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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Dec 2008
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Oct 2008
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Aug 2008
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Improved Quality Properties of Low-Fat Meat Patties Containing Sweet Persimmon Powder during Freeze Storage
Kim, Il-Suk ; Jin, Sang-Keun ; Ha, Chang-Ju ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.113
Pork patties were made containing hot air dried sweet persimmon powder (T1: 3%, T2: 6%) and freezer dried sweet persimmon powder (T3: 3%, T4: 6%). The control (C: no addition) and each treatment were stored for 40 days at
. The pH value decreased (p<0.05) in all products over 30 days of storage but slightly increased thereafter. There was no significant difference in WHC between the control and treatment groups. Cooking loss and meat color (CIE L, a, b) increased significantly (p<0.05) as storage increased. The cooking loss of meat patties containing sweet persimmon powder were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. The L value of the control increased significantly (p<0.05) relative to the treatment groups, however the a and b values were slightly higher in meat patties containing sweet persimmon powder. In all products, the reduction ratio of diameter increased (p<0.05) with storage time. With regard to microorganisms, all samples were in good condition, containing below 4.20 log CFU/g based on total plate counts through 40 days, though total plate counts and coliform plate counts of the control were lower (p<0.05) than T3 and T4. The VBN values of T4 was significantly higher than those of other products at 15, 30, and 40 days of storage. The TBARS values of meat patties containing sweet persimmon powder were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the conlIol. Sensory panels determined that meat patties containing sweet persimmon powder had a higher (p>0.05) preference score for overall acceptability.
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Medicinal Herb Extract Mix in Pork Patties during Cold Storage
Choe, Jun-Ho ; Jang, Ae-Ra ; Lee, Bong-Deok ; Liu, Xian-De ; Song, Hyun-Pa ; Jo, Cheor-Un ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 122~129
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.122
The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties supplemented with medicinal herb extract mix were investigated. The medicinal herb extract powder was mixed at a ratio of 48.5:48.5:3.0 for Morus alba L, Lonicera flos, and Coptis chinensis, respectively. The pork was prepared and supplemented with medicinal herb extract mix (0, 0.5, 1, or 2%) and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were tested during storage at
. The pH value decreased during cold storage at
for allsamples, however the pH of samples supplemented with herb extract mix rapidly decreased by days 5 and 10 (
). The total phenol content in the pork patties with herb extract mix was higher than in the control patties. The ABTS+ radical scavenging activities increased with increasing concentrations of herb extract mix from 0.5% to 2%. In addition, pork patties supplemented with herb extract mix showed an approximately 1 decimal reduction in total aerobic counts. Therefore, the addition of herb extract mix into pork patties increased the antioxidant activity and slightly improved the antimicrobial activity of pork patties during cold storage. However, the levels of added medicinal herb extract mix should be considered prior to its use in order to maintain proper sensory acceptance.
Quality Characteristics of Pressed Ham Containing Olive Oil
Lee, Jeong-Ill ; Yang, Han-Sul ; Jeong, Jin-Yeon ; Jung, Jae-Doo ; Lee, Jin-Woo ; Ha, Young-Joo ; Kwack, Suk-Chun ; Park, Jeong-Suk ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 130~137
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.130
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of olive oil on the quality characteristics of pressed ham. Five different treatments were tested based on differences in the amount of olive oil added to the pressed ham. As a control, 10% back fat was added without any olive oil. For the first treatment, 5% olive oil replaced a portion of the lard component added to the press ham. For the 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments, 10%, 15% and 20% of olive oil were substituted for lard, respectively. Pressed ham manufactured with olive oil was vacuum packaged and stored for 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at
. Samples were analyzed for shear force value, sensory properties, TBARS values and fatty acid composition. Shear force values increased significantly during storage for all treatments. No remarkable differences were found in sensory properties (color, flavor, texture, and acceptability) between the control and olive oil treated hams, and there was no clear change with increased storage time. There was no significant difference in TBARS values between the control and olive oil treated hams. The TBARS values increased significantly during storage for all treatments. With regard to changes in fatty acid composition, the contents of C14:0-C20:4 were decreased significantly by the addition of olive oil. The saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the control were significantly higher than the olive oil treated hams. Higher levels of added olive oil resulted in significantly higher monounsaturated fatty acid contents. Based on these findings, we conclude that the sensory properties and lipid oxidation (TBARS) of manufactured pressed hams are not affected by olive oil addition. These results also indicate that high-quality pressed ham can be manufactured with increased monounsaturated fatty acid content.
