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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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CNU Journal of Agricultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Chilli anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) disease and its management approach
Oo, May Moe ; Oh, Sang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 153~162
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160018
Chilli is a widely consumed crop throughout the world. However, chilli anthracnose is a major constraint in chilli production leading to huge economic losses worldwide. Colletotrichum is a large genus of Ascomycete fungi, containing species that cause anthracnose diseases on a wide range of crops of economic value. This review is aimed at critically and accurately examining the taxonomic identification of Colletotrichum species by morphological and molecular approaches as well as assessing their management options. The use of appropriate integrated management practices, such as cultural, mechanical, chemical, and biological control, are important in chilli anthracnose disease prevention and control. Emphasis is laid on the use of biological control because it is cost effective and eco-friendly, and is an appropriate approach for disease management. The use of resistant cultivars is the cheapest, easiest, safest, and most effective means of controlling crop diseases. But, since no resistant cultivars of chilli have been developed and commercialized, it is very important to develop biological management strategies. Further studies leading to integrated disease management strategies need to be carried out.
A novel approach in analyzing agriculture and food systems: Review of modeling and its applications
Kim, Do-Gyun ; Cho, Byoung-Kwan ; Lee, Wang-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 163~175
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160019
For the past decades, advances in computational devices have propelled mathematical modeling to become an effective tool for solving the black box of complex biological systems because of its prominent analytical power and comprehensive insight. Nevertheless, modeling is still limitedly used in the fields of agriculture and food which generally concentrate on producing experimental data rather than processing them. This study, hence, intends to introduce modeling in terms of its procedure types of structure, formulation, analyses, and software, with reviews of current notable studies from micro to macro scales so as to propose the modeling technique as a novel approach in discerning conundrums in agriculture and food systems. We expect this review to provide an eligible source for researchers who are willing to apply modeling techniques into the unexplored fields related to bio-systems that comprehensively include biology, nutrition, agriculture, food, animal science, and ecology.
Influence of pre-planting application of dolomite at various rates in coir-dust containing root media on the growth of red-leaf lettuce
Kim, Chang Hyeon ; Choi, Jong Myung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 176~185
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160020
This research was conducted to evaluate various levels of dolomitic lime incorporated as pre-planting fertilizers on the growth of red-leaf lettuce. To achieve this, three root media were formulated by mixing coir dust with expanded rice hull (CD+ERH, 8:2, v/v), carbonized rice hull (CD+CRH, 6:4, v/v), and ground pine bark (CD+GRPB, 6:4, v/v). During formulation, equal amounts of essential nutrients, except dolomitic lime, were incorporated into all root media and the levels of dolomitic lime were varied from 0 to
at 1.5 g increments. Seedlings of red-leaf lettuces at the 3rd leaf stage were transplanted into each medium treatment. Crop growths were measured 5 weeks after transplant and soil solutions were collected every week and analyzed for pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations. The treatments showing the heaviest fresh and dry weights in CD+ERH, CD+CRH, and CD+GRPB were 4.5 g, 4.5 g, and
of dolomite, respectively. The pHs of three root media yielding the highest crop growths were in the ranges of 6.4 to 7.1. These ECs in CD+CRH medium were around
higher than those of CD+ERH and CD+GRPB when application rates of dolomitic lime were equal.
concentrations were higher than
concentrations until week 2 in three root media. But
concentrations were higher than
concentrations after week 3 in all root media. The concentrations of
in all root media got abruptly lower until week 2. These results indicate that appropriate levels of dolomitic lime, as pre-planting nutrient charge fertilizers in CD+ERH and CD+GRPB media, are 4.5 and
Radical scavenging activity of ethanol extract and solvent partitioned fractions of lotus seeds
Kim, Hyun Jin ; Lee, A Young ; Kim, Byung Kwan ; Cho, Yong Kweon ; Lee, Sanghyun ; Cho, Eun Ju ; Kim, Hyun Young ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 186~193
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160021
This study focused on the evaluation of the antioxidative effects of lotus seeds from golden colored flowers. The lotus seeds were extracted with ethanol and then fractionated into 4 fractions, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, methylene chloride, and n-hexane. The comparison of antioxidative activities of the extract and fractions from the lotus seeds was carried out using an in vitro radical scavenging model and the total phenol content was analyzed. Of the tested extracts and fractions, the EtOAc fraction of the lotus seeds showed the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with 96.24% at a concentration of
. In addition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the lotus seed EtOAc fraction was also increased in a concentration dependent manner with the concentrations tested ranging from 5 to
. Moreover, the EtOAc fraction showed the highest scavenging activity for nitric oxide and superoxide anion radicals. In particular, of all the extracts and fractions, the EtOAc fraction showed highest contents of total phenols. These results indicate that lotus seeds have potential as an antioxidative agent against oxidative stress involving reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction of lotus seeds includes promising oxidative stress-protective compounds.
