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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Animal Environmental Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Livestock Housing and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Dec 2009
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Aug 2009
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Apr 2009
Selecting the target year
Effects of Raising System on the Reproductive and Weaning Performances in Replacing Gilts
Kim, G.W. ; Ok, Y.S. ; Kim, S.E. ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~8
This study was conducted to analyze the effects of sow breeding environment on the reproduction in the first litter in a large-sized hog farm, located in Dangjin-gun, Chungnam from July 1st, 2007 to June 30th, 2008 and provide basic information to improve the sow productivity in a family farming sows. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The gestation periods were proved to be similar without significant differences between indoor and outdoor breeding grounds, The average of farrowing rate was 91.91%, and 92.54% farrowing rate of out-door ground breeding sows was slightly greater than 91.57% of group-housed sows, but there was no significance between two groups. 2. The average of total litter size and the number of born alive per litter were 9.81 and 9.02, respectively. The number of total number was 0.98 and the number of born alive per litter was 1.18 in the outdoor-ground breeding sows, which was significantly greater than group-housed sows(p<0.001). 3. The number(rate) of piglets stillborn was 0.22(2.10%) from the outdoor-ground breeding sows was significantly greater, compared with 0.33(3.53%) from group-housed sows(p<0.01). The number of piglets culled was 0.23(2.27%) and 0.26(2.77%), in the out-door ground breeding sows and in group-housed sows, respectively and it was not significantly similar between two groups. And, the number of mummies was 0.21(2.1%) and 0.28(2.29%), in the out-door ground breeding sows and in group-housed sows, respectively, which showed no significance. 4. The weaning number in the playground breeding sows was 9.48 and it was significantly greater than that in the group-housed sows(p<0.001). The average of weaned age was observed to be 22.91 days. The weaned age in the out-door ground breeding sows was 22.39 days, and it was significantly smaller than that in group-housed sows(p<0.001). The breeding rate for the weaning of pigs was satisfactory as 96.82%, but there was no significant difference between two groups.
Studies on Variation of Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers by Pen and Group Size
Ha, J.J. ; Rhee, Y.J. ; Jang, W.J. ; Kim, Y.W. ; Shaogang, Li ; Song, Y.H. ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 9~16
This study, tasting 14 months, was conducted to investigate the effects of different pen size and group size on growing-fattening characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Forty-eight, 12-month-old Hanwoo steers(
) were randomly assigned to three groups(
; n=4 heads,
; n=8 heads,
; n=12 heads) and reared in separate pens with a constant space allowance of
per head from 12 to 21 month of age and then regrouped to 4 heads per pen. A common diet including concentrate(limited) and forage(ad lib) was provided to all the animals. Images of live animal ultrasonic back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area and Marbling score were evaluated in three months interval from 12 months of age using an ultrasound equipment(HS-2000) at the 13th rib and lumber vertebra interface of left side. Significant differences of ADG was found mainly at
month fattening stages(p<0.05). Marbling score(MS) was higher(p<0.05) in 12 heads group when compared with that of 4 and 8 heads groups after 18 months. Animals in 12 heads group had the lowest Average daily gain(ADG) but showed the highest longissimus muscle area(LMA) and marbling score(MS). In addition, Hanwoo steers in 12 heads group obtained a higher quality appearance(HQA) of 82.7% than that of other treatments. The results indicated that Hanwoo steers housed on large group size and pen size decreased their ADG but improved meat quality.
Solution for the Improvement in Structural Design & Application of PEB System for the Standard Livestock Housing(2008)
Park, Man-Woo ; Do, Byung-Ho ; Song, Jun-Ik ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 17~28
PEB system is more economical when compared with structures commonly used Hot rolled and welded light H-beam was introduced in the Standard Livestock Housing. This study suggested more economical technology for structural design by the reduction of live load, relief of deflection limit and reduction of importance factor. And, when applying wind Load as a result of examination with Low Rise Building Systems Manual considering open model, we can know that when the wind load is big, enclosed model is more stable than open model. In short, Suggesting more economical model and providing the method to reduce natural disaster, by the application of PEB system and the development of technology for structural design, are considered to strengthen the competitive power of farmhouse.