Meat Quality Comparison of Beef from Hanwoo Supplemented with Dietary Rhus verniciflua Stokes Meal, Silicate, and Chromium-Methionine during Refrigerated Storage
Kang, Sun-Moon ; Lee, Ik-Sun ; Song, Young-Han ; Lee, Sung-Ki ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 138~145
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.138
This study was carried out to compare the meat quality of beef from Hanwoo supplemented with dietary Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) meal, silicate (Si), and chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) during refrigerated storage. The 26 mon-aged Hanwoo steers were fed basal diets containing 4% RVS, 4% RVS+400 ppm Cr-Met, 1.4%
, or 0.14%
Cr-Met for 4 mon prior to slaughter. The M. longissimus from carcasses were then stored at
for 7 d. The crude fat content was higher in the Si and Si+Cr-Met groups (p<0.05). The water-holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness were highest in the Si+Cr-Met group (p<0.05). With regard to fatty acids, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content was lower in the Si and Si+Cr-Met groups (p<0.05), and the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was lowest in the Si+Cr-Met group (p<0.05). The TBARS and MetMb contents were decreased in the Si, Si+Cr-Met, and RVS+Cr-Met groups. Regarding meat color during storage, the Si+Cr-Met group showed the highest L, a, b, C values and total color, and those of the Si and RVS+Cr-Met groups were higher than the RVS group (p<0.05). Consequently, beef from Si-fed Hanwoo had higher fat content, color and oxidation stability, and lower PUFA content than RVS-fed beef. And beef from Si+Cr-Met-fed Hanwoo had higher WHC, tenderness and color stability, and lower MUFA content than Si-fed beef.
Effect of Hot Air Dried Kimchi Powder on the Quality Characteristics of Low-fat Sausages
Lee, Mi-Ai ; Han, Doo-Jeong ; Choi, Ji-Hun ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Kim, Hack-Youn ; Jeong, Jong-Youn ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 146~153
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.146
The effects of the addition of Kimchi powder at levels of 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) to sausage formulation on the quality characteristics of low-fat sausage were determined. The CIE L-values of low-fat sausages were lower than the control (p<0.05), and were inversely proportional to the level of Kimchi powder (p<0.05). The CIE a- and CIE b-values of sausages increased with increasing levels of Kimchi powder (p<0.05), and the pH of sausages decreased in proportion to Kimchi powder acidity. Kimchi powder was effective at retaining added water in low-fat sausages since cooking yield, emulsion stability, and viscosity with the addition of 3% Kimchi powder was similar to that of the control. The protein and ash contents of sausages were not affected by Kimchi powder addition (p>0.05), while sausages containing 3% Kimchi powder had the highest water content (p<0.05). With increasing Kimchi powder concentration, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and sensory scores increased in low-fat sausages (p<0.05).
Rheological Properties of Pork Myofibrillar Protein and Sodium Caseinate Mixture as Affected by Transglutaminase with Various Incubation Temperatures and Times
Hwang, Ji-Suk ; Lee, Hong-Chul ; Chin, Koo-Bok ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 154~159
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.154
To investigate the rheological properties of protein mixed gels mediated by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), pork myofibrillar protein (MFP), sodium caseinate (SC) and their mixture (MS), the various gels were incubated at different temperatures for various times. Extracted MFP, SC and their mixture (MS, 1:1) were incubated at different temperatures (
) for various times (0, 0.5, 2, 4 hr), and assessed for viscosity, gel strength and other characteristics using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). DSC measurements showed that incubation at
caused marked changes in thermal transition, and MS displayed similar thermal curves (three endothermic transitions) to MFP and SC alone. After incubation at
for 2 hrs, the viscosity (cP) of MS increased (p<0.05) due to induction by MTGase, whereas no differences were observed at
. However, gel strength values were no different, regardless of incubation temperatures and times. Future research will address how longer incubation times affect the functionality of protein mixed gels mediated by MTGase.
