for environment are controlled at
, and around
for mass production.
Change of photosynthetic efficiency and yield by low light intensity on ripening stage in japonica rice
Lee, Min Hee ; Kang, Shin-Gu ; Sang, Wan-Gyu ; Ku, Bon-Il ; Kim, Young-Doo ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 327~334
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.327
Light intensity is one of the most important requirements for plant growth, affecting growth, development, survival, and crop productivity. Sunlight is the main energy source on Earth which is energy used by photosynthesis to convert light energy to chemical energy. In this study, the light use efficiency and photosynthetic characteristics of high-quality rice cultivars were evaluated after shading on ripening stage. For the study, we treated of three levels of shade (0, 50 and 70%) on rice at ripening stage and two levels of nitrogen (9 and 18 kg/10a) used three high yielding rice cultivars, such as Boramchan, Hopum, and Honong. The shade was given for the respective plots from heading up to harvesting. We were performed to determine growth survey, SPAD and chlorophyll fluorescence every 10 days interval after shading on ripening stage. At harvest stage, grain yield and yield components were determined. Results of analysis of the results representing the maximum photosynthetic efficiency of PSII, Fv/Fm, and SPAD were decreased by depending on the time at full sunlight. But shade treatments were not changed and a significant difference among cultivars did not appear. Compared with the full sunlight, shade treatments significantly delayed ripening rate and decreased rice quality of cultivated rice. Therefore, rice yield, can be reduced in proportion to the shading density is apparent, the rate of decrease was not observed difference between varieties, when protected from light 70%, and decreased to less than 50%. The adverse effects of low light intensity on the yield and yield components were not able to significantly minimize by the nitrogen level.
Development and of Diagnostic System for Detection of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus using by Nested PCR
Min, Byung-Dae ; Kim, Young-Suk ; Lee, Siwon ; Lee, Su-Heon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 335~339
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.335
Cowper chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is the 'controlled' quarantine virus as plant pathogenic virus that are classed as group VI (+) ssRNA virus that belongs to the genus Bromovirus and family Bromoviridae, When plants that are Phaseolus vulgaris, Clitoria ternatea, Nicotiana tabaccum, Glycine max, Vigna unguiculata and Vigna siensis, and Arachis hypogaea is imported in domestic. In this study, inspection system is implemented to analyze CCMV accurately and rapidly by developing RT-PCR, nested PCR, and gene insertion positive control. It is expected that the method developed in this study will contribute to the plant quarantine to be consistently utilized in the field.
Occurrence patterns of insect pests in the field of Lycium chinense under environment-friendly management
Ryu, Tae-Hee ; Kang, Chan-Yeong ; Jung, Yu-Bin ; Ko, Na-Yeon ; Kwon, Hye-Ri ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Kim, Yeong-Guk ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 341~350
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.341
The occurrence of insect pests of Lycium chinense was monitored at 4 organic farms that was cultivated with environment-friendly management at Cheongyang, Chungnam from May, 2012 to September, 2014. Total 4 orders and 18 species occurred in the L. chinense. Among them, 4 major pests and Lepidopteran and Hemipteran insect pests were investigated the occurrence pattern. During the budding, the population density of Myzus persicae was very high in late-May and early-June, and the injury by Lema decempunctata was increased from mid-June. The injuries by Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata and Hedma lycia sp. were continued throughout the growing season. From the fruit held in late-July, hemipteran insects including Plautia stali and Halyomorpba balys were sucking the fruit, and their injury to L. chinense were gradually increased. In the case of Eriophys macrodonis densities to increase gradually from early July. The population density of E. macrodonis in 2014 was rapidly increased more than 5 times compared with 2012 and 2013. It was supposed that the initial control of mites or the removing of over-wintering density in the past year might be neglected. However, there is a need to more review the factors for the mass occurs.
