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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Animal Environmental Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Livestock Housing and Environment
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Dec 2002
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Aug 2002
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Apr 2002
Selecting the target year
The Characteristic Change of Piggery Slurry during the Storage Time and Depth
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 129~134
This study was carried out to investigate the characteristic change of piggery slurry during the storage time and depth. The Piggery slurry was settled in a 10.0m diameter
3.0m high storage tank for 6 months and then divided into three layers according to the storage time. The pollutants concentration, BODs(Biochemical Oxygen demand), CO
(Chemical Oxygen demand) and SS(Suspended Solids) of the piggery slurry used in this study were 25,134, 15,840, 23,800mg/
, respectively. The initial fertilizer content of piggery slurry, N(Nitrogen),
(Phosphoric acid) and
O(Potassium oxide), were 0.69, 0.33, 0.40%, respectively. 6 months later, BO
and SS of the Piggery slurry were 16,040, 8,098, 3,300mg/
in top layer, 15,806, 8,309, 5,900mg/
in middle layer and 39,530, 23,958, 51,000mg/
in bottom layer, respectively. The fertilizer content of piggery slurry after 6 months, N,
O, were 0.47, 0.07, 0.46% in top layer, 0.43, 0.08, 0.47% in middle layer and 0.60, 0.44, 0.40% in bottom layer, respectively. Consequently, in course of storage time, the pollutant concentration and fertilizer content were the highest in the bottom layer compared with the top and middle layer.
Prediction of Optimum Capacity for Tractor Drawn Liquid Manure Tank Spreader by Computer Simulation
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 135~144
A computer simulation was carried out to investigate the optimum capacity of liquid manure tank spreader which is used as a tractor attachment. Soil physical properties, such as soil moisture content, bulk density, soil hardness and soil types were measured in the 10 major rice production area for computer simulation. Mathematical model which include soil physical properties and vehicle factor was used for computer simulation. Most of the soil type of the investigated area was sandy clay loam. Soil moisture content ranged between 30 and 40% mostly. Soil bulk density was in the range of 1,500 to 1,700 kg/
. Soil hardness ranged between 1 to 18
. Soil hardness incorporate the effects of many soil physical properties such as soil moisture content, soil type and soil bulk density, and so the range of soil hardness is greater than any other physical properties. The capacity of liquid manure tank spreader was above 3,000 kg
for the most of the investigated areas, and mostly in the range of 4,000 to 6,000
depending upon the slip. But for the soft soil area such as Andong and Asan, the tractor itself has mobility problem and shows no pulling force for some places. For this area, the capacity of liquid manure tank spreader ranged between 1,000 and 2,000
mostly, so the capacity of liquid manure tank spreader should be designed as a small capacity trailer compared to the other area.mpared to the other area.
Chemical Treatment of Leachate from Swine Manure Composting System
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 145~152
This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficiency and compatibility of the coagulation and settling processes of leachates from the compost of two swine farms. And results obtained are as follows : 1 In the farm A where
of original leachate were 4,400, 2,950 and 87mg/l, respectively, the rate of coagulation and settling process was more efficient in the leachate treated with the conjugate of Alum and cation polymer than that of Alum and anion polymer. The concentrations of BOD
, T-N and T-P of the effluent after treatment with the conjugate of Alum and cation polymer under the optimum condition were 19, 257.5 and 0.4mg/l, respectively which are under the governmental regulation level. 2. In the farm B where
of original leachate were 4,720, 3,040 and 95mg/l, respectively, the conjugate of
, 1,500mg/l and cation polymer 10mg/l (
+FO4240) was most effective coagulation and settling agent compared with the others. The concentrations of BOD
, T-N and T-P of the effluent after treatment with
+FO4240 were 15.3, 829.4 and 2.8mg/l, respectively. And the concentration of T-N was higher than the governmental regulation level, presumably because of too high concentration of NH
-N in the leachate.
