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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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Korean Society of Computer Information
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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Design Space Exploration of Embedded Many-Core Processors for Real-Time Fire Feature Extraction
Suh, Jun-Sang ; Kang, Myeongsu ; Kim, Cheol-Hong ; Kim, Jong-Myon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.001
This paper explores design space of many-core processors for a fire feature extraction algorithm. This paper evaluates the impact of varying the number of cores and memory sizes for the many-core processor and identifies an optimal many-core processor in terms of performance, energy efficiency, and area efficiency. In this study, we utilized 90 samples with dimensions of
(60 samples containing fire and 30 samples containing non-fire) for experiments. Experimental results using six different many-core architectures (PEs
Efficient On-Chip Idle Cache Utilization Technique in Chip Multi-Processor Architecture
Kwak, Jong Wook ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 13~21
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.013
Recently, although the number of cores on a chip multi-processor increases, multi-programming or multi-threaded programming techniques to utilize the whole cores are still insufficient. Therefore, there inevitably exist some idle cores which are not working. This results in a waste of the caches, so-called idle caches which are dedicated to those idle cores. In this research, we propose amethodology to exploit idle caches effectively as victimcaches of on-chip memory resource. In simulation results, we have achieved 19.4%and 10.2%IPC improvement in 4-core and 16-core respectively, compared to previous technique.
Visualized recommender system based on Freebase
Hong, Myung-Duk ; Ha, Inay ; Jo, Geun-Sik ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 23~37
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.023
In this paper, the proposed movie recommender system constructs trust network, which is similar to social network, using user`s trust information that users explicitly present. Recommendation on items is performed by using relation degree between users and information of recommended item is provided by a visualization method. We discover the hidden relationships via the constructed trust network. To provide visualized recommendation information, we employ Freebase which is large knowledge base supporting information such as movie, music, and people in structured format. We provide three visualization methods as the followings: i) visualization based on movie posters with the number of movies that user required. ii) visualization on extra information such as director, actor and genre and so on when user selected a movie from recommendation list. iii) visualization based on movie posters that is recommended by neighbors who a user selects from trust network. The proposed system considers user`s social relations and provides visualization which can reflect user`s requirements. Using the visualization methods, user can reach right decision making on items. Furthermore, the proposed system reflects the user`s opinion through recommendation visualization methods and can provide rich information to users through LOD(Linked Open Data) Cloud such as Freebase, LinkedMDB and Wikipedia and so on.
Improved Feature Descriptor Extraction and Matching Method for Efficient Image Stitching on Mobile Environment
Park, Jin-Yang ; Ahn, Hyo Chang ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 39~46
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.039
Recently, the mobile industries grow up rapidly and their performances are improved. So the usage of mobile devices is increasing in our life. Also mobile devices equipped with a high-performance camera, so the image stitching can carry out on the mobile devices instead of the desktop. However the mobile devices have limited hardware to perform the image stitching which has a lot of computational complexity. In this paper, we have proposed improved feature descriptor extraction and matching method for efficient image stitching on mobile environment. Our method can reduce computational complexity using extension of orientation window and reduction of dimension feature descriptor when feature descriptor is generated. In addition, the computational complexity of image stitching is reduced through the classification of matching points. In our results, our method makes to improve the computational time of image stitching than the previous method. Therefore our method is suitable for the mobile environment and also that method can make natural-looking stitched image.
Structure Analysis of Optical Internet Network and Optical Transmission Experiments Using UNI Signaling Protocol
Lee, Sang-Wha ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.047
In this paper, the structural design of optical Internet is analyzed and by using UNI (User Network Interface) signaling protocol an optical transmission experiment was performed. The hierarchical structure of the basic optical Internet consists of the backbone network, the service network and the access network. The necessary functions for each layer were described as follows: Control structure of the optical transport layer, network operation and management structure, internetworking technology of sub networks, routing and signaling technology. By using UNI signaling protocol from OIF (Optical Internetworking Forum), the optical transmission in the proposed structure of the optical Internet network was experimented. By the traffic generation of LSP (Label Switched Path) data packets along the route-configuration was delivered to UNI. Finally, by showing the value of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) packets the optical transmission was completely and successfully demonstrated.
