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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Effect of Processing Conditions on the Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Pork Cutlets
Kim Il-Suk ; Min Joong-Seok ; Lee Sang-Ok ; Jang Aera ; Kim Dong-Hoon ; Jin Sang-Kuen ; Lee Mooha ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 319~325
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of processing conditions on the physical and sensory properties of pork cutlet produced from chilled pork loin (T1), the cured and massaged chilled pork loin (T2), the cured and massaged frozen pork loin (T3), frozen pork loin (T4), massaged frozen pork loin (T5). Water holding capacity (WHC) of pork cutlets were not significantly different among the treatments. In chilled pork loin, WHC of T2 were slightly higher than that of T1. T4 showed the lowest WHC among all treatment group. In meat color, CIE L
*/ values in chilled pork loin were not significantly different between T1 and T2. L
*/ values of T3 and T5 were higher than that of T4. a
*/ values were not significantly different among the all treatments. T3 produced through the curing and massaging treatment showed the highest tenderness in shear force (p< 0.001), while force value (kg/㎤) of T4 were the highest among all treatments. Separation ratio of wheat dough from pork cutlet was highest (p.<0.001) in T4. In triangle test, T1 : T3 combination was higher than that of other pairs. No differences in acceptability of sensory evaluation were observed among T1, T2, T3, and T5 groups, while the frozen pork showed the lowest (p<0.001) acceptability. In conclusion, pork cutlets from T4 with the curing and/or massaging process showed similar acceptance than those from chilled pork loins, and this treatments may contribute to promote the consumption of frozen pork loins.
Study on Meat Tenderness of a Pretense Extracted from Domestic Pear
Han Seung K. ; Chin Koo B. ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 326~328
Domestic pear has been reported that it contained a pretense, which used for tenderizer of meat, however no researches for optimum level of the enzyme with maximum tenderness effect have been studied. Thus, this study was peformed to determine the optimum level of a protease for meat tenderness. Moisture contents (％) of domestic pears was determined. A pretense was homogenized in a mixer and centrifuged at 10,000 G for 1hr. After taken the supernatant, dialysis was conducted to remove salts and sugars, and freeze-dried. Then, various level (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2％) of the purified pretense were added to pork loins (3cm thickness). Then, pork samples were boiled at 80 for 12 min in a water bath to reach the interval temperature of 71 and chilled in an ice. Moisture contents (％) of domestic pears ranged from 87.2 and 87.8％. No differences in cooking loss of pork meats were observed (p>0.05) among various levels of a pretense. After centrifugation, the protein concentrations of a protease showed from 5.96
/fmL to 7.25
/mL. Increased level of a pretense up to 0.1％ reduced (p<0.05) the shear value (kg/g), however no further reduction of shear value was observed at the level of higher than 0.1％ of the purified pretense. The approximate molecular weight of the pretense analysed by sodium-dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 30 kDa. These results suggest that the optimum level of a pretense for the maximum effect of meat tenderness is above 0.1％. Further research will be peformed to determine the effect of various domestic pears and ingredients, such as salt and phosphate, on meat tenderness.
Effect of Herb and Bio-ceramic Complex Supplementation on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Characteristics in Finishing Pigs
Cho Jin-Ho ; Kwon Oh-Suk ; Min Byoung-Joon ; Son Kyoung-Seung ; Chen Ying-Jie ; Hong Jong-Wook ; Kang Dea-Kyung ; Kim In-Ho ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 329~334
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of herb and bio ceramic complex supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in finishing pigs. Seventy-two crossbred (Landrace
Duroc) pigs (78.98kg average initial body weight) were used in a 45 days growth assay. Dietary treatments included 1) Control (basal diet). 2) HBC (Herb and bioceramic complex) 0.1 (basal diet + 0.1％ Herb and bioceramic complex) and 3) HBC 0.2 (basal diet +0.2％ Herb and bioceramic complex). For overall period, ADG (Average Daily weight Gain), ADFI (Average Daily feed Intake) and ADG/ADFI increased in Control with no significant difference (p>0.05). Backfat thickness was not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The total cholesterol, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol, LDL + VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol, Triglyceride and Atherogenic index concentrations of serum in pigs fed HBC 0.2 diet were lower than those of pigs fed Control and HBC 0.1 diets without significant difference (p>0.05). L
*/-, and b
*/- values of M. longissimus dorsi muscle were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The pH of pigs fed HBC 0.2 diet was significantly lower than that of pigs fed Control and HBC 0.1 diets (p<0.05). In conclusion, growth performance, cholesterol concentration in serum and meat quality were not affected by supplemental herb and bioceramic complex.