Decolorization System of Effluent of Activated Sludge Process Using Ozone
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 153~158
Decolorization system using ozone was developed to reduce the pollutants and dark brown color remained in effluent of activated sludge process for pig wastewater. The results are as follows. 1. Wastewater temperature was increased during the ozone treatment from 31
. 2. Oxidation reduction potential(ORP) at the beginning time was 148㎷, but it was increased to 330㎷ according to the ozone treatment. 3. 11mg/l of BO
in effluent of activated sludge process was decreased to 1mg/l by ozone treatment, CO
also decreased from 83mg/l to 1.0mg/l. 4. 442 unit(dark brown color) of color in effluent of activated sludge process was changed to 6 units(colorless), and color removal efficiency was 98.6%.
Position Analysis of Cow Teats for Teat-cup Attachment System on Robotic Milking System
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 159~164
The distance between teats of each head on twenty heads of holstein was measured in Nation Livestock Research Institute of Rural Development Administration to find design variables on the teat-cup attachment system of the auto-milking system before milking. The distance between teats was tested by the steps for milk producing in the morning and evening. The results from this study is summarized as follow. 1 The maximum and minimum length between front teats were 297mm and 112mm respectively, the maximum and minimum length between rear teats were 231mm and 36mm and the maximum and minimum length between left front and left rear were 220 and 84mm. And the maximum length of right front and right rear were 205mm and 90mm. A relative position of the each teats was asymmetric. 2. The size of teats, the length between front teats, and the length between rear teats by lactating period were very much changed for its milking. 3. The design variables on the teat-cup attachment system was found by the length between each teats tested. Since the position of teat-cup is changed by milking environment for a cow to milk, the design variables should be considered to be asymmetric area between four teat of COW.
3D Image Processing System for an Robotic Milking System
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 165~170
This study was carried out to measure the 3D-distance of a cow model teat for an application possibility on Robotic Milking System(RMS). A teat recognition algorithm was made to find 3D-distance of the model by using Gonzalrez's theory. Some of the results are as follows. 1 . In the distance measurement experiment on the test board, as the measured length, and the length between the center of image surface and the measured image point became longer, their error values increased. 2. The model teat was installed and measured the error value at the random position. The error value of X and Y coordinates was less than 5㎜, and that of Z coordinates was less than 20㎜. The error value increased as the distance of camera's increased. 3. The equation for distance information acquirement was satisfied with obtaining accurate distance that was necessary for a milking robot to trace teats, A teat recognition algorithm was recognized well four model cow teats. It's processing time was about 1 second. It appeared that a teat recognition algorithm could be used to determine the 3D-distance of the cow teat to develop a RMS.
Basic Study Measuring Cow Body Parameters and Adjusting Her Postures for an Robotic Milking System
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 171~176
Physical parameters of milk cow were measured to design and build RMS(Robotic Milking System) with a tape-measurer and body parameter measurer. The parameters are very important variables to design an RMS. For the working zone space of an RMS manipulator and the movement blunting of milk cow, an interval frame was installed on the stall bottom, and then cow's behavioral reactions were tested. The results from this study is summarized as follow. 1. On the general physical condition measurement, the maximum, minimum and average body length of cow which is related to the space that the manipulator could work into the RMS were 175cm, 144cm, and 163cm respectively. It appeared that the average distance between bottom and chest was 60cm. 2. The average length between fore teats, fore and hind teats and hind teats were 178mm, 150mm and 95mm respectively. It appeared that the average length between bottom and teat attachments was 544mm, and the average length between fore teats and tail-end was 331mm. 3. Although a cow kept a some extent length between hind legs for milking, it looked a stable pose. However, the cow kept a some extent distance between front legs for milking, it looked a unstable pose. Based on results of this test, an interval frame of stall bottom should be installed around the position which was located at its hind legs.