Quality Attributes of Cooked Pork Hams Manufactured with Major Hind Leg Muscles and Longissimus dorsi
Seong, Pil-Nam ; Cho, Soo-Hyun ; Kim, Jin-Hyoung ; Hah, Kyoung-Hee ; Park, Beom-Young ; Kim, Dong-Hoon ; Lee, Jong-Moon ; Ahn, Chong-Nam ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 160~164
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.160
This study was conducted to evaluate the quality attributes of cooked hams made with four hind leg muscles (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Rectus femoris, Gluteus medius) and Longissimus dorsi. Muscles were prepared from three market-weighted crossbreeds (
) and the pH, proximate chemical composition, color, texture attributes, and sensory properties of cooked pork muscle hams were evaluated. In the raw state, no significant differences in pH were found among the five muscle hams. However, Rectus femoris ham had the highest pH, while Longissimus dorsi ham had the lowest pH (p<0.05). All muscle hams had similar moisture, fat, and ash contents. The protein content (%) was highest in Longissimus dorsi ham (p<0.05). The Hunter L value was highest for Longissimus dorsi ham while Rectus femoris and Gluteus medius hams had the lowest Hunter L values (p<0.05). The Hunter a values were similar in Rectus femoris, Biceps femoris, and Gluteus medius hams, and lowest for Longissimus dorsi ham (p<0.05). Texture attributes were not significantly different among the five muscle hams (p>0.05). The results of sensory evaluation showed that Semimembranosus hams had the highest flavor score, but there were no significant differences among five muscle hams with regard to color, taste, and texture (p>0.05).
The Manufacturing of Low-fat Hamburger Patties Added Organic Vegetable
Chung, Ku-Young ; Chung, Eui-Ryung ; Lee, Joo-Yeon ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 165~170
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.165
In this study, the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of law-fat hamburger patties during storage for 25 days at
were investigated. The law-fat hamburger patties were manufactured by three different packing methods (control: added with 10% lard regular-fat patty, T1: added with 10% lard and organic vegetable of regular-fat patty, T2: added with 3% olive oil of vegetability low-fat patty, T3: added with 3% lard of low-fat patty). The pH of all treated samples increased as the storage time increased, and then decreased after 15 days of storage. The low-fat hamburger patty added with organic olive oil (T2) showed significantly higher pH (p<0.05) compared with other treatments (T1 and T3). The TBARS values of the all treated samples tended to increase after 5 days of storage, and then significant quality loss was observed after 15 days of storage period for the control (T1). However, the samples of the vegitability low-fat patty added organic olive oil had longer shelf-life than the control. The total bacterial counts were 7 log CFU/g after 15 days and 20 days of storage for the control and treatments, respectively. The results of this study showed that the storage period of the treatments was slightly extended compared with the control. Low-fat hamburger patties showed no differences for overall acceptability between control and other patties.
Comparison of Meat Quality Characteristics between Crossbreeds
Oh, Ha-Sik ; Kim, Hyun-Youl ; Yang, Han-Sul ; Lee, Jeong-Ill ; Joo, Young-Kuk ; Kim, Chul-Uk ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 171~180
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.171
This study was conducted to investigate the meat quality characteristics of pork loin in 3 crossbred groups (30 pigs/group). The crossbreeds were LY female
D male, Y female
B male and L female
B male (L: Landrace, Y: Yorkshire, B: Berkshire, D: Duroc). Pork loins were collected from animals (
body weight) slaughtered in a commercial slaughter house and stored at
. Samples were analyzed for general composition, physico-chemical properties, meat and fat color, texture characteristics, sensory evaluation and fatty acid composition at 24 hrs postmortem, and TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) values were determined at various storage times. The LYD pigs showed a higher back fat thickness than the YB and LB pigs. There were no significant differences in intramuscular fat, intermuscular fat, subcutaneous fat and springiness among the 3 crossbreeds. In addition, there were no significant differences in general composition, pH, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked sensory evaluation among the 3 crossbreeds (p>0.05). The shear force value of LB pork was significantly lower than other crossbreeds (p<0.05). Total heme pigment was significantly higher in YB pork compared to LYD and LB pork (p<0.05). The TBARS value of YB pork was significantly lower than that of LYD pork, except after the I day of storage (p>0.05). TBARS values increased significantly during storage for all three crossbreeds. The lightness (CIE L) of YB pork was significantly lower, while the redness (CIE a) was significantly higher in YB pork relative to the other crossbreeds. With regard to textural properties, the hardness and adhesiveness values were significantly lower in YB pork compared to LB pork. In fresh meat, the color of YB pork was significantly higher than the other breeds (p<0.05). The content of myristic acid (C14:0) was significantly lower, while the content of arachidonic acid (C20:4) was significantly higher in LB pork (p<0.05). These results show that the YB breed has the highest quality meat of the three crossbreeds.