Genetic characteristics of the novel insect pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain
Seo, Mi Ja ; Youn, Young Nam ; Yu, Yong Man ; Kim, Ki Su ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 351~359
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.351
For identifying the plasmid DNA coding cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai KB098 with high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera exigua, mutant isolates with no crystal protein were produced by
incubation condition and then mutant plasmid DNA band patterns were compared with those of KB098. KB098 isolates had 4 cry genes, cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1C, cry1D, and also had been found seven plasmid DNA. Though the SDS-PAGE experiment, it was confirmed that mutant didn't produce 130~145kDa protein band involved in bipyramidal shape crystal. Also, five mutant isolates had no cry genes coding plasmid DNA in PCR. In result of comparison the plasmid DNA of KB098 and 5 mutant isolates, only 1 plasmid DNA band was left out in mutant plasmid DNA pattern, so that the missing band was extracted from the gel. The missing(disappeared) plasmid DNA was the largest molecular size among the 7 plasmid DNA of KB098 and it was also confirmed this plasmid DNA had all 4 cry genes through PCR.
Developmental characteristics of Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata under different temperatures and control effect of eco-friendly agricultural materials on Lycium chinense
Kang, Chan-Yeong ; Ryu, Tae-Hee ; Jung, Yu-Bin ; Ko, Na-Yeon ; Kwon, Hye-Ri ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Kim, Yeong-Guk ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 361~367
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.361
Host plants of the Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata are known as Solanaceae plants such as potato, tomato, eggplant and Lycium chinense. Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata (Motschulsky) cause continuous damage from early June to mid-August in leaves of L. chinense under environmental-friendly management in Cheongyang, Chungnam. The developmental period of egg and larva of H. vigintioctomaculata were investigated. H. vigintioctomaculata were reared on L. chinense at several temperatures, for example, 15, 20, 25 and
in the laboratory. In addition, the control effect of 5 eco-friendly agricultural materials were examined. As results, hatching rate is the highest to 91% at
. Egg periods were 10.8, 7.7, 5.1 and 3.7 days at each tested temperature, respectively. And the total developmental periods from egg to adult were 42.7, 26.3, 18.4 and 19.4 days at each tested temperature, respectively. Otherwise, their eclosion rates from pupa to adult were showed 58%, 77%, 85%, 65% at each tested temperature, respectively. As a result of the control effect, both adults and larvae of H. vigintioctomaculata were shown a high mortality to mixture with extract of Sophora flavescens, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Melia azedarach. Additional, larvae is shown high mortality to extract of Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon nardus. Thus H. vigintioctomaculata might be controled by using plant extract of eco-friendly agricultural materials in due season.
Evaluating germination of lettuce and soluble organic carbon leachability in upland sandy loam soil applied with rice husk and food waste biochar
Han, Kyung-Hwa ; Zhang, Yong-Seon ; Jung, Kang-Ho ; Cho, Hee-Rae ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 369~377
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.369
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice husk (RHB) and food waste biochar (FWB) on upland soil with sandy loam texture, in terms of physico-chemical analysis, lettuce seed germination test, and orgainc carbon leaching experiment. RHB and FWB had different physico-chemical properties each other. Carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) of RHB was 32, showing two times higher than that of FWB. FWB had high salt and heavy metal content, compared to RHB. This is probably due to different ingredients and production processing between two biochars each other. Results of germination test with Lettuce showed lower germination rate when FWB was applied because of higher salt concentration compared to control and RHB. Organic carbon leaching test using saturated soil column (
biochar application rate, showed higher saturated hydraulic conductivity in rice husk biochar treatment column, compared to control and food waste biochar treatment. The highest total organic carbon concentration in column effluent was lower than those in both of rice husk biochar and food waste biochar, whereas the differences was negligible after 9 pore volumes of effluent. Consequently, biochars from byproducts such as rice husk and food waste in sandy loam textured upland soil could enhance a buffer function such as reduction of leaching from soil, but the harmful ingredient to crops such as high salt and heavy metals could limit the agricultural use of biochars.
