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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature
Yang, Jieun ; Jeong, Dawoon ; Na, Chong-Sam ; Hwang, Inho ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 291~299
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.291
Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1
The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage
Kurt, Sukru ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 300~308
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.300
In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.
Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters
Kim, Cheon-Jei ; Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Hwang, Ko-Eun ; Song, Dong-Heon ; Ham, Youn-Kyung ; Choi, Ji-Hun ; Kim, Young-Boong ; Choi, Yun-Sang ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 309~318
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.309
In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.
Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products
Song, Jae-Sang ; Park, Su-Jeong ; Choi, Jung-Yun ; Kim, Jin-Sook ; Kang, Myung-Hee ; Choi, Bo-Kyung ; Hur, Sun Jin ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 319~325
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.319
This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea.
Effects of Humectant and Roasting on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Jerky Made from Spent Hen Meat
Sorapukdee, Supaluk ; Uesakulrungrueng, Chanpen ; Pilasombut, Komkhae ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 326~334
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.326
This study was carried out to develop jerky product utilizing spent hen meat. Manipulation of water activity (a
) of semi-dried meat with the addition of humectants (glycerol and sorbitol at the concentration of 0, 10, and 15%) and roasting process were applied to enhance quality of jerky product. After spent hen meat was ground, formulated, reformed and then dried in convection oven at 85℃ for 2 h followed by 60℃ for 1 h, all jerky samples showed values of a
≤0.85 with total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold and Staphylococcus aureus counts were reduced to undetectable levels. Moreover, the results showed that the 15% glycerol added jerky showed superior quality, indicated by the lowest a
, low protein aggregation as evaluated by sorption isotherm and the lowest shear value as compared to sorbitol added and control samples (p<0.05). Regardless effect of humectant, roasting could improve the quality of the jerky via enhanced sensory attributes by increasing color, appearance, flavor and overall acceptability scores (p<0.05). Therefore, spent hen meat could be used as a potential raw material for jerky in which soft product texture obtained by the addition of glycerol and intense flavor resulted from roasting process after drying, leading to sensory acceptance.
Effects of High-Pressure, Microbial Transglutaminase and Glucono-δ-Lactone on the Aggregation Properties of Skim Milk
Lee, Sang Yoon ; Choi, Mi-Jung ; Cho, Hyung-Yong ; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 335~342
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.335
The object in this study is to investigate the effects of high pressure and freezing processes on the curdling of skim milk depending on the presence of transglutaminase (TGase) and glucono-δ-lactone (GdL). Skim milk was treated with atmospheric freezing (AF), high pressure (HP), pressure-shift freezing (PSF) and high pressure sub-zero temperature (HPST) processing conditions. After freezing and pressure processing, these processed milk samples were treated with curdling agents, such as TGase and GdL. Pressurized samples (HP, PSF and HPST) had lower lightness than that of the control. In particular, PSF had the lowest lightness (p<0.05). Likewise, the PSF proteins were the most insoluble regardless of whether they were activated by TGase and GdL, indicating the highest rate of protein aggregation (p<0.05). Furthermore, the TGase/GdL reaction resulted in thick bands corresponding to masses larger than 69 kDa, indicating curdling. Casein bands were the weakest in PSF-treated milk, revealing that casein was prone to protein aggregation. PSF also had the highest G` value among all treatments after activation by TGase, implying that PSF formed the hardest curd. However, adding GdL decreased the G` values of the samples except HPST-treated samples. Synthetically, the PSF process was advantageous for curdling of skim milk.