The Effect of the Milk Yield and Performance Analysis of Robot Milking System
Kim, W. ; Lee, D.W. ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 29~36
The authors of this study have developed a robot milking system composed of a multi-articular manipulator, a teat-cup attachment system, and an image processing system. In order to verify the efficacy of this system, we have conducted a performance analysis and measurement experiment of milk yield, using dairy cattle. It was concluded that teat recognition using the image processing system, teat-cup attachment, and detachment system did not binder milking. The milking yield of the robot milking system was analyzed based on a lactation curve. As a result, it was determined that the use of a robot milking system had no significant effects on milking yields. The robot milking system described in this study is designed specifically with a focus on teat-cup attachment and detachment performance, as well as the effect of these factors on milking yield. In the future, in-depth studies regarding the washing of the teats prior to milking, teat massage, pre-treatment and post-treatment processes after milking, and disinfection processes shall be conducted, in order to render this system feasible for use in an actual milking parlor.
Effects of On-farm Management System on the Carcass Quality of Market Pigs
Kim, D.H. ; Seo, J.T. ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 37~50
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of on-farm management systems(including the farm size, stocking density of growing-finishing phase, proportion of finisher diet and type of growing-finishing building) and pre-slaughter handling(including the transportation time and loading time) on carcass grade, the incidence of PSE pork, the meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat, subcutaneous fat and score for elasticity of market pigs. For this study, 248,787 pigs of 53 different farms were used to establish the pork quality assurance program and to meet the comsumer's need. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The farm size had significant influence on carcass grade, in which showing the higher grade by increasing the farm size. However, the incidence of PSE pork were not significantly differences among the farm size. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat, subcutaneous fat and score for elasticity of market pigs were not significant influenced by farm size. 2. The stocking density of growing-finishing phase was statistically significant for carcass grade, in which showing the higher grade in mid density group. However, the incidence of PSE pork was higher in high density group. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat and elasticity of market pigs were greater in mid density groups, but not influenced by stocking density for subcutaneous fat score. 3. The carcass grade and the incidence of PSE pork were not significantly influenced by transportation time. However, transportation time significantly affected the meat quality score, the meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat, subcutaneous fat and elasticity of the carcasses were superior in more than 1 hour transportation groups. 4. At any time loading, the carcass grade and PSE incidence were not significantly differences. However, the meat quality score for intra-muscle fat, inter-muscle fat and elasticity of market pigs were superior in before 10 AM groups, but not influenced by loading time for subcutaneous fat score. 5. The proportion of finisher diet had not significant influence on carcass grade, but PSE incidence affected by proportion of finisher diet, 21 percent or more group was higher PSE incidence. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat and inter-muscle fat of the carcasses were superior in 21 percent or more fed finisher diet groups, but elasticity score of carcass had not influenced by the proportion of finisher diet. 6. The type of growing-finishing building was affected the carcass grade and PSE incidence of the market pigs, carcass grade and PSE incidence were superior in enclosed mechanical ventilation building groups. The meat quality score for intra-muscle fat and inter-muscle fat of the carcasses were not significantly differences by the type of finishing building, but the score of subcutaneous fat and elasticity of carcass were superior in opened natural ventilation building groups. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that we have more precise on-farm management practice and the knowledge related to pre-slaughter handling skills to reduce the stress and improve the status of welfare of market pigs.
Effects of Compost Leachate on Growth and Yield of Leaf Lettuce in Hydroponic Culture
Ryoo, Jong-Won ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 51~58
The compost leachate was dark-colored solution that leaches out of the bottom of the compost pile. The compost leachate was rich in nutrients and can potentially used in plant culture. In the organic production, commercial liquid fertilizer was used to insure the availability of nutrients during the formation of the yield. The cost of supplemental liquid fertilizer could be reduced by developing a fertilizer based on animal fertilizer. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different combination of compost leachate and conventional inorganic solution in hydroponic culture for lettuce growth. Six different treatments were applied. The compost leachate(CL) and nutrient solution(NS) were mixed by six different mixing ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40%, 80:20 and 100%:0% based on nitrogen content. The chemical nutrient solution was the solution of National Horticulture Research Station for the growth of leaf lettuce. The concentration of nutrient solution was adjusted 1.5 mS/cm in EC. The compost leachate was low in phosphorus(P), calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg), but rich in potassium(K). The plant height of lettuce treated with CL 20+NS 80% was similar with 100% NS of control plot. Plant height was highest in the plot of CL 20+NS 80%. The treatment of 100% compost leachate was lowest in the growth characteristics of leaf lettuce. Number of leaf was very low in 100% compost leachate compared with plot of chemical nutrient solution. In the beginning of growth stage, SPAD value was reduced in plot treated with CL100%, but CL20+NS80% plot was higher compared to 100% compost leachate. SPAD value of leaf lettuce leaves was decreased as the amount of CL was increased. The dry weight of lettuce were 107.4, 104.2g in plot of NS 100% and CL 20%+NS80%, respectively. The leaf number and plant weight were decreased at high application plots of compost leachate. The leaf lettuce showed lowest in the plot treated with 100% compost leachate, and the growth of lettuce severely decreased after application of 100% CL treatment. The results showed that compost leachate can be use as liquid fertilizer for the organic hydroponic production. The mixture solution of 20% of compost leachate and 80% of nutrient solution could be used as a nutrition solution in hydroponic culture of leaf lettuce. Our studies have shown that is possible to produce using compost leachate, although growth is slower than when using a conventional inorganic hydroponic solution.