Time Stamp Compression in RTP Protocols using Enhanced Negotiation Bits Decision Algorithm
Kim, Kyung-Shin ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.055
The important issue in header compression would be how to compress the dynamic field increasing constantly between consecutive packets in the head of IP wireless networks. Existent header compression scheme that can eliminated repeated field in header are RFC2507, RFC3095 and E-ROHC scheme. In this paper, I propose a new method of compressing TS fields, which are the Dynamic fields of the RTP packet, into BCB (Basic Compression Bits) basic bits or NCB (Negotiation Compression Bits, BCB + additional bits) bits. In order to verify the proposed header compression method, I have simulation about proposed video packets of IP wireless networks. using Visual SLAM.
Performance Analysis of Digital M/W Transmission System adopting Frequency Offset Compensation Algorithm in Multipath Fading Channel
Park, Ki-Sik ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.063
In this paper, we investigated frequency synchronization through computer simulation of digital M/W transmission system in multipath fading channel. we suggested frequency offset correction algorithm against frequency offset between transmitter and receiver, then evaluated the degree of constellation performance enhancement. From the performance evaluation, in case of large frequency offset, although adopting frequency offset correction scheme, residual frequency offset degraded system performance. As a result, according to frequency offset value between transmitter and receiver residual frequency offset affects system performance significantly. The results of this paper should be utilized for frequency synchronization criterion when frequency band of broadcasting system is rearranged.
A Vulnerability Analysis of Multi-Context RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol
Kim, Young-Back ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Chung, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Soo-Yong ; Yun, Tae-Jin ; Ahn, Kwang-Seon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 71~80
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.071
In this paper, we analyze the security vulnerability through the several attack scenarios for the MCR-MAP(Multi-Context RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol) proposed by Ahn et al. And we propose the secure mutual authentication protocol that improved a prior MCR-MAP. The suggested protocol uses the ID of the legal tag and the timestamp generated by the server, when the tag tries to authenticate. And when the tag creates the credential, we create the new secret key computing the XOR operation between the secret key shared with the server and the tag timestamp generated by the server. As a result, the proposed protocol provides the secure mutual authentication and then is safe to spoofing attack. Also it provides forward-secrecy and then is safe to offline brute-burst attack. In this paper, we compare and verify the security vulnerability of the prior and the proposed protocol through the security analysis.
A Reusable Secure Mobile e-Coupon Protocol
Yong, Seunglim ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.081
Since nowadays mobile phone messages are flourishing, the application of electronic coupon (e-coupon) will become a trend for mobile users. E-coupon for mobile commerce can provide mobility for users and distribution flexibility for issuers. In this paper, we propose a mobile e-coupon system that just applies some simple cryptographic techniques, such as one-way hash function and XOR operation. In our system, the customer can control the number of issued e-coupons and the issuer can prevent them from double-redeeming. The customer does not need to perform any exponential computation in redeeming and transferring the coupons. Our scheme uses one-way hash chains for preventing from double-spending.
Extraction of Smocking in Elevator Using Robust Scene Change Detection Method
Lee, Kang-Ho ; Shin, Seong-Yoon ; Rhee, Yang-Won ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 89~95
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.089
Smoking in elevators is a criminal offense that is included in a misdemeanor. Because of that smoking in elevators can be very critical for our growing children and weak women. In this paper, we would like to extract criminals doing this criminal offense to smoke in elevators. Extraction method detect difference value using modified color-X2-test and it was normalized. Next, we find frames that has occurred scene change in successive frames using the four-step algorithm of scene change detection. Finally, we present the method of smoking image retrieval and extraction in stored large amount of video. In the experiment, we show process and number of scene change detection, and the number of video searched per retrieval time. The extracted smoking video is to submit as evidence for the police or court.
