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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Animal Environmental Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Livestock Housing and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1998
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1998
Selecting the target year
Study on the Development of the Mobile Pig Nursery for Early Weaned Piglet
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~8
The objective of this study was conducted to develope a mobile pig nursery(MPN) for segregation of early weaned piglet. The units of MPN was consisted of 4 rectangle-type pens, 1 workroom, 2 doors, 3 windows, 1 air-inlet, 1 exhaust fan, and 1 cooling and heating system. Total of 40 piglet were weaned at 7 days of age. The period of the feeding test was 63 days. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The insulation thickness was 70, 70 and 50 mm of roof, floor and wall, respectively. R-value was 15.32 and 10.32 of roof and wall, respectively. 2. Exhaust fan( 30.48) was installed near back door 40cm from the bottom. When exhaust fan speeds were 15, 20, 30 and 35%, Air ventilation was required 9.75, 7.07, 1.72, 1.45 minutes of respectively. 3. Average temperature in the MPN was able to maintain 27∼28
from 7∼28 days of age, 24∼25
from 35∼56 days of age and 20∼21.5
from 56∼70 days of age. 4. Average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion were 420.6g, 761.5g, 1.81 respectively.
Effects of Feeding Probiotics on the Odor-Generating Substances and Development of maggots(Fly's larvae) in Pig's Feces
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 9~20
This research was conducted to investigate the effects on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus and the number of maggots in the feces from the experimental pigs fed probiotics additives, and the variance of NH3-concentration(ppm) generated in the experimental pig-pens. The experiment was performed twice in the W-farm(under the condition of sufficient energy and protein in Spring) and B-farm(insufficient energy and protein in Summer). The experiment was designed with 5 treatments (control and 4 treatments according to the kinds of additives used). In the W-farm experiment, 75 three-way crossbred pigs weighing average 38kg were randomized with 3 replications for 102 days. In the B-farm experiment, 105 three-way crossbred pigs weighing average 33kg were randomized with 3 replications for 130 days. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The amount of dry matter, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus in the feces was not significantly different among the treatments. But the amount of OM, N and P shows a tendency to be somewhat lowered in the treatment A. On the otherhand, the amount of dry matter was somewhat lowered in the treatment B. The amount of such matters in the W-farm was somewhat lowered than those in B-farm. But there was not significant difference between W-farm and B-farm. 2. On the variance of the number of maggots developed in the pig's feces according to each treatment, the number of maggots in the treatments added probiotics were markedly decreased in comparison with those of the control(T), and it was significantly different(p＜0.01). Especially the decrease in the treatment A and B was much remarkable. 3. The addition of probiotics to the pigs' feeds made the NH3-concentration generated in the pig-pens decrease markedly. especially the NH3-concentration in the treatment A had the highest decreasing ratio among all the treatments. The decreasing ratio of NH3-concentration of the treatments added probiotics as compared to control(T) was 59.1∼80.0%(average 70.3%) in the treatment A, 56.8∼80.0%(ave. 68.5%) in the treatment B and 24.4∼46.0%(ave. 35.0%) in the treatment C and D. On the variance of the NH3-concentration according to the experimental times)seasonal conditions), the NH3-concentration generated in the pig-pens was gradually increased from April to August, on the other hand it was decreased in the September. By the result of this study, it was appeared that the probiotics added to the pigs' feeds made the NH3-concentration decrease in the pig-pens to the extent of safety degree(25 ppm and less) permitted to swine especially in the treatment A and B.
Studies on Swine Slurry Composting Facilities with Curtailment of Bulking Agents
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 21~28
This study was carried out to estimate the economic impacts on operation cost and curtail the bulking agent between two kinds of plants in swine farms. Bulking agents and Plants have a variety of roles in the fields of the composting for livestock manure and also represent an economic problem in terms of plant operation costs and compost production. Two farms which have rotary(size of reactor : 10
1.5m) or bucket(size of reactor : 10
2m) plants were used for 24 weeks for bucket conveyor system, which are composed of refilling rice hull as a bulking agent every 3 weeks till decreasing volume, for 4 weeks for rotary conveyor system, which has continuous compost production system without refilling rice hull, respectively. Composts was produced in 24 weeks in the bucket conveyor system, in 4 weeks in the rotary conveyor system, respectively. The results are as follows : 1. The tissue change of Rice hull at the composts of 45 days pursuant to composting steps was more crumbling in bucket conveyor system than in rotary conveyor system. 2. Microbial counts of the final composts for safety and quality showed that total bacteria counts was 1.01
108 cfu/g in bucket conveyor system, 2.82
108 cfu/g in rotary conveyor system, Salmonella was 0.3
102 cfu/g in bucket conveyor system, 7.6
102 cfu/g in rotary conveyor system, colifom bacteria was 0.5
106 cfu/g in bucket conveyor system, 1.5
106cfu/g in rotary conveyor system, fungi 1.24
106 cfu/g in bucket conveyor system, 0.01
106 cfu/g in rotary conveyor system, respectively. However, Any system used in this trial could not be met the regulation of A grade compost of EPA and USA. 3. C:N ratio according to the composting was more rapidly changed in bucket conveyor system with 64.5 of 5 days compost to 25.4 of final products than in rotary conveyor system with 26.7 of 5 days compost to 25.9 of final products. 4. Based on the mechanical characteristics of plants used in trial and compared with Rotary conveyor system, the Bucket conveyor system in which has 0.72 ㎥/㎥ of bulking agent capacity per slurry could be curtailed 1.78 ㎥of rice hull for disposal of waste, 1㎥. It was proper facilities to produce composts quantitative in Rotary conveyor system, and to treat waste quantitative and obtain good results in compost quality in Bucket conveyor system.