Feeding behaviors of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) using electrical penetration graphs (EPGs)
Park, Min-Woo ; Kwon, Hay-Ri ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 194~204
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160022
The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, is a very small sap-feeding insect of many commercial pear varieties that could be considered the most serious insect pest of pear. Detailed information on plant penetration activities of the pear psylla is essential to study its feeding behavior used to evaluate resistant traits to chemical control. The application of the electrical penetration graph technique (EPG) could provide a relevant insight into the nature of this resistance. EPG waveforms of C. pyricola were characterized on the basis of amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin. Feeding behaviors of C. pyricola were recorded and analyzed by EPG analysis. During EPG monitoring, waveform PA occurred at the start of stylet penetration of pear leaf epidermal cell. Waveform PB followed, in which stylet secreted saliva was observed. Waveforms PC1 and PC2 involved penetrating and sucking behaviors in parenchyma cells and vascular parenchyma, respectively. In addition, waveform PC1 represented salivation into bundle sheath cells and ingestion from parenchyma. Otherwise, behaviors of salivation into phloem and ingestion from phloem produced waveforms PE1 and PE2, respectively. On the other hand, ingestion from xylem tissues showed waveform PG. Among the feeding patterns of C. pyricola described above, phloem feeding patterns occurred most frequently, followed by xylem feeding and parenchyma penetration patterns in descending order.
Acute toxicity evaluation of drought-tolerant transgenic rice Agb0103 to Daphnia magna
Oh, Sung-Dug ; Lee, Bum Kyu ; Park, Soo-Yun ; Yun, Doh-Won ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Chang, Ancheol ; Suh, Sang Jae ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 205~214
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160023
A drought-tolerant transgenic rice (Agb0103) was developed using a pepper methionine sulfoxide reductase (CaMsrB2) under the control of rice Rab21 promoter with a selection marker, the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. Commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops will require the evaluation of risks associated with the release of GM crops. With the potential problems associated to GM crops safety testing, the investigation of their effects on non-target organisms is necessary for environmental risk research. This study was carried out to assess acute toxicity of a GM crop using the water flea (Daphnia magna) for non-target organism risk evaluation. The effect of acute toxicity on Daphnia magna of Agb0103 rice and a non-GM rice, Ilmibyeo, were investigated at different concentrations (0, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000 mg/L). The Agb0103 rice used for the test was confirmed to express the CaMsrB2/PAT gene by the PCR and ELISA. Daphnia magna feeding tests showed no significant differences in cumulative immobility or abnormal response with either Agb0103 rice or non-GM rice. The 48hr-EC50 values showed no difference between Agb0103 rice (2243 mg/L) and non-GM rice (2694 mg/L). These results suggest that there is no significant difference in toxicity to Daphnia magna between Agb0103 rice and its non-GM counterpart.
The importation of genetically modified crops and its environmental impacts in Korea
Han, Sung Min ; Kim, Young Tae ; Won, Ok Jae ; Choi, Kyung Hwa ; Rho, Young Hee ; Park, Kee Woong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 215~220
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160024
The global cultivation area of genetically modified crops (GM crops) has been increasing every year. Cultivation of GM crops is not only beneficial to the economy but also has positive effects on the environment in decreasing the use of agrochemicals, chemical fertilizers, and agricultural machinery. However, there have been controversies about the admixture of GM crops and non-GM crops and the unintentional release of GM crops to the environment. Especially in Korea, where consumption of agricultural products is import-dependent, the economic importance of GM crops has been a significant issue. The Act on import and distribution of GM crops was established in 2001 to start the management of GM crops in Korea. Recently, the imported amount of GM crops to Korea has reached over 10 million tons and is increasing very rapidly; consequently, the potential environmental impact of GM crops is becoming a big issue in Korea. In Japan, the discovery of imported GM canola plants around ports in 2005 raised awareness of the unintentional release of GM crops. In Korea, GM maize plants were also found in port and feed factory surroundings from 2005 to 2007. It is now necessary to monitor imported GM crops by tracing distribution, transport process for practical environmental risk assessment. Possible gene transfer from GM crops to non-GM crops should also be investigated in the cultivation area and the surroundings as well.