The Design And Implementation of Robot Training Kit for Java Programming Learning
Baek, Jeong-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 97~107
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.097
The latest programming paradigm has been mostly geared toward object-oriented programming and visual programming based on the object-oriented programming. However, object-oriented programming has a more difficult and complicated concept compared with that of existing structural programming technique; thus it has been very difficult to educate students in the IT-related department. This study designed and implemented a Java robot training kit in which the Java virtual machine is built so that it may enhance the desire and motivation of students for learning the object-oriented programming using the training kit which is possible to attach various input and output devices and to control a robot. The developed Java robot training kit is able to communicate with a computer through the USB interface, and it also enables learners to manufacture a robot for education and to practice applied programming because there is a general purpose input and output port inside the kit, through which diverse input and output devices, DC motor, and servo motor can be operated. Accordingly, facing the IT fusion era, the wall between the academic circles and the major becomes lower and the need for introducing education about creative engineering object-oriented programming language is emerging. At this point, the Java robot training kit developed in this study is expected to make a great commitment in this regard.
Performance Enhancement of Virtual War Field Simulator for Future Autonomous Unmanned System
Lee, Jun Pyo ; Kim, Sang Hee ; Park, Jin-Yang ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 109~119
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.109
An unmanned ground vehicle(UGV) today plays a significant role in both civilian and military areas. Predominantly these systems are used to replace humans in hazardous situations. To take unmanned ground vehicles systems to the next level and increase their capabilities and the range of missions they are able to perform in the combat field, new technologies are needed in the area of command and control. For this reason, we present war field simulator based on information fusion technology to efficiently control UGV. In this paper, we present the war field simulator which is made of critical components, that is, simulation controller, virtual image viewer, and remote control device to efficiently control UGV in the future combat fields. In our information fusion technology, improved methods of target detection, recognition, and location are proposed. In addition, time reduction method of target detection is also proposed. In the consequence of the operation test, we expect that our war field simulator based on information fusion technology plays an important role in the future military operation significantly.
A Study on Efficient Energy Saving Protocol in Ubiquitous Sensor Network
OH, Gi Oug ; Park, Mi Ok ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 121~128
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.121
Existing sensor network studies have only emphasized energy aspects that sensors themselves had. But when an actual sensor network is established, biased use of a specific sensor may cause a partial disconnection of the sensor network. It becomes an disadvantage to fail efficient operation of the sensor network for a long time and energy efficiency of specific sensor energy causes to drop the efficiency of the sensor network. When a sensor network is composed of many clusters or made up of a large network, sensor network`s disconnection cannot be avoided because they emphasize sensor`s energy efficiency. Therefore, it was tried to lengthen the lifespan of the sensor network by making sensors in the sensor network avoid disconnection through even use of all the sensors composing of the sensor network. This article proposes a protocol to maintain a sensor network for a long time by preventing a sensor networks` disconnection through efficient management of sensor network energy composed of the protocols composing of the sensor network in ubiquitous environments.
An Effective Java Obfuscation Technique Using Assignment Statements Merging
Lee, Kyong-Ho ; Park, Hee-Wan ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 129~139
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.129
Java bytecodes are executed not on target machine but on the Java virtual machines. Since this bytecodes use a higher level representation than binary code, it is possible to decompile most bytecodes back to Java source. Obfuscation is the technique of obscuring code and it makes program difficult to understand. However, most of the obfuscation techniques make the code size and the performance of obfuscated program bigger and slower than original program. In this paper, we proposed an effective Java obfuscation techniques using assignment statements merging that make the source program difficult to understand. The basic approach is to merge assignments statements to append side effects of statement. An additional benefit is that the size of the bytecode is reduced.
Optimal Location Problem for Constrained Number of Emergency Medical Service
Lee, Sang-Un ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.141
This paper proposes an EMS algorithm designed to determine the optimal locations for Emergency Medical Service centers that both satisfy the maximum ambulance response time T in case of emergency and cover the largest possible number of residents given a limited number of emergency medical services p in a city divided into different zones. This methodology generally applies integer programming whereby cases are categorized into 1 if the distance between two zones is within the response time and 0 if not and subsequently employs linear programming to obtain the optimal solution. In this paper, where p
Construction of Hierarchical Classification of User Tags using WordNet-based Formal Concept Analysis
Hwang, Suk-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 149~161
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.149
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to construction of classification hierarchies for user tags of folksonomies, using WordNet-based Formal Concept Analysis tool, called TagLighter, which is developed on this research. Finally, to give evidence of the usefulness of this approach in practice, we describe some experiments on user tag data of Bibsonomy.org site. The classification hierarchies of user tags constructed by our approach allow us to gain a better and further understanding and insight in tagged data during information retrieval and data analysis on the folksonomy-based systems. We expect that the proposed approach can be used in the fields of web data mining for folksonomy-based web services, social networking systems and semantic web applications.