Comparison between natural and anthropogenic soils through fractal dimension analysis
Shin, Kook-Sik ; Oh, Taek-Keun ; Hur, Seung-Oh ; Hyun, Byung-Geun ; Cho, Hyun-Joon ; Sonn, Yeon-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 379~384
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.379
In general, fractal analysis which is based on self-similarity as a basic theory has been mainly used to define the characteristics of complex mathematical figures, however, considering its basic theory, it can be also used to analyze the surface ununiformity of unknown materials. In this study, the soil samples were collected from the reclaimed (remodelled) agricultural fields which mean that the external soil is artificially piled up (mainly up to 1m) on the lands, Naju, Jellanam-do and Gumi, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and the conventional agricultural fields, Anseong, Gyeonggi-do and Hwasoon, Jellanam-do, and compared using fractal dimension analysis on the basis of the results of chemical properties. The score of fractal dimension (
) for organic matter was lower in Hwasoon (1.46) and Naju (1.58) than Anseong (1.86) and Gumi (1.96), and this trend showed similarly in soil pH. On the basis of the results of chemical properties, fine textured-soils (Hwasoon and Naju) and conventional agricultural fields were chemically uniform compared to coarse textured-soils (Anseong and Gumi) and the reclaimed. Therefore, it is required to develop technical methods for integrated soil management to the reclaimed lands.
Effects of nitrogen fertigation on cucumber growth and nitrate in Soil under plastic film house
Kang, Seong Soo ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Kong, Myung Seok ; Kim, Yoo Hak ; Oh, Taek-Keun ; Lee, Chang Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 385~390
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.385
To evaluate the impact of nitrogen fertigation on crop growth and
-N concentration in the soil solution, field experiment for cucumber cultivation during spring and fall season were carried out in on-farm located in Byeongcheon-myeon, Chunan-si, Chungcheonnam-do. Supplying nitrogen of 120-150 mg/L by fertigation device into soil per week reached to maximum yields of cucumber fruits. However, cucumber growth did not show any significant difference between nitrogen levels. Nitrogen supply of 400 mg/L, highest N levels, did not affect cucumber growth. Difference between green values of cucumber leaves using RGB scores were closely related with cucumber yields, and therefore, this results suggests that green values of cucumber leaves could be used as a way of determining the application rates of nitrogen for cucumber cultivation period under fertigation system.
Verification on PTF (Pedo-Transfer Function) estimating soil water retention based on soil properties
Hur, Seung-Oh ; Sonn, Yeon-Gyu ; Hyun, Byung-Kewn ; Shin, Kook-Sik ; Oh, Taek-Keun ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 391~398
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.391
Identifying soil water content as a major factor for evaluating irrigation and water resource is a primary module to develop a prediction model. A variety of PTFs (Pedo-Transfer Functions) are applied in the models to estimate soil water content, the analysis techniques, however, which compare the estimated from models and the measured by instruments, are not reached at the level to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PTFs in Korea. Many soil physicians such as Eom, Peterson, Rawls, Saxton, Bruand, Baties, Tomasella & Hodnett (T&H), and Minasny, have developed analytic models using PTFs. Soil data for the analysis used soil water contents on 347 soil series (10 kPa), 358 soil series (33 kPa), 356 soil series (1,500 kPa) established by NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Science). A coefficient of determination on soil water content at 10, 33 and 1,500 kPa was the highest as 0.5932 in EM (Eom model), 0.6744 in REM (Rawls model) and 0.6108 in REM, respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly suggested that the use of EM or REM is suitable for estimating soil water content in Korea although SM (Saxton model) has been widely used.
Determination of moisture threshold for solution sampling in different soil texture
Lee, Chang Hoon ; Kim, Myung Sook ; Kong, Myung Seok ; Kim, Yoo Hak ; Oh, Taek-Keun ; Kang, Seong Soo ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 399~404
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.399
Soil moisture is an important factor for the availability and circulation of nutrients in arable soil. The purpose of this study was to set thresholds moisture content on soil nitrate concentration in the solution for real-time diagnosis. Sandy loam, silt loam, and sandy loam was filled with
at Wagner pots, 0, 100, and
was saturated. Nitrate in standard solution was recovered about 95% by passing the porous cup. Nitrate concentrations in sampling of soil solution were examined by using a porous cup. The soil solution was higher in accordance with sandy loam> silt loam> clay loam, limited water filled pore space for sampling soil solution was 33.7, 56.4, and 62.2%, respectively. Nitrate concentration in the soil solution was negligible at sandy loam and silt loam during sampling periods, which was decreased about 50~82% in clay loam compared to the initial
-N concentration in the saturated
solution. Over limitation of soil solution sampling, soil EC and
-N content were increased with the saturated
-N concentration, regardless of soil texture (p<0.05). Conclusively, soil solution by using a porous cup was possible, regardless of the soil texture, which was useful for the diagnosis in nitrate concentration of soil solution. However, because nitrate concentration of soil solution in a clay loam changes, it was necessary for careful attention in order to take advantage for the real-time diagnosis of nitrogen management in soil.
