Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Animal Environmental Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Livestock Housing and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1998
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1998
Selecting the target year
A Survey on the Machanization for Beef Cattle Farm in West Chung-Nam
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 97~104
In order to advise how to solve the problems and suggest on the mechanization of beef farm, the facilities and equipment for feeding and supplying water to the animals and transporting manure, and farm machineries of sixty-seven beef cattle farms in western Chungnam Province were surveyed. The results are as follows; 1. The proportions of number of heads per farm for above 70, 50∼70, 30∼50, 10∼30 and below 10 heads were 26, 18, 29, 13 and 13, respectively. The farms with the annual income more than 30 million won are consisted of 67.6% of the farms surveyed which showed to be higher than national average. 2. Only 19% of farms had automatic feeding system. Water was supplied by water cup(45%), opening and shutting water tab(27.6%) and bucket. 3. Cattle manure was transported by manpower (46%) by loader (34%) and by gravitational flow (14%). Most of manure(97%) was composted after treatment of drying or piling up outside. 4. More instruction and education were required because of the insufficient routine checking and fixing for farming machines, and unsystematic education for learning skills. 5. 65% of farms felt unsatisfied about after service(A/S) for their machinery. The main reason why the farmers were not satisfied was that it took too much time to be repaired. 6. When the farms purchased facilities, equipment and machinery, they did not analyze economic value of them and keep a diary. To make effective use of machines, the most available model for purchasing and managing of machines must be developed and applied to various scales of management.
Analysis of Domestic Production and Import Trends of Livestock Machinery
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 105~111
The study was conducted to analyze the directions of domestic production and import of livestock machinery and to propose their direction of development. The results of this study are as follows ; 1. Most of livestock machinery for feeding and watering systems are manufactured by a domestic skill. But their performances and know-how are behind those of the advanced countries. 2. The know-how and ratios of the market share of feeding systems for pigs are evaluated high, but researches of total automatic systems for them are very insufficient. 3. Feeding and milking systems for milk-cow are in the conditions of a weak technologies, which should be studied in the future.
Development of Korean Pig-housing Models for the Optimum Control of Environmental Systems - Farrow to Finish Operation -
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 113~126
This study was conducted to develop pig-housings based on the forecasting models of swine production, the weather conditions, and so on in Korea. The Korean pig-housings were developed according to the following basis : 1. They should be suitable to domestic weather conditions. 2. They should be designed based on the forecasting models of swine production of farrow to finish operation among the forecasting models of swine production in Korea. 3. Proper environments should be offered to pigs according to the growth. 4. The environmental control, the treatment of swine wastewater, and so on should be interrelated. 5. Manual energy should be saved by effective arrangements of pig-housings. In the future, performance test of the Korean pig-housings and development of facility automation systems which are suitable to these should be accomplished.
Heating Efficiency of the Underground Heat Exchanger by Different Pipe Materials
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 127~136
To use the earth heat for the livestock housing, an underground heat exchanger is developed and pipes are layed in the depth of 2.5m under the ground. The pipes have two different kinds of diameter (200mm, 100mm) and materials (PE, PVC). The results of heating effect in winter and spring are following. The temperature in different soil depth varies from 5
by 1.5m depth, to 9
by 3.5m. So it should be better to have the depth greater than 2.5m. The difference of air temperature between the inside and outside pipe was 9.9 Kelvin(K) with 200mm diameter and 13.4K with the 100mm diameter with the same material in winter. By the lower outside temperature from -7.2
, it could keep the air temperature above 6
through the 100mm diameter pipe. The heating performance was 593 W with 200mm diameter, 118W with 100mm diameter (PE), and 115W with 100m diameter (PVC), respectively. As the outside temperature varies from -1.5
in early spring, the air temperature through the pipes show 4∼8
. While the difference between maximum and minimum outside temperature is 14K, the one through the pipes could be reduced by 2K. Pipes with small diameter can more reduce the difference than the pipe with larger diameter.
Deodorization Management of Swine-Slurry by Addition of Phototrophic Bacteria
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 137~147
This study was carried out to find deodorization effect of swine-slurry by addition of phototrophic bacteria(PTB). The pilot-scale reactors operation conditions was designed by the inoculum amounts of PTB and light-conditions. Treatment conditions was divided into 3 types; 106 MPN/ml
Dark(T-1), 108 MPN/ml
Dark(T-2), 108 MPN/ml
Natural light(T-3). The changes of the concentration of volatile fatty acids(VFAs), hydrogen sulfide(H2S), ammonia (NH3) and odor intensity were analyzed during the treatment period(35 days). From results of this study, the maximum intensity of odor in the headspace of the reactor T-1 was 4.82 and T-2, T-3 was 2.63, respectively. In swine-slurry of reactors used, it almost took 10 days until to be stabilized with solid and liquid phase. Intensity of odor in headspace was mainly derived from the liquid phase. The PTB inoculum method to swine-slurry was very effective in reduction of VFAs, H2S and Sulfate-reducing bacteria(SRB) concentration. Expecially, It was interested in reverse growth behaviour of SRB and PTB in these conditions.