Effects of Supplementation with Transgenic Bacillus subtilis Secreting Chitinase on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Carcass Traits in Finishing Pigs
Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Cho, Jin-Ho ; Chen, Ying-Jie ; Yoo, Jong-Sang ; Wang, Yuan ; Huang, Yan ; Kim, In-Ho ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 181~186
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.181
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation with transgenic Bacillus subtilis secreting chitinase on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and carcass traits in finishing pigs. A total of sixty-four pigs (
, average initial body weight) were assessed over a period of 84 days. Dietary treatments included: 1) CON (basal diet without antibiotics), 2) AD (basal diet + 0.1% Virginiamycin), 3) CD0.5 (basal diet + 0.5% transgenic B. subtilis), 4) CD1.0 (basal diet + 1.0% transgenic B. subtilis). Each dietary treatment had 4 replicates of 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. In terms of growth performance, the ADG (average daily gain) and gain/feed ratio were significantly increased with the CD1.0 diet compared to the AD diet during weeks 0-4 (p<0.05). During weeks 4-8, the ADG was significantly increased with the AD diet compared to the CON and CD0.5 diets (p<0.05). The ADFI was also significantly increased with the AD diet compared to the other diets (p<0.05). During weeks
, the ADFI was significantly increased with the CON diet compared to the other diets (p<0.05), and the gain/feed ratio was significantly increased with the CD0.5 and CD1.0 diets compared to the AD diet (p<0.05). Over the entire 84 day test period, the ADFI was significantly increased with the AD diet compared to the CD0.5 and CD1.0 diets (p<0.05). The gain/feed ratio was significantly increased with the CD0.5 and CD1.0 diets compared to the CON diet (p<0.05). In terms of meat color, the L value was significantly increased with the CD0.5 diet compared to the CON and AD diets (p<0.05), and the a value was significantly increased with the CON diet compared to the other diets (p<0.05). In terms of sensory evaluation, meat color was significantly improved with the CON, CD0.5 and CD1.0 diets compared to the AD diet (p<0.05). Marbling was significantly increased with the CON diet compared to the other diets (p<0.05). Firmness was significantly increased with the CD0.5 diet compared to the AD diet (p<0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with transformed B. subtilis secreting chitinase improved gain/feed ratios and influenced meat color. Thus, we suggest that transformed B. subtilis secreting chitinase can partially substitute for antibiotics.
Growth Curves Fitting for Body Weight and Backfat Thickness of Swine by Sex
Choi, Te-Jeong ; Seo, Kang-Seok ; Choi, Je-Gwan ; Kim, Si-Dong ; Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Choe, Ho-Sung ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 187~195
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.187
The purpose of this study was to establish proper shipping weight and backfat thickness by applying the growth model to backfat thickness, measured by means of not only body weight, but also ultrasonography, and predicting the changes by age. Three breeds, i.e. Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshie, were analyzed, and the Gompertz, logistic, and Von Bertalanffy model were used for inference with the parameter of the growth model being sex. As a result, both body weight and backfat thickness showed different growth curve parameters and characteristics at inflection points depending on model selection and sex. As for backfat thickness, in estimating the inflection point, unlike the case of body weight, the inflection ages of the boars of the Duroc breed was earlier than that of sows, whereas the inflection ages of the sows of the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds was earlier than that of boars. More than anything else, in the analysis of the changes in backfat thickness according to body weight, as the body weight reached 145kg, the backfat thickness showed much variation as great as 1.7-3.2 cm in each breed and sex. In addition, unlike the other breeds, the boars of the Landrace breed showed an exponential type of relationship between body weight and backfat thickness. As they grow to become 100 kg or heavier, abrupt change in back fat thickness was confirmed. If the growth of body weight and backfat thickness is understood and the genetic relationship is taken advantage of like this, it would be possible to set desired body weight and backfat thickness, and thus help effectively set the shipping time. If not only the phenotype, but also genetic parameters about growth characteristics are estimated and analyzed additionally, more effective data can be generated.