Current trends in forest science research using microsatellite markers in Korean national journals
Lee, Byeong-Ju ; Eo, Soo Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 221~231
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160025
Microsatellites, which are sequences of repetitive short nucleotides, are abundant in the genome and have relatively many alleles at a locus. Hence, microsatellite markers are used in various research areas such as medicine, agriculture, and biology. Thanks to recent advanced techniques and databases associated with microsatellite marker development, foreign research relying on microsatellite markers is increasing in various study areas. In this study, by analyzing microsatellites-related articles published during 2000-2014 from eight Korean national journals representing zoology, botany, genetics, ecology and environmental science, breeding science, and forest science ('Animal Cells and Systems', 'Journal of Plant Biology', 'Genes and Genomics', 'Korean Society of Environment and Ecology', 'Korean Journal of Breeding Science', 'Journal of Agricultural Science, Chungnam National University', 'Journal of Korean Forest Society' and 'Forest Science and Technology'), we found that the number of articles and diversity of study subjects and objects have increased considerably. However, there are fewer applications of microsatellites in the national forest science area. During 2000-2014 in 'Journal of Korean Forest Society', the percentage of articles dealing with microsatellite markers was found to be the lowest with 4.2% among articles focusing on PCR-based markers including RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR. However, in 'Canadian Journal of Forest Research' and 'Forest Ecology and Management', microsatellite marker articles were represented at their highest with 69.2% and 76.2%, respectively. Given the advantages of microsatellite markers, the publication of research papers using microsatellites should be increased in Korean forest science journals to the level of studies published in prominent international journals.
Effect of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on milk production in cow
Park, Chang-Seok ; Kim, Sang-Bouym ; Kang, Sung-Sik ; Kwon, Eung-Gi ; Park, Sung-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 232~239
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160026
Recently, research has been focusing on high quality and safer animal production by utilizing natural functional materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of natural Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) on gamma linolenic acid (GLA) levels in milk from Holstein dairy cows. Quality and quantity of milk as well as blood and fatty acids from Holstein cow fed diets supplemented with 2.7-4% calcium-salted EPO coated with palm stearin oil were analyzed. There was no significant difference in yield and composition of milk between control and EPO treatment. However, EPO treatment lowered blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), somatic cell count (SCC), and cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) compared to untreated control. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was decreased (p < 0.05) in GLA 1 and GLA 2 group when compared with control group. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in GLA 1 and GLA 2 groups than in control group. The level of GLA in milk was increased in EPO group when compared to control. Therefore, results from the present study demonstrate that supplementary EPO has beneficial effects on cow health, showing a decrease in somatic cell count and levels of blood cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and AST. Furthermore, supplementation of EPO improves milk quality with increased amounts of GLA.
Relationship between texture and major components of radish
Seong, Ki-Hyeon ; Kim, Seung-Ho ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 240~248
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160027
Radish is a common vegetable consumed in Korea, Japan, and China. Radish Breeding has been conducted based on morphological properties, such as shape and color. Recently, physicochemical properties of radish are attracting more attention from breeders to develop cultivars for the retail market. In this study, major components of radish were determined and their relationship with textural property analyzed. Sixty-six radish cultivars were selected and divided into white head (WH) and green head (GH) according to their head color. The cutting forces of GH and WH groups were
, respectively (P > 0.05). The starch contents of GH and WH were
(dry basis) and
, respectively. Cellulose contents in both groups were similar at 12.3-12.4 g per 100 g (dry basis). Pearson correlation coefficients between cutting force, cellulose content, and starch content ranged from -0.33-0.326 which does not demonstrate any strong correlation between these components. Therefore, no relationship was found between the cutting force and the starch content or the cellulose content for the cultivars analyzed in this study. As the first intensive study on the texture and the major components of radish, these results could provide valuable information for radish breeding if further studies on taste and nutrient components are conducted.
Stability and antioxidant effect of rapeseed extract in oil-in-water emulsion
Zhang, Hua ; Shin, Jung-Ah ; Hong, Soon Taek ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 249~257
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160028
In this study, rapeseed extracts were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of defatted rapeseed to evaluate the stability and antioxidant activity of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system. The oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from stripped soybean oil with different concentrations (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) of rapeseed extract as an emulsifier. Their emulsion stability was compared to that of emulsions prepared with the commercial emulsifier, Tween 20 (Polysorbate 20, 0.2%). After stripping the soybean oil, the total tocopherol content was reduced from 51.4 g/100 g to 1.1 g/100 g. Emulsion stability and oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with Tween 20 and rapeseed extract as emulsifiers were evaluated. For 30 days droplet sizes of emulsions containing rapeseed extract (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Similar results were obtained for emulsion stability (ES) and Turbiscan analysis, suggesting that the addition of rapeseed extract increased emulsion stability. The addition of rapeseed extract at more than 0.4% resulted in an emulsion stability comparable to the addition of 0.2% Tween 20. The antioxidative ability of rapeseed extract increased with the amount added in the emulsion. Moreover, the addition of 0.6% rapeseed extract resulted in the lowest emulsion peroxide values (10.3 mEq/L) among all treatments. Therefore, according to the stability of its antioxidative and physical stability properties, rapeseed extract from super critical extraction could be successfully applied to the food and cosmetic industries.