Composting Characteristics of a Continuous Aerated Pilot-scale Reactor Vessel for Commercial Composting
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 149~160
Hog manure slurry amended with sawdust was composted in pilot-scale reactor vessels using continuous aeration nuder different C/N ratios and pH conditions during composting high rate (decomposition) process. For each material two replicated piles were built and monitored over a period of three weeks. The compost piles had an initial volume of 0.18 ㎥. In this study we evaluated the temperature in compost O2 and CO2 evolution, aeration rate, NH3 concentration etc. and investigated the stability of compost during composting high rate process. According to measured results, while the maximum NH3 concentration during composting high rate process. According to measured results, while the maximum NH3 concentration during composting high rate was in the range of 213 to 412 ppm on 5th day which was near the optimum C/N(22∼24) and pH(7.5∼7.9). And then, the NH3 concentration reduced to between 22∼26 ppm by 13th day. The maximum NH3 concentration for the lower C/N(18∼19) and pH value of 6 reached 574∼1,063 ppm by the 16th through 11th days and the NH3 concentration during continuous aerated composting high rate process, it was more important to manage NH3 gas so that compost odor is reduced.
Effect of Biofilter on Reducing Malodor Emission
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 161~166
Controlling malodor originating from livestock feces has become a major issue, due to its influence on the health of man and livestock, together with its influences on atmospheric pollution. In this study, Five types of biofilters filled with saw-dust, night soil, fermented compost, leaf mold and a mixture(a compound of night soil, fermented compost and leaf mold at the same rates, respectively) were manufactured and tested. To study the effect of the biofilter on reducing malodor in a composting facility and swine building, a pilot scale composting facility enclosed with polyethylene film was constructed. Swine feces was composted in the facility and malodorous gas generated from the decomposition of organic matter in the feces was gathered by vacuum pump. Each biofilter achieved 87∼96% NH3 removal efficiency. This performance was maintained throughout 10 days of operation. The highest NH3 removal efficiency was achieved by leaf mold on the first day of operation period. It reduced the concentration of NH3 by about 96%. Night soil and fermented compost showed nearly equal performance of 93 to 94% for 10 days from the beginning of operation. The mixture achieved the lowest NH3 removal efficiency. It reduced NH3 concentration by about 89∼94% for 10 days from the beginning of operation. However NH3 removal efficiency of each biofilter declined with the passage of operational time. After 30 days from the beginning of operation, NH3 removal efficiency of each biofilter of each biofilter was below 60%, respectively. The concentration of H2S and CH3-SH originating from compost were equal to or less than 5mg/l and 3mg/l, respectively. After passing throughout the biofilter, the concentration of H2S and CH3-SH were not detected.
Effect of Organic Loading Rate and Hydralic Retention Time on the Volatile Fatty Acid Production in 2- Step Anaerobic Fermentation System of Swine Wastes
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 167~174
It is known that the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter (OM) is divided into 2 phases, acidogenic phase in which OM is digested into volatile fatty acid (VFA), and methanogenic phase where the produced VFA is converted to CH4 and CO2. In a natural fermenting procedure, these 2 phases occur at the same time. However the total production of end products (methane) may be limited if these 2 phases occur at the same time. This is believed to be due to the difference in growth rate, substrate-utilizing efficiency and favorable environment for each microbes (acidogens and methanogens), involved in each phase. It is therefore suggested for the maximum recycling of organic waste (such as animal waste) through providing 2 different steps in fermenting procedure, acidogenic phase and methanogenic phase, in each case the activity of involved microbes can be maintained at the maximum level. The results obtained from these experiments are summarized as follows : The loading rates of swine waste were made through 2.5, 5 and 10 gVS / l / d to identify its acidogenic fermenting character in this study. The VFA yield was maximized at 10 gVS / l / d of loading rate. On the basis of this study was executed to identify the optimum HRT of 1, 2 and 4 days at 10 gVS / l / d of loading rate in acidogenic phase. The maximum VFA yield was obtained at 1 days of HRT.
The Effect of 2-Step Control of Anaerobic Fermentation for Maximum Methane Production of Swine Wastes
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 175~182
For the recycling of swine takes 2 different steps in fermenting procedure, acidogenic reactor and methanogenic reactor, the activity of involved microbes can be maintained at the maximum level. This study showed applying 2 separate steps in anaerobic fermentation has improved fermenting efficiency over the conventional 1 step fermentation. Accordingly, the results are coincident with the hypothesis in which 2 steps acidogenic and methanogenic reactor fermentation is more efficient than conventional (1 step) fermentation that makes poisonous materials be obviate and abate. And the results also get the effective performance in the production of methane gas.
Studies on the Correlation between Germination index and CO2 Emission for Evaluation of the Maturity of Compost Products
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 183~191
This study was carried out to elucidate the correlation between Germination Index(G.I.) and CO2 emission for evaluation of the maturity of compost products. 13 compost samples was used for this experiment. The G.I. test was carried out on the basis of T-N 200ppm. As a result of this research, we found that CO2 emission method was good simple indicator for evaluation of maturity of compost materials, in spite of G.I. The obtain results are summarized as follows ; 1. The correlation value between the G.I. and the CO2 emission was R2 = 0.776. 2. The correlation value between EC(Electric Conductivity) and G.I. was R2 =0.7. 3. The equation calculated from G.I. and CO2 emission was G.I. = -16.7(InCO2) - 6.87. 4. From these results, we found the possibility of estimation for the value of G.I.(T-N 200ppm) from CO2 emission volume under specific condition.
Liquid Composting System for Animal Slurries (2)
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 4, issue 2, 1998, Pages 193~204