Effect of Sawdust-Bedded Thickness in Floors of Hanwoo on Meat Quality of M. Longissimus after Slaughter
Kang, Sun-Moon ; Park, Yeon-Soo ; Lee, Ik-Sun ; Kim, Tae-Sil ; Pan, Jo-No ; Lee, Sung-Ki ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 196~203
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.196
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of sawdust-bedded thickness in floors (SBTF) of Hanwoo on meat quality of M. longissimus after slaughter. The 7 mon-aged bulls (22 heads) were housed in single sheds (
/animal) bedded with sawdust of 10, 15, and 20 cm thickness for 20 mon prior to slaughter. The M. longissimus from carcasses were then stored at
for 9 d. SBTF had no significant effect on carcass traits and pH, water-holding capacity, drip loss, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, aroma pattern with electronic nose, and sensory attributes of beef. The 20 cm group had the highest crude fat and the lowest n6/n3 (p<0.05). At 9 d, the 10cm group showed the highest total reducing ability and the lowest TBARS content (p<0.05). During storage, the 10 and 20 cm groups had lower MetMb content, higher OxyMb content, and redder meat color than the 15 cm group (p<0.05).
Effect of Feeding Yogurt Using Enterococcus faecium KHM-11 on the Growth in Piglet
Bae, Hyoung-Churl ; Lee, Jo-Yoon ; Nam, Myoung-Soo ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 204~210
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.204
A total of 70 colonies were isolated from the Korean human milk samples on the BCP plate count agar. These LAB isolates were subcultured in 10% reconstituted skim milk, and two strain thereof were finally selected for their highest acid productions. These strains were identified as Enterococcusfaecium based on 16S rDNA sequencing data, named as Enterococcus faecium KHM-11. Sugar utilization of E. faecium KHM-11 was investigated by API 50CH kit, and 19 different sugars including D-arabinose, L-arabinose, galactose, D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-mannose were utilized. For fermentation profiles, a yogurt inoculated by E. faecium KHM-11 after 15 hour, reached at pH 4.09, titratable acidity at 1.10% and average viable counts
. Effects of the administration of yogurt 0.5% of piglet diet to piglets were investigated for growth rate, analysis of blood and incidence of diarrhea. 24 heads of piglets were divided into two groups: the experimental and the control of 12 animals each. The average growth rate in the yogurt-fed group was higher for 21.67%, compared with control (p<0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of blood glucose, cholesterol, albumin and globulin between the two treatments. Incidence of diarrhea was no in pigs fed yogurt as compare to control.
Development of Cholesterol-reduced Mayonnaise with Crosslinked β-Cyclodextrin and Added Phytosterol
Jung, Tae-Hee ; Ha, Hyun-Jee ; Ahn, Joung-Jwa ; Kwak, Hae-Soo ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 211~217
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.211
The objective of the present study was to develop cholesterol-reduced and phytosterol-supplemented mayonnaise using crosslinked
-cyclodextrin and examine its physicochemical and sensory attributes during 10 months of storage. The composition of cholesterol-reduced phytosterol-supplemented mayonnaise was similar to the control. The amount of cholesterol removed ranged from 90.67 to 92.47%. The TBA absorbance of the samples showed that the more phytosterol the sample contained, the lower the TBA absorbance value. The viscosity of cholesterol-reduced mayonnaise with 2.0% phytosterol decreased significantly during storage (p<0.05). The color changes of mayonnaise during storage showed a decrease in the L- and b-values, and an increase in the a-value. The experimental mayonnaise maintained emulsion stability, which was significantly lower in 2.0% phytosterol-supplemented mayonnaise. With regard to sensory attributes, most characteristics were similar to the control mayonnaise, however, the addition of phytosterol had a negative effect on stickiness and bitterness. These results indicate that the cholesterol-reduced and phytosterol-supplemented mayonnaise has decreased oxidation and maintains most of its physicochemical and sensory properties during storage.
Study of the Somatic Cell Count Grade of Goat Milk in Korea
Shin, Ji-Hye ; Jeong, Seok-Geun ; Han, Gi-Sung ; Jang, Ae-Ra ; Chae, Hyun-Seok ; Yoo, Young-Mo ; Ahn, Chong-Nam ; Woo, Kwang-Tae ; Choi, Seok-Ho ; Lee, Wan-Kyu ; Ham, Jun-Sang ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 218~221
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.218
The aim of this work was to establish the standard for goat milk somatic cell counts. The data were obtained from MGEN, which were collected from Dec. 2006 to Nov. 2007. A total of three hundred and forty somatic cell counts from 12 goat milk farms were analyzed. A goat milk grading system by somatic cell count is proposed; less than 1,000,000/mL, 1,000,000-1,500,000/mL, 1,500,000-2,000,000/mL, 2,000,000/mL-2,500,000/mL, and over 2,500,000/mL. Under the grading system, the ratio of first grade goat milk would be 26.2%, and that of the fifth grade would be 11.8%. The first grade ratio is low and the fifth grade ratio is high compared to the cow milk grading system. It is expected that somatic cell counts of domestic goat milk will be improved by the proposed grading system.
