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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages
Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Choi, Min-Sung ; Hwang, Ko-Eun ; Song, Dong-Heon ; Kim, Yong-Jae ; Ham, Youn-Kyung ; Chang, Seong-Jin ; Lim, Yun-Bin ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.133
This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages.
Effect of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa sp.) Inclusion to the Diet on Performance, Carcass and Antioxidative Activity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Konca, Yusuf ; Cimen, Behzat ; Yalcin, Hasan ; Kaliber, Mahmut ; Beyzi, Selma Buyukkilic ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 141~150
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.141
This study was conducted to determine the effects of hempseed (H) on performance, carcass traits, and antioxidant activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192 quail with seven-days old were divided into four experimental groups with four replicates. The treatments were; i) Control diet (C, no hempseed); ii) 5% hempseed in diet (H5); iii) 10% hempseed in diet (H10); and iv) 20% hempseed in diet (H20). The body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) of quail was determined at 7, 21 and 42 d of age. At 42 d of age four quail were slaughtered and the carcass and internal organ traits were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO) and total protein were determined in the blood serum end of the experiment. The BW of the groups were not significant at 7 and 21 d, however in the 20% hempseed group BW decreased at 42 d (p<0.05). The FI and feed conversion ratio were not significant among the treatment groups. The carcass, liver, intestine and heart weight and their percentage to carcass were significantly differ in treatment groups (p<0.05). The serum MDA and NO decreased in hempseed addition (p <0.001). The serum SOD, CAT and GSH-Px were increased by hempseed supplementation (p<0.001). In conclusion, hempseed supplementation to quail diets may not improve quail performance traits but increase antioxidant activity in blood.
Effects of Concentration and Reaction Time of Trypsin, Pepsin, and Chymotrypsin on the Hydrolysis Efficiency of Porcine Placenta
Jung, Kyung-Hun ; Choi, Ye-Chul ; Chun, Ji-Yeon ; Min, Sang-Gi ; Hong, Geun-Pyo ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 151~157
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.151
This study investigated the effects of three proteases (trypsin, pepsin and chymotrypsin) on the hydrolysis efficiency of porcine placenta and the molecular weight (Mw) distributions of the placental hydrolysates. Because placenta was made up of insoluble collagen, the placenta was gelatinized by applying thermal treatment at
for 1 h and used as the sample. The placental hydrolyzing activities of the enzymes at varying concentrations and incubation times were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Based on the SDS-PAGE, the best placental hydrolysis efficiency was observed in trypsin treatments where all peptide bands disappeared after 1 h of incubation as compared to 6 h of chymotrypsin. Pepsin hardly hydrolyzed the placenta as compared to the other two enzymes. The Mw distribution revealed that the trypsin produced placental peptides with Mw of 106 and 500 Da. Peptides produced by chymotrypsin exhibited broad ranges of Mw distribution (1-20 kDa), while the pepsin treatment showed Mw greater than 7 kDa. For comparisons of pre-treatments, the subcritical water processing (37.5 MPa and
) of raw placenta improved the efficiency of tryptic digestions to a greater level than that of a preheating treatment (
for 1 h). Consequently, subcritical water processing followed by enzymatic digestions has the potential of an advanced collagen hydrolysis technique.
Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages
Choi, Min-Sung ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Hwang, Ko-Eun ; Song, Dong-Heon ; Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 158~165
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.158
The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p<0.05). The redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of reduced-fat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (p<0.05). With increasing BSG pre-emulsion concentration, the fat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05). The BSG pre-emulsion improves the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05), and the reduction in fat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.
The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty
Jung, Samooel ; Jo, Cheorun ; Kim, Il Suk ; Nam, Ki Chang ; Ahn, Dong Uk ; Lee, Kyung Heang ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 166~171
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.166
The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of
. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purge-and-trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.