Improvement of condition assessment criteria and embankment transformation of agricultural reservoirs after raising embankments
Lee, Dal-Won ; Lee, Young-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 258~274
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160029
Recently, as fluctuations in annual precipitations continue to grow, the frequency of floods and droughts is rapidly increasing. Especially, since many reservoirs are reported as having less capacity and aging faster than large dams, the damages due to floods and droughts are estimated to become more severe. With this background for the present study, field investigation of reservoirs in Chungnam, Chungbuk, and Chonbuk regions was carried out for disaster prevention and the safety management of agricultural reservoirs. Furthermore, embankment transformations were compared and analyzed after the raising of embankments. Based on design methods for remodeling agricultural reservoirs and the results of embankment raising and the problems which occurred on crest, supplementation to the upstream and downstream slopes, control sector, and spillway should be implemented in the existing reservoir. In regard to this, the condition assessment score of compound member of reservoirs was performed, the Chungnam region score was in the 3.11-4.73 range. In addition, reservoirs in Chungbuk scored in the 4.00-4.49 range, and reservoirs in Chonbuk scored in the 3.90-4.60 range. Applying current precision safety inspection practices to small reservoirs requires economic expenses and time, for which assessment items are too varied and complex. Therefore, subdivided condition assessment items and criteria should be improved and streamlined by deleting, reducing, combining, and selecting only the riskiest factors. In the future, reservoirs should be periodically monitored and systemically managed and rational plans for maintenance and repairs should be used as reinforcement methods.
Measuring benefits of providing water for environmental improvement in Daechi-stream and Ji-stream
Hong, Seungjee ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 275~287
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160030
This study attempts to estimate the benefits of using water ensuing from the Chilgap multipurpose reservoir for environmental improvement. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) for providing environmental improvement water from the Chilgap reservoir to Daechi-stream and Ji-stream. The DCDB (double-bound dichotomous choice) survey method was used to collect data for the analysis. Due to the usually high cost of increasing the sample size, the use of follow-up questions was implemented as an inexpensive method of improving the efficiency of the estimation. A spike model was used in this study because a number of respondents showed zero WTP. The spike model can be estimated as easily as the conventional model. Results show that the average annual household's WTP is 4,516 won using the conventional model and 8,644 won using the spike model. Applying the estimated average annual household's WTP to the Chungnam and Daejeon regional levels, the benefits of environmental improvement water from the Chilgap reservoir is estimated at 11.9 billion won per year. The temporal benefits of providing water for environmental improvement, for a 50-year period at a 6.0% discount rate, is estimated at about 190 billion won in the Chungnam and Daejeon areas. These results could be useful especially when the government tries to determine an appropriate level of investment and to make a policy related to providing environmental improvement water.
A survey on the perception of China private antidesertification afforestation support project and evaluation
Ji, Seung-Yong ; Lee, Sang-Hyuk ; Lee, Oh-Kyu ; Choi, Jaeyong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, volume 43, issue 2, 2016, Pages 288~297
DOI : 10.7744/kjoas.20160031
This study is to evaluate the 'Private antidesertification afforestation support project' in the Kubuqi Desert through a survey of local residents and interviews with relevant personnel. Based on this survey, gender, age, and occupational differences in perception of the project were analyzed. In addition, the project was evaluated based on the OECD/DAC criteria using survey results and in-depth interviews with the relevant personnel. The survey analysis results show that the participants answered most of the questions positively, claiming that they were receiving social, economic, and environmental benefits through the project. However, most of the participants answered negatively to questions regarding the understanding of the project and relevant information. Gender differences in perception of the project were not found, whereas, age and occupational differences in perception were found. Older age groups showed higher levels of perception. Participants in the agro-livestock industry and office workers showed higher levels of perception compared to middle/high school students, the unemployed and college students. Teenagers, in particular, showed the lowest level of perception of the project, and thus, promotional activities targeting teenagers should be conducted in the future. Results of this evaluation of the project based on the OECD/DAC's five criteria (relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability) showed that the project operated effectively for the most part.