Word Processor font optimization in Fixed-function cell Using a Genetic Algorithm
Kim, Sang-Won ; Kim, Seung-Hee ; Kim, Woo-Je ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 163~172
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.163
This study was conducted to explore a method of displaying optimized letters that fit the size of tables using a genetic algorithm. As a result, fonts with optimized letters of different lengths were offered through optimum values of the font size, line spacing, and letter spacing by calculating the width and height of the cell and number of letters to be entered. This study is significant in that it provides a solution to letter optimization issues in fixed cells that occur in various word processors that are currently used, through the genetic algorithm.
A Method for Detection and Correction of Pseudo-Semantic Errors Due to Typographical Errors
Kim, Dong-Joo ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 173~182
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.173
Typographical mistakes made in the writing process of drafts of electronic documents are more common than any other type of errors. The majority of these errors caused by mistyping are regarded as consequently still typo-errors, but a considerable number of them are developed into the grammatical errors and the semantic errors. Pseudo semantic errors among these errors due to typographical errors have more noticeable peculiarities than pure semantic errors between senses of surrounding context words within a sentence. These semantic errors can be detected and corrected by simple algorithm based on the co-occurrence frequency because of their prominent contextual discrepancy. I propose a method for detection and correction based on the co-occurrence frequency in order to detect semantic errors due to typo-errors. The co-occurrence frequency in proposed method is counted for only words with immediate dependency relation, and the cosine similarity measure is used in order to detect pseudo semantic errors. From the presented experimental results, the proposed method is expected to help improve the detecting rate of overall proofreading system by about 2~3%.
A Study on Relationship Among Strategic Leadership, Resistance and Perceived Performance After M＆A -Focused on IT Companies-
Kim, Sung-Gun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 183~192
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.183
This paper examines the impact of the strategic leadership of CEOs after M&A on resistance to change and on perceived performance. Most M&A research has focused on the strategic, financial and economic aspects, while studies on leadership and employee behavior have been limited. CEO leadership is critical to a successful M&A. Recently, strategic leadership has been attracting more attention. Strategic leadership can be defined as a person`s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically and to work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for an organization. It can also reduce resistance and improve perceived performance. So this paper used empirical studies from the IT industry after M&A.
Design and Implementation for Management App. of Expiration date based on Cosmetics
Ha, Yan ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 193~198
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.193
This paper proposes an application which applied in managements of cosmetics and finds applications related with expiration date among applications. In this paper, the application is implemented to improve safety and stability of cosmetics based on android platform. In general, it is hard to use to have all knowledge in many types of cosmetics. Because of that each item have different date to buy and use, it is necessary to manage them efficiently. This paper is designed and implemented the application for management of expiration date to use cosmetics. It helps to use cosmetics safely and serve good information from cosmetics companies connected with this application.
A Structural Study on the Factors of Market Failure of New-type Computer : Focusing on the Netbook Unaccepted by Customer
Kwon, Soon-Hong ; Lim, Yang-Whan ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 199~205
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.199
This study examined the factors of failure of new-type computer which has a functions of replacing and supplementing of existing product by being unaccepted by market. Placing the reason of market failure in a customer`s negative perception of the value of the product, influential relationship was explored by distinguishing the factors that influence value perception between benefit of use of product and the cost of using product. As a result of this empirical research on netbook, a customer`s negative perception of the value of new product had an negative influence on intention of use. And a customer`s perceptional cost of new-type computer had an significant influence on negative perception of the value of the new product. However, even if a customer perceived benefit of new-type computer negatively, this did not impact on negative influence.