The Tissue Distribution of Lutein in Laying Hens Fed Lutein Fortified Chlorella and Production of Chicken Eggs Enriched with Lutein
An, Byoung-Ki ; Jeon, Jin-Young ; Kang, Chang-Won ; Kim, Jin-Man ; Hwang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 172~177
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.172
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the dietary effects of conventional or lutein fortified chlorella on lutein absorptions, the tissue distributions and the changes in lutein content of eggs in laying hens. In Exp 1, a total of one hundred and fifty, 70 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were divided into three groups with five replicates and fed with each experiment diet (control diet, diet with 1% conventional chlorella or lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production in groups fed diets containing both chlorella powders were higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). With chlorella supplementations, the yolk color significantly increased, although there were no significant differences in the eggshell qualities. The lutein contents of serum, liver and growing oocytes were greatly increased by feeding conventional or lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of ninety 60 wk-old Hy-Line brown layers were assigned into three groups with three replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). The birds were fed with one of three experimental diets (0, 0.1 or 0.2% lutein fortified chlorella) for 2 wk, respectively. The egg production was not affected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in the group fed with diet containing 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). As the dietary chlorella levels increased, the daily egg mass linearly increased, although not significantly. The yolk colors in groups fed diets containing lutein fortified chlorella were dramatically increased as compared to the control (p<0.001). The lutein in chicken eggs significantly increased when fed with 0.2% of lutein fortified chlorella (p<0.01). These results suggested that the dietary lutein derived from chlorella was readily absorbed into the serum and absorbed by the liver with growing oocyte for commercial laying hens. Particularly, the lutein fortified chlorella was a valuable natural source for the production of lutein enriched chicken eggs.
Application of Ganghwa Mugwort in Combination with Ascorbic Acid for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite in Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage
Hwang, Ko-Eun ; Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Song, Dong-Heon ; Kim, Yong-Jae ; Ham, Youn-Kyung ; Lee, Choong-Hee ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 178~184
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.178
The application of ganghwa mugwort (GM), ascorbic acid (AC), and their combinations for reduction of residual nitrite contents was analyzed in pork sausages during storage of 28 d. Six treatments of pork sausages contained the following: Control (no antioxidant added), AC (0.05% AC), GM 0.1 (0.1% GM), GM 0.2 (0.2% GM), AC+GM 0.1 (0.05% AC + 0.1% GM) and AC+GM 0.2 (0.05% AC + 0.2% GM). Results showed that the mixture of 0.05% AC and 0.2% GM was most effective for reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and residual nitrite contents than the control and GM added sausages alone (p<0.05). The color values of all treatments were significantly affected by adding GM (either alone or with AC). Additionally, the total color difference (
) and hue angle (
) values of treatments added with GM were higher than those of the control as the amount of GM increased (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the pH values between the control and all treatments during the storage period (p>0.05). Our results showed possible applications of antioxidant combination, for preventing the lipid oxidation and decreasing the residual nitrite levels of meat products.
Quality Comparison of Pork Loin and Belly from Three-way Crossbred Pigs during Postmortem Storage
Lim, Dong-Gyun ; Jo, Cheorun ; Cha, Ju-Su ; Seo, Kang-Seok ; Nam, Ki-Chang ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 185~191
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.185
This study was performed to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork loin and belly from 3 different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire
Duroc (YLD), Yorkshire
Yorkshire (YCY), and Yorkshire
Duroc (YBD). Each of the twenty crossed pigs were randomly selected with their live weights at the range of 110-120 kg. After being slaughtered and cooled at
for 24 h in a chilling room, the parts of loin and belly on the left side of the cooled carcasses were cut and prepared for analysis. The intramuscular fat contents of the loins from YLD were higher than those of the other crossbreds (p<0.05), and the YCY bellies had the highest moisture contents (p<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) of the loins from YCY were higher than the other crossbreds (p<0.05). Shear force values of the YBD loins were higher than the others (p<0.05). The TBARS values of YCY loins were significantly lower than the others at 0 d, but the difference disappeared after 14 d of storage. Sensory scores of YLD were ranked higher than the YCY or YBD in both the loins and bellies (p<0.05). The relatively high sensory values of YLD crossbred pork could be explained by the better WHC, the low shear forces, and the higher fat contents. The results indicated that the meat qualities could be altered by three-way crossbreeding.
The Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Hydrolysates on the Characteristics of Imitation Crab Stick
Jin, Sang-Keun ; Hwang, Jin-Won ; Moon, Sungsil ; Choi, Yeung-Joon ; Kim, Gap-Don ; Jung, Eun-Young ; Yang, Han-Sul ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 192~199
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.192
The effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken (MDC) hydrolysates on the quality characteristics of imitation crab stick (ICS) during storage were investigated. ICS was prepared from Alaska Pollack, chicken breast surimi, and protein hydrolysates enzymatically extracted from MDC. ICS samples were divided into 4 groups: without protein hydrolysate (control), added with 0.5% protein hydrolysate (T1), added with 1.0% protein hydrolysate (T2), and added with 1.5% protein hydrolysate (T3). Results showed that crude protein content did not differ significantly among the ICS samples (p>0.05). ICS sample added with MDC hydrolysates had higher crude fat and ash content but lower moisture content than the control (p<0.05). Lightness was significantly lower in T2 and T3 than in the other groups at 0 and 4 wk of storage. Also, whiteness decreased in the groups contained MDC hydrolysates. Breaking force and jelly strength were higher in samples containing MDC hydrolysates compared to control samples (p<0.05). Additionally, saturated fatty acid contents were lower in the groups containing MDC hydrolysates than in control sample groups (p<0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and essential fatty acids (EFA) were significantly higher in T2 and T3 than the control samples. In particular, all samples containing MDC hydrolysates had reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values at 4 wk. Free radical scavenging activity also was increased with addition of MDC hydrolysates.
Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage
Ryu, Kyeong Seon ; Shim, Kwan Seob ; Shin, Daekeun ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 200~206
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.200
To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages.
Effects of pH-Shift Processing and Microbial Transglutaminase on the Gel and Emulsion Characteristics of Porcine Myofibrillar System
Hong, Geun-Pyo ; Chun, Ji-Yeon ; Jo, Yeon-Ji ; Choi, Mi-Jung ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 207~213
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.207
This study investigated the effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and pH-shift processing on the functional properties of porcine myofibrillar proteins (MP). The pH-shift processing was carried out by decreasing the pH of MP suspension to 3.0, followed by re-adjustment to pH 6.2. The native (CM) and pH-shifted MP (PM) was reacted with and without MTGase, and the gelling and emulsion characteristics were compared. To compare the pH-shifted MTGase-treated MP (PT), deamidation (DM) was conducted by reacting MTGase with MP at pH 3.0. Rigid thermal gel was produced by MTGase-treated native MP (CT) and PT. PM and DM showed the lowest storage modulus (G') at the end of thermal scanning. Both MTGase and pH-shifting produced harder MP gel, and the highest gel strength was obtained in PT. All treatments yielded lower than CM, and CT showed significantly higher yield than PM and DM treatments. For emulsion characteristics, pH-shifting improved the emulsifying ability of MP-stabilized emulsion, while the treatments had lower emulsion stability. PM-stabilized emulsion exhibited the lowest creaming stability among all treatments. The emulsion stability could be improved by the usage of MTGase. The results indicated that pH-shifting combined with MTGase had a potential application to modify or improve functional properties of MP in manufacturing of meat products.
Nutritional Characteristics and Active Components in Liver from Wagyu×Qinchuan Cattle
Li, Ru-Ren ; Yu, Qun-Li ; Han, Ling ; Cao, Hui ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 214~220
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.214
We investigated nutritional characteristics and active components in the liver of Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle and Qinchuan cattle produced in Shaanxi (China). We observed significant differences (p<0.05) in the proximate composition of protein, fat, carbohydrate, total energy, and glycogen. Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle liver showed higher (p<0.05) sodium, iron, zinc, and selenium concentrations than Qinchuan cattle liver. The amino acid composition of Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle liver was richer (p<0.05) in 13 types of amino acids, with the exception of Asp (10.06%), Val (5.86%), and Met (1.72%). Total essential amino acids accounted for almost half the composition (39.69%) in Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle liver. Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle liver had lower (p<0.05) levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (18.2%), but higher (p<0.05) levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (35.11%), compared with Qinchuan cattle liver (23.29% and 28.11%, respectively). The thrombogenic index was higher in Qinchuan cattle liver (0.86) than in Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle liver (0.70), and the glutathione (38.0 mg/100g) and L-carnitine (2.12
) content was higher (p<0.05) in Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle liver than in Qinchuan cattle liver (29.8 mg/100g and 1.41
, respectively). According to the results obtained, the liver of Wagyu
Qinchuan cattle, which is insufficiently used, should be increasingly utilized to improve its commercial value.
Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat
Alahakoon, Amali U. ; Jayasena, Dinesh D. ; Jung, Samooel ; Kim, Hyun Joo ; Kim, Sun Hyo ; Jo, Cheorun ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 221~229
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.221
Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at
under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application.
Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed
Lee, Sang-Yoon ; Jo, Yeon-Ji ; Choi, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Boo-Yong ; Han, Jong-Kwon ; Lim, Jae Kag ; Oh, Jae-Wook ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 230~237
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.230
This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at
and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.