The Incidence of Microorganisms during the Slaughtering Process of Chicken
Cha Seong Kwan ; Seo Mi Young ; Kim Yoon Sook ; Kim Myung Ho ; Kim Yun Ji ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 335~341
This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry carcasses at different slaughtering process in large (>50,000 chicken/day) and small (<30,000 chicken/day) scale slaughtering houses. Whole bird rinse technique was used to analyze the incidence of microorganisms on poultry carcasses in each process of before visceration, after evisceration, after final wash, after main chilling and in cold room. In summer time, small scale slaughterhouse showed lower incidence of aerobic microorganisms (10
4/ CFU/mL) than those of large scale slaughterhouse (10
5/ CFU/mL) at the process of after main chilling and in cold room. But small scale slaughterhouse showed higher incidence of E. coli (10
CFU/mL) than those of large scale slaughterhouse (10
-2/ CFU/mL) at each slaughtering process observed. During autumn and winter time, small scale slaughterhouse showed similar incidence of aerobic microorganisms as large scale slaughterhouse (10
5/ CFU/mL after evisceration, 10
CFU/mL after main chilling and cold storage). Samples from carcasses during autumn and winter time in cold room showed no difference in E. coli counts (10
in autumn time and 10
CFU/mL in winter time) between large and small scale slaughterhouse. In spring time, small scale slaughterhouse showed lower incidence of aerobic microorganisms than those of large scale slaughterhouse at each slaughtering process observed except after main chilling. Small scale slaughterhouse showed higher incidence of aerobic microorganisms in final cooling water than large scale slaughterhouse during spring time.
Sensory Characteristics of Domestic and Imported Pork Butts by Triangle Test and Descriptive Analysis
Kim Il-Suk ; Shin Dea-Keun ; Min Joong-Seok ; Lee Sang-Ok ; Jang Aera ; Jin Sang-Keun ; Lee Mooha ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 342~348
To evaluate the sensory characteristics of domestic or imported chilled and frozen pork butts, six samples were purchased and investigated. Sixty panels of sensory evaluation were consisted of six groups by sex and age. In the appearance test, many panels preferred the domestic frozen butt A obtained good scores in fat color and fat attachment (p<0.001). In the age group, the 20's consumer preferred the domestic chilled pork butt of A company, whereas the 30's and 40's consumers preferred the imported frozen butt of A company. According to the results from the triangle test, the combinations of domestic frozen butt B and imported frozen butt A was the most significantly distinguished among the pairs of raw and cooked butts.
Diagnosis of Pigs Producing PSE Meat using DNA Analysis
Chung Eui-Ryong ; Chung Ku-Young ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 349~354
Stress-susceptible pigs have been known as the porcine stress syndrome (PSS), swine PSS, also known as malignant hyperthermia (MH), is characterized as sudden death and production of poor meat quality such as PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat after slaughtering. PSS and PSE meat cause major economic losses in the pig industry. A point mutation in the gene coding for the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) in porcine skeletal muscle, also known calcium (Ca
) release channel, has been associated with swine PSS and halothane sensitivity. We used the PCR-RFLP(restriction fragment length polymorphism) and PCR-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism) methods to detect the PSS gene mutation (C1843T) in the RYR1 gene and to estimate genotype frequencies of PSS gene in Korean pig breed populations. In PCR-RFLP and SSCP analyses, three genotypes of homozygous normal (N/M), heterozygous carrier (N/n) and homozygous recessive mutant (n/n) were detected using agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. The proportions of normal, carrier and PSS pigs were 57.1, 35.7 and 7.1％ for Landrace, 82.5, 15.8 and 1.7％ far L. Yorkshire, 95.2, 4.8 and 0.0％ for Duroc and 72.0, 22.7 and 5.3％ for Crossbreed. Consequently, DNA-based diagnosis for the identification of stress-susceptible pigs of PSS and pigs producing PSE meat is a powerful technique. Especially, PCR-SSCP method may be useful as a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive test for the large-scale screening of PSS genotypes and pigs with PSE meat in the pork industry.y.