The bovin phylogeny: A review
Sharma, Aditi ; Lee, SeungHwan ; Lee, JunHeon ; Dang, Changgwon ; Kim, Hyeong Cheul ; Yeon, SeongHum ; Kang, HeeSeol ; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh ; Vijh, Ramesh Kumar ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 405~413
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.405
The evolutionary history of cattle and buffalo has always been a topic of great interest to the evolutionary biologists. The phylogenetic studies of bovin species has been carried out at various levels, varying from the study of domestication and migration of populations to major cladogenesis. Along with the archeological studies there are studies from molecular biology and more recently from genomics. The phylogenetic perspective of the bovins and their evolutionary history, are reviewed in terms of what has been done, what needs to be done and potential challenges in doing it.
Effect of temperature and relative humidity in refrigerator on quality traits and storage characteristics of Pre-packed Hanwoo loin
Seol, Kuk-Hwan ; Kim, Ki Hyun ; Kim, Young Hwa ; Youm, Kyung Eun ; Lee, Mooha ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 415~424
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.415
This study was carried out to determine the effect of storage condition, such as temperature or relative humidity (RH) in home-style refrigerator, on the change of quality traits and storage characteristics of Hanwoo M. longissimus to find out the condition for prolongation of shelf-life with maintaining the meat quality for consumers. Samples were sliced in
thickness, and packed in foamed polystyrene tray with linear low-density polyethylene (LLD-PE) film to simulate the pre-packed Hanwoo loin sold in retail market, then stored in home-style refrigerator (
/17% RH, Control), and chambers of
/55% RH (T1),
/85% RH (T2), and
/99% RH (T3), respectively. Quality traits (color, pH, water holding capacity, shear force and grilling loss) and storage characteristics (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, volatile basic nitrogen and total microbes) were measured at 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after storage. Lightness of Hanwoo loin stored in T1, T2 and T3 were higher than that of control until 14 days of storage, however at the end of storage (21 days) control showed significantly higher than other treatments (p<0.05). Redness and Yellowness of Hanwoo loin samples stored in T1 and T3 were significantly higher than others during all storage period (p<0.05). The water holding capacity (WHC) of control was significantly higher than others until 14 days of storage (p<0.05), however, Hanwoo loin stored in T2 was the highest (
) at 21 days of storage. Hanwoo loin stored in T1 showed significantly lower shear force than others during all storage period (p<0.05). There was no consistent tendency in pH and grilling loss during storage in all treatments. Hanwoo loin stored in T1 showed lower TBARS value than others during storage period, however there was a rapid increase to
malonaldehyde/kg meat at 21 days of storage. And, all the treated samples (from T1 to T3) showed significantly lower VBN values at 21 days of storage (p<0.05). The population of total aerobic microbes were significantly increased in all treatments as storage period increasing, and the population of T3 (
) was the lowest at 21 days of storage (p<0.05). From those results, it could be predicted the better storage condition to maintain the meat quality and prolong the shelf-life of Hanwoo loin by lowering the temperature and adjusting the humidity about 55%.