The Relationships of Website Quality, e-Satisfaction, e-Trust, and e-Loyalty in Low-Cost Carriers
In, Ok Nam ; Kim, Seung Lee ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 207~216
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.207
The A low-cost carriers(LCC)` website represents their public face to the world. Futhermore, distribution through their own websites is generally regarded as the being most cost effective for airlines The Internet website has become an effective marketing vehicle for low-cost carriers(LCC). The objective of this study was to examine theoretical relationship of website quality, e-satisfaction, e-trust, and e-loyalty to the low-cost carriers` website. The study sample included respondents who had visited any LCC websites in the last 12 months. Data were collected by conducting a web-based survey to maintain respondents` anonymity and overcome time and place constraints. From the 334 usable data obtained, hypotheses are tested using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that website quality, e-satisfaction, and e-trust are antecedents of e-loyalty in loyalty relationships between passengers and low-cost carriers` websites. Website quality positively influences e-satisfaction, e-trust while e-satisfaction. However, contrary to our expectation, e-satisfaction has a negative effect on e-trust. Managerial implications are provided following presentation of the findings.
The research on the effect that the welfare field training reaches to the course selection - Around the statistical analysis technique -
Lee, Hae-Kyong ; Cho, Woo-Hong ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 217~223
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.217
This research tries to study the effect that the welfare field training the course selection. Because of being the important place where the welfare field training trains the expert, the knowledge, value, and practical lodging tries to be identify instructed. In this aspect, we try to analyze about the extend of satisfaction of the actual training, that is the extent of desiring the link including the class of school subject extend of satisfaction of the department of social welfare engine, and etc. and factor about the actual training of the department of social welfare, because the welfare field training the technique is connected directly with the route. First, the individual characteristic of the social welfare and trainees is grasped. Second, the relationship of the social welfare and factor and course selection is investigated. Third, the social welfare and university (circle) lives look into whether the social welfare field training has an effect on the course selection or not.
The Impact of Airline`s Retention Equity on Customer Positive·Behavior Intention
In, Ok Nam ; Kim, Seung Lee ; Do, Sung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 225~234
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.225
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of airline`s retention equity on customer positive exclusive behavior intention and to minimize customer churn based maintenance is aimed to derive key variables in air transport market. A survey was conducted Incheon and Gimpo airport to use in the national carrier of domestic air travelers. A total of 480 respondents completed a survey. The result reveal that loyalty program, preferential treatment & acknowledgement program, and community program have significantly effect on positive behavior intention. However, preferential treatment & acknowledgement program, and community program have significantly effect on exclusive behavior intention. It showed that they are more influence than loyalty program as a switching barrier of airlines. The academic and practical implication of this study has been identified in the competitive market to maximize customer retention factors of maintaining retention equity to derive empirical strategic priorities.
The effects of Teaching-Learning Activities Based Smart learning on Learning Attitudes and the Attention of Students with Intellectual Disorders
Chang, Oh-Sun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 235~243
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.235
This study deals with the methods of improving about effects of Teaching-Learning Activities Based Smart learning on Learning Attitudes and the Attention of Students with Intellectual Disorders. Analysis method of the data in this study included comparison pre-and post test among the two groups( experimental group and control group) first, indicated that the experimental group showed that significantly greater improvement in the Learning Attitudes. Seconds, As for the attention of the two groups, the experimental group maintained their attention at relatively similar levels throughout the study period, while the attention of the control group had shortened toward the end of the study. These results suggest that the Teaching-Learning Activities Based Smart learning through authoring tool was highly effective in improving mentally with Intellectual Disorders` Learning Attitudes and attention.
The Effects of Gifted Education on School Achievements and Academic Skills
Choi, Jeong-Won ; Lee, Eunkyoung ; Lee, Youngjun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, volume 18, issue 10, 2013, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.9708/jksci.2013.18.10.245
The purpose of this study is to propose the implications after investigating how gifted education affected the school achievements and academic skills of students who have experience of gifted education. In this study, academic skills include academic knowledge, creative problem solving skills, logical thinking, persuasive skills, collaborative skills, self-directed learning skills, communication skills. The survey was conducted with 1,156 science high school and science academy students who have ongoing gifted education experience and depth interviews were also analyzed with some students to gather further in-depth information. As a result, students responded that gifted education affected very positively on knowledge, collaborative skills, communication skills and increased interest in related subjects. On the other hand, it showed lower positive responses on self-directed learning skills and persuasive skills. Also, students replied gifted education did not affect the school achievements but there was an opportunity to learn how to debate, research, and experiment and practice methods. The direction of gifted education to step forward was suggested based on these results. This study can be the basis for revising gifted education curriculum.