Identification of Beef Breed using DNA Marker of Coat Color Genes
Chung Eui-Ryong ; Chung Ku-Young ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 355~360
In Korean beef market, one of the major problems is mislabeling or fraudulent distribution of Holstein dairy meat or imported beef as domestic Hanwoo meat. Therefore, there has been a great need for a development of technology to identify beef breeds in meat and meat products. This study was carried out to develop the accurate and reliable method for the identification of beef breed using PCR-RFLP marker of MC1R, MGF and TYRPl genes affecting coat colors in cattle. A single base substitution (G\longrightarrowT transition) at the codon for amino acid position 104 of MC1R gene was identified between Hanwoo and Holstein and Angus breeds. The change at this position creates Msp I restriction site in Holstein and Angus, but not in Hanwoo. When the DNA amplified products (537 bp) was digested with Msp I, Hanwoo meat showed a single band of 537bp, while two fragments of 329bp and 208 bp were observed in Holstein meat and Angus breed, respectively. Thus, breed-specific RFLP marker in the MC1R gene can be used to distinguish between Hanwoo meat and Holstein and Angus meats. In the RFLP genotype of MGF gene, the frequency of r/r type was 75％ in Manwoo, whereas the frequency of R/R was 80％ in Hereford breed. Holstein and Angus breeds showed 100％ for R/r type. Therefore, Hanwoo meat showed significant difference in the MGF genotype frequencies compared with those of Holstein meat and imported beef cattle breeds. However, TYRP1 gene showed the same genotype in all breeds examined. Thus, this TYRP1 gene can not be used as a molecular marker for breed identification. As a consequence, we suggest that RFLP markers of the MC1R and MGF coat color genes could be used as DNA marker for identification of Hanwoo meat from Holstein and imported meats.
Product Quality of Low-Fat Sausages Formulated with Two Levels of Chitosan
Chin Koo B. ; Wang Seung H. ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 361~366
Physicochemical and textural properties, and sensory evaluation of low-fat sausages (LFSs) manufactured with 0.3 and 0.6％ chitosan were investigated and compared with those of regular-fat sausages (RFSs). Although the batter pH was not changed with the addition of chitosan (p>0.05), product pH was reduced (p>0.05) with the addition of chitosan up to 0.6％. Proximate composition and cooking loss (％) were not affected by the addition of chitosan. Expressible moisture 1r91ues (EM, ％) of LESs were lower (p<0.05) than those of RFSs, but not affected by the addition of chitosan. The addition of chitosan in the sausage formulation became harder, springier and more cohesive (p<0.05), whereas, no differences were observed (p>0.05) in these values of sausages containing between 0.3 and 0.6％. Batter viscosity was not affected by the addition of chitosan, but LESs with or without chitosan had lower viscosity than RFSs due to high moisture (％). Sensory evaluation results showed that LFSs containing 0.3％ chitosan had most parameters similar to those of low-fat control. These results indicated that chitosan at the level of 0.3％ can be used for the manufacture of LFSs without quality defect.
Application of Gamma Irradiation for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite and Nitrosamine in Meat Products
Ahn, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Jo, Cheorun ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 367~372
Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is precursors of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions as well as having its own toxicity. Some researches have been conducted to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the reduction of residual nitrite and N-nitrosamines in an aqueous model system and cured meat products with different packaging methods during storage. These results showed that the gamma irradiation was effective in reducing the residual nitrite and N-nitrosamines in an aqueous model system as well as meat products. Especially, irradiation combined with vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging was more effective in nitrite and N-nitrosamines reduction than aerobic packaging during storage. The objective of this review is to introduce the irradiation technology for the application of reducing the residual nitrite and N-nitrosamine contents in meat products.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Quality of Meats and Meat Products
Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 373~385
Irradiation offers an effective and simple means to extend shelf-life of meat and improve processing properties of meat products. Many researches have been conducted to evaluate the effects of irradiation on meats and meat products. There were some interesting reports such as increase of redness and tenderness of meat and decrease of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and residual nitrite in cured meat products by irradiation. And, the safety of irradiated products have been also studied. Lipid oxidation and off-odor induced by irradiation can be minimized by appropriate controls of irradiation and storage condition such as addition of antioxidants or oxygen exclusion packaging. The objective of this paper is to introduce the effect of gamma irradiation on quality of meats and meat products reported from the previous researches.