Composting Characteristics of Food Waste - Poultry Manure Mixture Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms
Hong, Ji-Hyung ; Park, Keum-Joo ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 59~68
This study investigated the evaluation of maturity, stability, nutrient and heavy metal from rotating drum composter of food waste amended with poultry manure composting inoculated with effective microorganisms(EM). Composting were performed for the first, drying reactor(
) 3 hours and the second, composting reactor(
) 24 hours, and parameters monitored this period included moisture content, NaCl, pH, electrical conductivity(EC), C/N ratio, organic matter(OM), nutrient content and heavy metal. Changes in compost temperature during composting were maintained constantly in the range of
using firewood boiler(450 MJ/h). We examined physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in order to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity, nutrient and harmful indicators such as seed germination rate<60%, potassium 1>%, dm and NaCl>1%, dm at the end of the final compost. The finished compost obtained after decomposition phase at the end of the 2nd composter could not be utilized for land improvement or reclamation.
A Study on the Manure Management and Effectively Utilization
Hong, Ji-Hyung ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 69~74
A survey questionnaire that addressed the issues to manure compost producers and users was prepared. The questionnaire addressed three main topics as follows: 1) types of manure treatment and composting facilities are being operated, 2) quantity of manure compost produced and used, 3) problems experienced in producing and using manure compost. A total of 30 manure compost producers and 10 manure compost users were interviewed. Solid manure are applied to composting. Slurry and wastewater are simplified aeration method to produce liquid fertilizer. The open elongated type manure composting are generally used on manure compost centers jointly used by several farms. The amount of annually manure compost production was most common in the range of
thousand tons per manure compost center. The manure compost utilization and cucumber yield were mostly
tons per 10a of cucumber farmland, respectively. Environmentally friendly use both of manure compost and chemical fertilizer are recommended for natural recycling agriculture.
Effects of Application Rates with Swine Liquid Manure on Rice Yield and Quality in Cheorwon Region
Ryo, J.W. ; Lee, B.O. ;
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 15, issue 1, 2009, Pages 75~84
This study was carried out to determine the effect of swine liquid manure on the rice growth and yield in 2006. Field experiment was conducted under variable application rates; 100%, 120%, 150%, 180% N level of slurry based on 11 kg N 10a recommended amount of nitrogen. The experimental sites were located at Cheorwon in Gangwondo area. The results were summerized as follows; In the plot treated with swine liquid manure of 150% and 180% N levels, the plant height and tillers were higher, and the color of leaf was darker than that of 100% N level of swine liquid manure. Rice yield in the plot applied with 120% N slurry level was increased at 11%, but those of 150%, 180% N-level application plots were reduced 10, 19% compared to 100% N level, respectively. Rice quality of the 100 and 120% application plots of swine liquid manure was significantly better than those of 150 and 180% levels of application plots. Total nitrogen content in rice plant after harvesting was increased with increasing levels of swine liquid manure. The content of K in the soil was accumulated in plot treated with 150%, 180% slurry compared to control plot. The heavy metal contents in soils were not increased treated with swine liquid manure. The density of bacteria was low in the application plot of 180%N of liquid swine manure. The bacteria/fungi ratio was highest in 120% N level of liquid manure treatment.