A Study of the Efficacy of Hair Analysis Relative to Serum and Organ Analysis for Assessing Heavy Metal Reduction in Living Animals Treated with an Herbal Medicine Remnant and Organic Selenium
Son, Young-Hee ; Yoo, Ji-Eun ; Heo, Ji-Youn ; Jang, Sung-Pyo ; Lee, Byung-Soo ; Lee, Bo-Reum ; Yun, Seon-Gi ; Lee, Chi-Ho ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 222~231
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.222
This study was carried out to develop a method for decreasing the heavy metal composition of living stock. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were pre-treated with heavy metals administered i.p. at the limits of regulation according to the feed CODEX in Korea. Herbal medicine remnant was administered p.o. (2, 4 ppm of average feeding amount) for the entire period of study with organic selenium (2 ppm of average feeding amount) before any other treatment. 2,2`-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was also administered i.p. in a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight before animals were sacrificed. The TBARS test with the FOX assay demonstrates a decrease of heavy metals due to these functional materials in vitro. Moreover, this decrease in heavy metals was also demonstrated by in vivo tests based on SD rats hair analysis and organ analysis after 6 weeks. A good linear correlation between hair analysis and organ analysis represented by liver and blood was shown. The present findings suggest that measurement method of heavy metal composition using hair analysis for healthy livestock can be used in place of detection methods carried out by organ and blood analysis, and herbal medicines with organic selenium may be very effective at decreasing heavy metals of feed materials in feed manufacture industry.
Application of Predictive Microbiology for Shelf-life Estimation of Tteokgalbi Containing Dietary Fiber from Rice Bran
Heo, Chan ; Kim, Hyoun-Wook ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 232~239
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.232
The objective of this study is to estimate the shelf-life of Tteokgalbi containing dietary fiber extracted from rice bran by using the predictive microbiology. This Tteokgalbi was made with 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% dietary fiber. The number of total viable cells, anaerobic, psychrotrophic, and heat-stable bacteria and coliforms was calculated during 15 days of storage under
and the obtained data was applied to Baranyi function. The evaluation of fitness between predicted and observed data showed that these were matched in a satisfactory way. Heat-stable bacteria was detected lower than <1 log CFU/g and coliforms were not detected during the storage. The changes of total viable cells and psychrotrophic bacteria in Tteokgalbi were increased gradually, but dramatically increased after 3 days of storage. The models of total viable cells and anaerobic bacteria showed very similar growth trends and values of growth parameters each other. The estimated shelf-life of each Tteokgalbi was calculated from the predictive model of total viable cells and the estimated shelf-life was 1.7, 2.3, 2.3, and 2.4 days, respectively. The results suggested that the prediction of bacteria growth could be used to evaluate the microbiological safety and determine the shelf-life of Tteokgalbi as ready-to-eat food in the local market.
Analysis of Trans Fatty Acid Content in Retort Food, Powdered Milk, Biscuit and Pizza Products
Park, Da-Jung ; Park, Jung-Min ; Shin, Jin-Ho ; Song, Jae-Cheol ; Kim, Jin-Man ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 28, issue 2, 2008, Pages 240~245
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.240
The consumption of foods containing trans fatty acids (TFAs) is a matter of concern at present. According to many studies, trans fatty acids (TFAs) may cause illnesses such as the coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, large intestine cancer, and breast cancer. They can also raise low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and reduce high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. TFAs can also inhibit the synthesis of phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in arterial cells. As a consequence the Food and Drug Administration has deemed that saturated fatty acid, cholesterol and trans fatty acid levels be listed on food labels as of 2006. The Korea Food and Drug Administration also has required the listing of trans fatty acid content on food labels since 2007. The aim of this study was to determine the total lipid and trans fatty acid (TFA) contents in retort food, powdered milk, biscuit and pizza products. The number of samples examined were 2 retort food, 6 powdered milk, 7 biscuit and 3 pizza products. The extraction of total lipids in retort food and powdered milk followed the chloroform methanol method. The extraction of total lipids in biscuit and pizza was by the acid digestion method. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using a SP-2560 capillary column and a flame ionization detector. The TFA contents per 100g of sample were 1-2.8% (1.9%) in retort foods, 0.4-2.4% (1.37%) in powdered milk products, 0-2.9% (1.23%) in biscuits, and 2.8-3.45% (3.03%) in pizzas.