Effect of Feeding Fermented Food Wastes on Consumer Acceptability of Pork Belly
Park Hong-Yang ; Park Keun-Kyu ; Jung Young-Chul ; Lee Eui-Soo ; Yang Si-Yong ; Im Byoung-Soon ; Kim Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 386~392
The objective of this experiment was to compare tile effect of feeding the commercial feeds (control) or fermented food waste feeds (FEWF) on consumer's acceptability and preference of pork belly. The bellies from carcasses of gilts and barrows were used. The consumers evaluated raw meat for color, freshness, fat amount (5=too much fat; 1= not enough fat), fat acceptability and overall acceptability on 5-point stale (5=most desirable; 3=moderate; 1=least desirable) and grilled belly for flavor, taste, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability on 5-point scale (5=most desirable; 3=moderate: 1=least desirable). Raw belly of control had higher scores in color than belly fed FFWF. However, there were no differences between treatments for freshness, fat contents, acceptability of fat contents and overall acceptability (p>0.05). There were no differences in any sensory trait between control and FFWF belly after cooking (p>0.05). Mean scores for preference or overall-liking of raw and cooked belly also were not significantly different between two groups (p>0.05). This results mean that feeding FFWF to pork didn't change the sensory Properties of belly meat.
Effects of Feeding Mugwort Pelleted Diet on the Meat Quality in Pigs
Kim Byung-Ki ; Kim Young-Jik ; Kim Soo-Min ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 393~398
To investigate the effect of dietary mugwort pellet on the growing performance and meat quality barrow (T1) and boar (T2) were alloted into six treatments : 1) commercial feed, 2) T1-1 and T2-1 (commercial feed supplemented with 3.0％ mugwort pellet), 3) T1-2 and T2-2 (commercial feed supplemented with 5.0％ mugwort pellet). They were fed experimental diets for 60 days before slaughtered. Meat samples were taken in wrap package and stored at 4
. Daily gain in both groups (T1 and T2) were higher than those of the control (p<0.05). Feed conversion tended to be lower in barrow group than boar group and tended to be decreased according to supplementation of mugwort pelleted diet in barrow group. In both barrow and boar groups, proximate compositions of pork were not sigificantly different, except for crude fat. Crude fat content was tended to be low in barrow when fed mugwort pelleted diet. Shear force value and sensory properties were siginificantly higher in barrow group than in boar group (p<0.05) and these results were also seemed due to great fed mugwort pelleted aiet(p<0.05). In the barrow group, values of tenderness and flavor were the highest in pigs fed diet supplemented with 3.0％ mugwort. The catechin content of pork tended to be higher in boar group than in barrow group and catechin tended to increase with supplementation of mugwort in the diet.
Effects of Supplementation of Microbes Additive on the Fatty Acid Composition and Cholesterol Production in Meat of Pig and Chicken Broiler
Kim Byung-Ki ; Hong Kyu-Jin ; Park Ji-Hyun ; Kim Hyun-Soo ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 399~404
This study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemented useful microorganisim on meat quality of growing-finishing pigs for sixty days and broiler for six weeks. The pig and broiler were randomly allotted into three treatment (twenty-forty heads /treatment) ; Control (0％), T1 (supplemented with 0.2％, Aspergillus terreus koji), T2 (supplemented with 0.2％, EM-pro). The amount of stearic acid of pork was highest in T1 and T2, and oleic acid was highest in control and 71 than others (p<0.05). The amount of stearic acid of the chicken was highest in control, and oleic acid was highest in T1 and T2 than the others. Total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of pigs were decreased with significant difference (p<0.05) in T1 (63.77 and 111.19mg/mL, respectively) than control(101.69 and 132.37 mg/mL) and those of the chicken were decreased with lower significant difference (p<0.05) in T1 (78.50 and 143.61mg/mL) than control (119.26 and 240.43mg/mL). Total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the pork were decreased with lower significant difference (p<0.05) in T1 (78.53 and 119.64 mg/mL) than control (140.55 and 150.55mg/mL), and those of the chicken were decreased with lower significant difference (p<0.05) in T1 (93.35 and 72.03mg/mL) than control (111.90 and 116.88 mg/mL). From the results, the amount of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in pig and chicken was remarkably changed according to supplementation of Aspergillus terreus koji which containing the produced lovastatin.
Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Products Extracts for Application of Animal Products
Lee Chi-Ho ; Moon Seong-Yong ; Lee Jung-Chil ; Lee Ji-young ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 405~410
This study was performed to investigate the antioxidative activity of soybean products extracts using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method for application of animal products. All three extracts (natto, soybean paste, soybean milk extract) were found to have an ability to donate hydrogen to DPPH. Especially, natto and soybean paste extract were more effective than that of soybean milk on the antioxidative activities. Natto and soybean paste extract were stronger than butylhydroxy toluene (BHT), butyl hydroxyl anisole (BHA) (5
M) and ascorbic acid (5.7
M) previously well known as antioxidants. These extracts also showed a synergistic effect. TBA values of natto (45.8％) and soybean paste extract (45.2％) were stronger than that of soybean milk extract (33.6％). These results suggest that soybean product extracts have antioxidative activities and synergistic effects.