Comparision of carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles between Duroc and corssbred pigs (Duroc × Korean native pig)
Kim, Doo-Wan ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ; Hong, Joon-Ki ; Cho, Kyu-Ho ; Sa, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Young-Min ; Park, Jun-Cheol ; Seol, Kuk-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 425~431
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.425
This study was conducted to develop new crossbred pig using Korean native pig and Duroc. Fifteen pigs of pure Duroc (D) and 26 crossbred gilts (15 of DK1 and 11 of DK2) were reared until
days old, then slaughtered at local slaughterhouse. Pork loin was gathered and vacuum packed from left carcass after 24 h of slaughter to analyze meat quality traits, such as color, pH, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss and shear force (SF), and free fatty acid composition. Live weight and carcass weight of Duroc and DK1 were
, respectively, and it was significantly higher than those of DK2 (
) (p<0.05).There was no significant difference in proximate composition between animal groups, however DK2 showed significantly lower shear force (SF) and higher water holding capacity (WHC) than other groups (p<0.05). The redness of DK2 also showed significantly higher than Duroc (p<0.05), however there was no significant difference in lightness and yellowness (p>0.05). DK1 showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) contents of
and DK2 showed the highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contents of
, however there was no significantly difference in PUFA/SFA ratio between pig groups (p>0.05). Duroc and DK2 contain significantly higher amount of linoleic (
, respectively) and linolenic acid (
, respectively) than DK1, and DK1 contains significantly higher amount of oleic acid (
) than others (p<0.05).
Effect of age on the contents of carnitine, free amino acid, and nucleotide-related compound in ribeye and top round from Holstein calf
Cho, Soohyun ; Kang, Geunho ; Seong, Pil-Nam ; Park, Beomyoung ; Kang, Sun Moon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 433~440
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.433
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of age on the contents of carnitine, free amino acid, and nucleotide-related compound in Holstein calf meat. Twenty calves were allocated into four age groups (3, 6, 9, or 12 mon of age; n=5/group), and ribeye (M. longissimus dorsi) and top round (M. semimembranosus) were excised from left side of each carcass on day 1 post-mortem. Carnitine contents for ribeye and top round were 0.79~1.16 and 0.65~1.26 mg/100 g, respectively, and those showed a tendency to be the highest in 3 mon group. The contents of majority of free amino acids were the highest (p<0.05) in ribeye and top round from 12 mon group. The contents of adenosine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, and inosine were the highest (p<0.05) in ribeye and top round from 12 mon group, but hypoxanthine content was the lowest (p<0.05) in those from 12 mon group. These findings suggest that age decreases the carnitine content but increases free amino acid and good taste-related nucleotides contents in Holstein calf meat.
Feed additives in broiler diets to produce healthy chickens without in-feed antimicrobial compounds
Yoo, Jaehong ; Park, Gun Hee ; Sung, Jong Seung ; Song, Honam ; Shin, So Young ; Jung, Won Ho ; Heo, Jung Min ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 441~453
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.441
Antibiotics in the diets for poultry were not only used for avoiding and (or) control bacterial infections but for promoting growth of the birds. However, there has been massive concerns of negative effects of antibiotics on human health such as development of antibiotics-resistance bacteria and (or) genes. Subsequently, some of countries (i.e., European Union member of country and South Korea) banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the diets for livestock industries in 2006 and 2011, respectively. Thus, it has become important to develop feeding strategies and feed additives to control and reduce the occurrence of diseases in livestock without using in-feed antibiotics. In this review, therefore, it is attempted to gather information with respect to (1) understanding the digestive physiology and (2) knowledge pertaining to interaction linking feed additives and its physiological and metabolic responses in broiler chickens.
Finite element modeling for structure-soil interaction analysis of plastic greenhouse foundation
Ryu, Hee-Ryong ; Cho, Myeong-Whan ; Yu, In-Ho ; Moon, Doo-Gyung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 455~460
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.455
In this study, structural behavior of plastic greenhouse foundation was investigated using rational finite element modeling for structures which have different material properties each other. Because the concrete foundation of plastic greenhouse and soil which surround and support the concrete foundation have very different material property, the boundary between two structures were modeled by a interface element. The interface element was able to represent sliding, separation, uplift and re-bonding of the boundary between concrete foundation and soil. The results of static and dynamic analysis showed that horizontal and vertical displacement of concrete foundation displayed a decreasing tendency with increasing depth of foundation. The second frequency from modal analysis of structure including foundation and soil was estimate to closely related with wind load.