Comparison of Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality between Duroc and Crossbred Pigs
Choi, Jung-Seok ; Lee, Hyun-Jin ; Jin, Sang-Keun ; Choi, Yang-Il ; Lee, Jae-Joon ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 238~244
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.238
This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and meat quality characteristics of Duroc breed and crossbred pigs (Landrace
Duroc, LYD). Duroc and crossbred pigs did not show differences in carcass characteristics. Crossbred pigs had higher moisture and protein content than Duroc breeds. However, Duroc breeds had a higher fat content than the crossbred pigs. In meat quality characteristics, crossbred pigs showed higher values of drip loss and cooking loss over Duroc breeds, while Duroc breeds showed higher ultimate pH value compared to that of crossbred pigs. However, there were no differences in water holding capacity and shear force value. In myoglobin content, crossbred pigs had higher content compared to that in the Duroc population. In subjective evaluation and sensory characteristics, Duroc breeds showed significantly higher scores in all categories except for tenderness over the crossbred pigs. However, in storage characteristics, Duroc breeds showed reduced tendency relative to crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs had higher unsaturated fatty acid content than Duroc breeds did. In these results, Duroc breeds showed excellent meat quality characteristics with its higher intramuscular fat content and pH value, lower drip loss and cooking loss and higher juiciness and flavor, compared to the crossbred pigs.
Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions
Park, Jung-Min ; Shin, Jin-Ho ; Bak, Da-Jeong ; Kim, Na-Kyeong ; Lim, Kwang-Sei ; Yang, Cheul-Young ; Kim, Jin-Man ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.245
The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at
had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at
had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at
was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Blood Meal and Additional Magnesium on Carnosine and Anserine Concentrations of Pig Muscles
Park, Se Won ; Kim, Chan Ho ; Kim, Jong Woong ; Shin, Hye Seong ; Paik, In Kee ; Kil, Dong Yong ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 252~256
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.252
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of blood meal as a source of L-histidine, and the addition of magnesium (Mg) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase for the carnosine and anserine concentrations of pig muscles (longissimus dorsi, LD and vastus intermedius, VI). A total of twenty-four pigs with an average body weight of
kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (eight replicates), during 56 d of the feeding trial. Dietary treatments included: (1) Basal: basal diet; (2) BM: 95% basal diet + 5% blood meal; and (3) BM+Mg: 94.8% basal diet + 5% blood meal + 0.2% MgO (60% Mg). Results indicated that drip loss in the LD was less (p<0.05) for meat with BM+Mg treatment than that with Basal treatment, but the values for BM treatment did not differ from those of the other two treatment groups. The concentrations of carnosine in the LD were increased by 10.0% in both BM and BM+Mg treatment groups over the Basal treatment group (significance not verified). The concentrations of carnosine and anserine in the VI were not affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of additional Mg in diets had no effect on carnosine and anserine concentrations in the LD and VI. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of blood meal could be a potential method of fortifying the pork with carnosine. Inclusion of additional Mg in the diets containing blood meal had no benefit on carnosine and anserine depositions in pig muscles.
Effect of NaCl on Biofilm Formation of the Isolate from Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak Linked to Ham
Lee, Soomin ; Choi, Kyoung-Hee ; Yoon, Yohan ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 34, issue 2, 2014, Pages 257~261
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.2.257
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of NaCl on the biofilm formations of the isolate from Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to ham. The S. aureus ATCC13565 isolated from ham was exposed to NaCl concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% supplemented in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 24 h at
, followed by plating 0.1 mL of the culture on tryptic soy agar containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl, respectively. After incubating at
for 24 h, the colonies on the plates were collected and diluted to
= 0.1. The diluents of S. aureus were incubated on a 96-well flat bottom plate containing TSB plus the appropriate NaCl concentrations, and the biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining after being incubated at
for 9 h. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was also used for visualizing the biofilm formation of S. aureus at NaCl concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%. The transcriptional analysis of biofilm-related genes, such as icaA, atl, clfA, fnbA, sarA, and rbf, was conducted by quantitative real-time PCR. Crystal violet staining and CLSM showed that the biofilm formations of S. aureus increased (p<0.05) along with the NaCl concentrations. Moreover, the expression of the icaA genes was higher at the NaCl concentrations of 4% and 6% as compared with 0% of NaCl by approximately 9-folds and 20-folds, respectively. These results indicated that the NaCl formulated in processed food may increase the biofilm formations of S. aureus by increasing the icaA gene expressions.