Enzymatic Determination of Somatic Cells by Using Transparisation in Raw Milk
Lee, Bou-Oung ; Xu, Wen-Ying ; Chang, Oun-Ki ; Jin, Tai-Hua ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 411~415
The transparisation technology for milk and milk products could be applied widely and very importantly to various determination because transparisation can economize the cost and increase with precision in the milk payment system. Component of butanone or Triton in transparisation solvent would inhibit the growth of bacteria and method. Enzymatic determination of leucocytes were proposed to evaluate milk quality as mastitis in the milk payment system, this can be easily applied to simplify automation of the determation with the lowest investment cost in milk pay system. The significance of this technique, it can be used in the quality control of raw milk and milk products, milk payment system, and programming of national dairy project. Transparisation technology is used in somatic cell counting by enzymic methods. The range of deviation for this method is 16％ in 74 samples. But the deviation is increased to 20％ when the Infoss method is used. It is affected by the percentage of epithelial cells and white blood cells in somatic cells from different animals and the stages of aging. NAgase activity has an obvious correlation with white-blood cells in milk. In the case of mastitis the white-blood cells is 90-95％ in somatic cells in milk, it is showing greater precision in measuring the state of mastitis. In conclusion the enzymic method of somatic cell counting is a relatively simple and easy method of measurement and can be easily practiced. And the importance of this method is also worth utilizing for indirect counting of Somatic cells by use of synthetic substrates to NAgase. In the future, with the further development of the research in this field, it will b possible to automatize the measurement.
Effect of Loquat(Eriobotrya japonica Lindley) Extract on Acid Production and Growth of Lactic Culture
Go Jin-Kyoung ; Nam Eun-Sook ; Park Shin-In ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 416~423
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindley) extract on the acid production and growth of lactic culture in reconstituted skim milk. The supplementation level of loquat extract to reconstituted skim milk was 10％, 15％ and 20％. Reconstitued skim milk containing loquat extract was fermented by single of mixed culture of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei. General compositions of loquat extract, changes of viable cell count, pH and titratable acidity during fermentation were determined. Chemical compositions of loquat extract were 91.5％ moisture, 0.2％ crude ash, 8.6
Brix soluble sugar, 0.34％ total acid, and 4.11 in pH. Supplementation of loquat extract stimulated acid roduction and growth of lactic acid bacteria. Among supplementation levels, a group that was fermented by a single culture of Str. thermophilus with 10％ loquat extract was shown the highest viable cell count (2.10
9/ CFU/mL) at 12 hours after inoculation. When loquat extract was added to reconstituted skim milk at the level of 10％, all mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria showed higher acid production and the number of viable cell count than 3 kinds of single cultures. Especially, the growth of mixed culture of Str. thermophilus and Lac. acidophilus was promoted by the addition of 10％ loquat extract. Therefore, it was suggested to manufacture the yoghurt with the addition of 10％ loquat extract and the inoculation of mixed culture of Str. thermophilus and Lac. acidophilus for on the stimulation of growth of the lactic culture.
Handling of Harvested Broiler
Kim Dong-Hun ; Yoo Young-Mo ; Cho Soo-Hyun ; Park Beom-Young ; Kim Yong-Kon ; Lee Jong-Moon ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 24, issue 4, 2004, Pages 424~432
The handling and transport of broiler birds from farm to the processing factory is known to cause injury and dead. The preslaughter period can be compromised through thermal stress, emotional stress, starvation, dehydration, metabolic exhaustion, trauma to the skin and bone fraction resulting in bruising and dead. This paper focuses on the control points of individual post Harvest stages by reference to recent literature. In catching, the injuries and deads are caused from fracture of bone, skin damage and hipbone dislocation. It can be improved by training the catchers. The primary factor of dead during transportation is from thermal stress. It is related to stocking density, type of crate and vehicle, ventilation and transportation time. Of the factors, the ventilation is very important. The holding place should be built with consideration of protection from the hostile external environment. There were not much progresses in this area, however, many researches are conducting to focus on animal welfare in European Union. Recently, it is rapidly changed in marketing custom from whole carcass to portion cut in Korea. This means the increase of economic loss due to the mishandling at post harvest. The systematic approach is demanded for this area.