Rapid Discoloration of Aged Beef Muscles after Short-Term/Extreme Temperature Abuse during Retail Display
Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Setyabrata, Derico ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Kim, Yuan H. Brad ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 343~351
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.343
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term/extreme temperature abuse (STA) on color characteristics and oxidative stability of aged beef muscles during simulated retail display. Two beef muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL and semitendinosus, ST) were aged for 7 (A7), 14 (A14), 21 (A21), and 28 d (A28), and further displayed at 2℃ for 7 d. The STA was induced by placing steak samples at 20℃ for 1 h on the 4th d of display. Instrumental and visual color evaluations, ferric ion reducing capacity (FRC) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay were performed. Initially, redness, yellowness and hue angle of all beef muscles were similar, regardless of aging time before display (p>0.05). An increase in postmortem aging time increased lipid oxidation and caused a rapid discoloration after STA during display (p<0.05). ST muscle was more sharply discolored and oxidized after STA, when compared to LL muscle (p<0.05). The FRC value of beef muscles was decreased after 7 d of display (p<0.05). The results from the current study indicate adverse impacts of postmortem aging on color and oxidative stabilities of beef muscles, particularly under temperature abusing conditions during retail display. Thus, developing a specific post-harvest strategy to control quality attributes in retail levels for different muscle types and aging conditions would be required.
Characterisation of Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterococci from Cheeses in Turkey
Kurekci, Cemil ; Onen, Sevda Pehlivanlar ; Yipel, Mustafa ; Aslantas, Ozkan ; Gundogdu, Aycan ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 352~358
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.352
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterococci in cheese samples and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance profiles as well as the associated resistance genes. A total of 139 enterococci were isolated from 99 cheese samples, the isolates were identified as E. faecalis (61.2%), E. faecium (15.1%), E. gallinarum (12.9%), E. durans (5.0%), E. casseliflavis (2.9%) and E. avium (2.9%). The most frequent antimicrobial resistance observed in enterococci isolates was to lincomycin (88.5%), followed by kanamycin (84.2%), gentamycin (low level, 51.1%), rifampin (46.8%) and tetracycline (33.8%). Among the isolates, the frequencies of high level gentamycin and streptomycin resistant enterococci strains were 2.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Apart from the mentioned antibiotics, low levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol were found. Moreover no resistance was observed against penicillin and ampicillin. The antimicrobial resistance genes including tetM, tetL, ermB, cat, aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia and aac(6’)-Ieaph(2”)-Ia were found in enterococci from Turkish cheese samples. In the current study, we provided data for antibiotic resistance and the occurrence of resistance genes among enterococci. Regulatory and quality control programs for milk and other dairy products from farms to retail outlets has to be established and strengthened to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance among emerging food borne pathogens in Turkey.
Antioxidant Activity of Brown Soybean Ethanolic Extracts and Application to Cooked Pork Patties
Lee, Choong-Hee ; Hwang, Ko-Eun ; Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Song, Dong-Heon ; Kim, Yong-Jae ; Ham, Youn-Kyung ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Jang, Sung-Jin ; Jeong, Tae-Jun ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 359~368
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.359
The brown soybean extract (BE, extracted by distilled water, 50%, 75%, and 95% ethanol) were analyzed for their total phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical-scavenging activity to determine antioxidant activities. Brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenol and anthocyanin content compared to the other treatments (p<0.05). Then, brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol was applied to pork patties at different concentration (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) and lipid oxidation was evaluated during 15 d of refrigerated storage. Addition of BE significantly increased redness and pH values, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, TBARS value of pork patties decreased significantly (p<0.05) as BE concentration increased. In sensory evaluation, pork patties with 0.1% BE had significantly higher score than other treatments in flavor and overall acceptability (p<0.05). Consequently, these results indicate that 0.1% BE could be an effective natural antioxidant to inhibit lipid oxidation in pork patties.