Development of CFD model for analyzing the air flow and temperature distribution in greenhouse with air-circulation fans
Yu, In-Ho ; Yun, Nam-Kyu ; Cho, Myeong-Whan ; Ryu, Hee-Ryong ; Moon, Doo-Gyung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 461~472
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.461
This study was conducted to build the CFD simulation model which can quantify the distribution of the meteorological factors in air-heated greenhouse for chrysanthemum according to the location and capacity of air-circulation fan. The CFD model was also verified by experiment. It was judged that SST model was the most appropriate turbulence model which can properly describe the airflow by the air-circulation fan. According to the simulation results, the differences between the measured and predicted temperatures from 18 points at each height in the greenhouse were
in average. This showed a good agreement between the predicted data and the measured ones. The developed CFD model can be a useful tool to evaluate and design the air-circulation systems in the greenhouse with various configurations.
An analysis of problems and countermeasures in the installation of plastic greenhouse on reclaimed lands
Yu, In-Ho ; Ku, Yang-Gyu ; Cho, Myeong-Whan ; Ryu, Hee-Ryong ; Moon, Doo-Gyung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 473~480
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.473
Upon setting up a dedicated plastic greenhouse for tomato cultivation developed by the Rural Development Administration on the Gyehwa reclaimed land, this study was aimed at analyzing the problems can be occurred in the installation of plastic greenhouse on reclaimed lands as well as finding out solutions for improvement. A relatively cheaper wooden pile was used in the installation in order to supplement the soft ground conditions. Based on the results of ground investigation of the installation site, both the allowable bearing capacity and pulling resistance of the wooden pile with a diameter of 150 mm and a length of 10 m were computed and came out to be 30.645 kN. It was determined that the values were enough to withstand the maximum compressive force (17.206 kN) and the pullout force (20.435 kN) that are generally applied to the greenhouse footing. There are three problems aroused in the process of greenhouse installation, and the corresponding countermeasures are as follow. First, due to the slightly bent shape of the wooden pile, there were phenomenon such as deviation, torsion, and fracture when driving the pile. This could be prevented by the use of the backhoe (0.2) rotating tongs, which are holding the pile, to drive the pile while pushing to the direction of the driving and fixing it until 5 m below ground and applying a soft vibrating pressure until the first 2 m. Second, there exists a concrete independent footing between the column of the greenhouse and the wooden pile driven to the underground water level. Since it is difficult to accurately drive the pile on this independent footing, the problem of footing baseplate used to fix the column being off the independent footing was occurred. In order to handle with this matter, the diameter of the independent footing was changed from 200 mm to 300 mm. Last, after films were covered in the condition that the reinforcing frame and bracing are not installed, there was a phenomenon of columns being pushed away by the strong wind to the maximum of
. It is encouraged to avoid constructions in winter, and the film covering jobs always to be done after the frame construction is completely over. The height of the independent footing was measured for 9 months after the completion of the greenhouse installation, and it was found to be within the margin of error meaning that there was no subsidence. The extent to the framework distortion and the value of inclinometers as well showed not much alteration. In other words, the wooden pile was designed to have a sufficient bearing capacity.
Panel analysis of radish yield using air temperature
Kim, Yong-Seok ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ; Jung, Myung-Pyo ; Jung, In-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 41, issue 4, 2014, Pages 481~485
DOI : 10.7744/cnujas.2014.41.4.481
According to statistical data the past ten years, cultivation area and yield of radish are steadily decreasing. This phenomenon cause instability of radish's supply due to meteorological chage, even if radish's yield per unit area is increasing by cultivation technological development. These problems raise radish's price. So, we conducted study on meteorological factors for accuracy improvement of radish yield estimation. Panel analysis was used with two-way effect model considering group effect and time effect. As the result, we show that mixed effects model (fixed effect: group, random effects: time) was statistical significance. According to the model, a rise of one degree in the average air temperature on August will decrease radish's yield per unit area by
and that in the average air temperature on October will increase radish's yield per unit area by
. The reason is that radish's growth will be easily influenced by meteorological condition of a high temperature on August and by meteorological condition of a low temperature on Octoboer.