Composting of Swine Manure Using Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete as a Bulking Agent
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 29~36
Sawdust is commonly used as a bulking agent for livestock manure composting. Nowadays, demand of sawdust for composting is increasing, so its price is very high and not easy to obtain. In this study in order to examine the effect of autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC, one of the industrial wastes) on composting of swine manure, ALC (each size of 2, 4, an 8mm) was used as a bulking agent. Swine manure was mixed with each of sawdust and 8mm of ALC in a 1:1 ratio by volume and 2, 4mm of ALC was mixed in a 2:1 ratio by volume. The total period lasted 50 days and was divided into two periods. After mixing bulking agent with swine manure, they were left undisturbed to compost with aeration for an initial period of 20 days. At the end of this period, they were decomposed and mixed to effect a homogenization and then a second period of composting (without aeration) was conducted for 30 days. Temperature during the initial period of swine manure composting were above 70
in all piles and maintained above 55
for 5 days. Temperatures during the second period were relatively lower than the initial period. pH of the compost was increased during the initial period and after 50 days it reached 9.08 in sawdust pile and 9.03 in ALC pile ( 2mm). In nitrogen content of final compost, sawdust pile was higher than ALC piles by 21∼29%.
Possibilities for Reduction and the Emissions of Trace Gases from Livestock System
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 37~45
There are a lot of trace gas of gaseous pollutants produced from farm animals. CO2 and CH4 are gases produced directly by the animal. NH3, N2O are produced from animal waste. Most of the effects of these gaseous pollutants on the farm animals have not been investigated in detail. CO2 emission from animal is very little. CH4 release from ruminant is also considered to be a significant factor in potential global warming. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions could be avoided by using organic or mineral fertilizer only as much as is needed by plant growing. This paper gives an overview about problems and solving strategies for possibilities for reduction of gaseous pollutants. The way to reduce the gaseous pollution risks from livestock systems are discussed.
Effects of Maturing Period and Moisture Content of Swine Manure on Composting Potentials
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 47~53
The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of temperature, moisture content, weight and chemical properties in swine manure during the maturing process and moisture content of swine manure. The manure production on the early time(1 days), middle(25 days: and late(50 days) were made by moisture 45%, 55%, 65%, 75% in swine manure, according to manure treatment of the early time, the highest temperature of swine manure treatment was 59
as moisture 75% after mixed 24 hours, the lowest 45% in mixed 25 days(middle time), 32
as moisture 45% in mixed 50 days(late time). 2. Weight change during maturing manure, the most treatment of weight decrease was 17.4% as moisture 45%, the least of those was 12.2% as moisture 75% during maturing process of swine manure. 3. Volume change during maturing manure, the most treatment of volume decrease was 37.1% as moisture 65%, the least of those was 32.1% as moisture 55% during maturing swine manure, but not big difference between treatment. 4. T-N, P2O5, K2O content of compost were increased during maturing process, On the contrary, T-C content and C/N ratio were reduced.
Studies on the Cow Feces Composting in Cold Season
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 55~61
Cow feces excreted in cold season should be managed and composted properly, because the composted feces is distributed to pasture or cultivated land as a fertilizer in spring. Generally it is admitted that the effect of composting is suppressed by low temperature in cold season. In this study, composting piles were warmed by hot air until temperature of compost piles were reached at 35∼40
, to compare composting effect of experimental compost pile to control pile exposed in cold air. Some results obtained from the experiment during composting of cow feces mixed with bulking agent provide a possibility of active composting of organic matters in cold season. The biodegradation ratios of organic matter during composting in four types of composts were 10.2% for the rice straw, 7.7% for the rice hull, 6.4% for the sawdust and 4.3% for the control. The highest temperatures of compost piles during composting period were 76
in sawdust, 80
in rice hull, 68
in rice straw, 45
in control. Moisture content, pH, C/N, volume of compost were decreased during composting period, but EC value was increased with ionization of organic molecular by fermentation.
Liquid Composting System for Animal Slurries (1)
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 1, 1998, Pages 63~71
The dramatic increase in both swine and cattle production in Korea has presented problems related to protection of water resources. Animal wastes are a potentially valuable source of plant nutrients. Modern liquid waste management plans for a livestock housing need to focus on the slurry aeration and composting control methods and cost effective equipments. Recent developments in the animal manure liquid composting make it possible to improve the manure more easier to handle, reduce the odorous, labors and bedding materials, kill the weed seeds etc. However, there are some disadvantages, the aerator consumes much electrical power and initial cost is high. To solve these problems, this study is intended to develop a key points such as slurry aeration and dilution, liquid waste composting equipments.