Quality Improvement of Pork Loin by Dry Aging
Lee, Cheol Woo ; Lee, Ju Ri ; Kim, Min Kyu ; Jo, Cheorun ; Lee, Kyung Haeng ; You, Insin ; Jung, Samooel ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 369~376
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.369
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dry aging on the quality of pork loin. Longissimus lumborum muscles were dissected from the right half of five pork carcasses and were used as the control samples. The left halves of the carcasses were aged at 2±1℃ and a relative humidity of 80% for 40 d. The total aerobic bacteria count was similar between the control and dry-aged pork loin (p>0.05). Lactic-acid bacteria was absent in both the control and dry-aged pork loins. Dry-aged pork loin contained low moisture and high protein and ash compared to the controls (p<0.05). The pH was higher and cooking loss was lower in dry-aged pork loin compared to that in the control (p<0.05). Flavor related compounds, such as total free amino acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine of pork loin were higher in dry-aged pork loin; whereas, inosine 5`-monophosphate and guanosine 5`-monophosphate were low in dry-aged pork loin than control (p<0.05). There was no difference in carnosine and anserine content between dry-aged pork loin and the control (p>0.05). Dry-aged pork loin had lower hardness and shear force and received higher core in sensory evaluation than the control (p<0.05). According to the results, dry aging improved textural and sensorial quality of pork loin.
Effect of the Fish Oil Fortified Chitosan Edible Film on Microbiological, Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Göbek Kashar Cheese during Ripening Time
Yangilar, Filiz ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 377~388
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.377
Objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of coated edible films with chitosan solutions enriched with essential oil (EO) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of Kashar cheese during ripening time. Generally, no differences were found in total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, streptococci and lactoccocci counts among cheeses but these microorganism counts increased during 60 and 90 d storage especially in C1 (uncoated sample) as compared with coated samples. Antimicrobial effectiveness of the films against moulds was measured on 30, 60, and 90 d of storage. In addition of fish EO into chitosan edible films samples were showed to affect significantly decreased the moulds (p<0.05) as 1.15 Log CFU/g in C4 (with fish oil (1% w/v) fortified chitosan film) on the 90
d, while in C1 as 3.89 Log CFU/g on the 90
d of ripening. Compared to other cheese samples, C2 (coated with chitosan film) and C4 coated cheese samples revealed higher levels of water-soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage. C2 coated cheese samples were preferred more by the panellists while C4 coated cheese samples received the lowest scores.
Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights
Choi, Young Min ; Oh, Hee Kyung ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 389~396
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.389
In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm
, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×10
, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm
, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH
, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics.
Effects of Whey Powder Supplementation on Dry-Aged Meat Quality
Kim, Ji-Han ; Yeon, Su-Jung ; Hong, Go-Eun ; Park, Woojoon ; Lee, Chi-Ho ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 397~404
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.397
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with whey powder (WP, 1g/kg feed) from weaning to slaughter (150 d) on dry-aged loin quality of pigs. Fifty-eight pigs were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (seven replications of four pigs per treatments). Basal diet with 0.1% whey powder was supplied to the WP group. Basal diet was used for the control group (CON). Diet whey protein did not appear to influence the moisture or protein contents. However, ash and fat contents were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the WP group compared to the control group. Drip loss was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the WP group than that of the control group. Increasing redness with decreasing lightness was found in the inner loin of the WP group. Calcium and iron contents in the WP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Protein degradation was higher in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05), whereas shear force was lower in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% whey powder influence negatively the lipid oxidation of meat whereas the texture property and mineral composition of meat from whey powder fed pigs are developed.
Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat
Muhlisin, Muhlisin ; Utama, Dicky Tri ; Lee, Jae Ho ; Choi, Ji Hye ; Lee, Sung Ki ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 405~411
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.405
The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10
/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.
Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract
Jung, Jieun ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ; Yoon, Hyun Joo ; Jang, Hye Ji ; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika ; Jee, Hee-Sook ; Li, Xiang ; Lee, Na-Kyoung ; Lee, Si-Kyung ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 412~420
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.412
The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.
Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages
Yang, Hyun-Ju ; Song, Kyung Bin ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 421~426
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.421
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.
Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology
Yu, Hyung-Seok ; Lee, Na-Kyoung ; Jeon, Hye-Lin ; Eom, Su Jin ; Yoo, Mi-Young ; Lim, Sang-Dong ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ;
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, volume 36, issue 3, 2016, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.3.427
Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.