Study on the Drying Method of Velvet Antler using Microwave Oven
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 177~182
Drying process is very important for commercialization of velvet antlers. So far, artificial drying has mostly depended on experience of farmers resulting in low efficiency of drying, deterioration during drying, and contamination by dust and bacteria. Various drying techniques for high-quality production have currently been commercialized in some developed countries, and one of them is a drying technique using microwave. In this study, application of the technique using an electronic (microwave) oven for drying of velvet antler was investigated. The results of this study are as follows. 1. It was found that the drying period was significantly affected by cornification of velvet antlers. Accordingly, it can be assumed that the velvet antlers should partly be sliced to save drying period and required drying energy. 2. It was also found that the drying speed was changeable according to tempering period and even with same drying period. The tempering period should be controlled according to processing rate. 3. The results indicated that a repeated drying of 2-min drying and 3-min tempering is the most effective when a microwave oven was used. 4. The results also showed that the drying technique using microwave of electronic oven can be effectively used for drying of velvet antlers. 5. Only drying and tempering periods were examined in this study, however, ingredient change of deer antler after drying is necessary to be investigated in the future.
Effect of Dietary Probiotics on Growth and Pathological Status in Growing-Finishing Pig
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 183~190
A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary probiotics or antibiotics on growth and pathological status in growing-finishing pigs. Ninety male pigs weaned at 24 days of age were divided into three groups of 30 pigs each on the basis of body weight and litter. Three groups of ten pigs(one pen) each were assigned to one of the following diets; a control diet or diets containing 0.1% probiotics or 0.1% antibiotics (1:1 mixture of kitasamycin and sulfamethazine). Average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency(G/F) and the pathological status were monitored. ADG, feed efficiency and carcass quality were not different (P>0.05) among the three treatments. But pork quality in pigs fed probiotics tended to be improved, compared to other treatments. The pigs fed probiotics had lower pathological lesion in intestinal monitoring than that of other treatments pigs. The chemical composition of slurry(BOD, COD, SS, T-N, T-P and ammonia) in the probiotics treatments tended to be decreased, compared to other treatments. Results of this study suggest that dietary probiotics improve pigs' housing environment, and decrease the contents of polluting materials in slurry.
Evaluation on Effects of Composting and Pelleting on Nutritional Composition of Broiler Litter and Feasibility of Use of a Small-scale Pelletizer
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 191~198
This study was conducted to determine changes in internal temperature and chemical composition during the composting of broiler litter(BL) and to evaluate the feasibility of use of a small-scale pelletizer for the pelleting of composted BL. BL was composted for 4 weeks in an wooden cell with a size of 1 m length
1 m width
1.2 m height. Internal temperature reached to peak(68
) at the fourth day and thereafter gradually reduced. Among chemical components in BL, composting reduced organic matter content and increased dry matter and indigestible protein(ADF-CP) contents. When BL was pelleted using an economical small-scale pelletizer, the proper die diameter was 8~18 mm and the proper moisture content of composted BL was 20~25%. Beyond these proper conditions, addition of heat and pressure or pellet aids may be necessary. Pelleting of BL resulted in nearly threefold increase of bulk density, significant moisture evaporation, and little change in chemical components except for increased indigestible protein. In conclusion, BL may be converted into a feed with low to medium nutrition by the composting and pelleting process.
Integrated Network System of Milk Cow Stock-Farming Facilities for Stockbreeding Management
Journal of Animal Environmental Science, volume 8, issue 3, 2002, Pages 199~208
This paper introduces the method to make management network about milking cow farm tasks. The object of this research was to design of biological measuring system and managing network system in a livestock farm. This auto-management system provides informations about individual cows' temperature, conductivity of milk and weight for efficient management of feeding, and milking works by a micro-processor and RS -485 type serial COM. ports. And measured bio-data which are basic informations for remote raising management are saved to user PC by serial communication between the PLC and user PC. Milking cow farm is divided into three working place to each measurement work and feed. The first working place is milking station which has two thermometers, a conduct meter and a scale set. The second working place is feeding station, and the third place is cattle cage. These are combined by network system and the PLC which is used to drive network and sub-modules. Sub-modules have a micro-process to control the sensor and to interface with network. The PLC which drive network and control sequence has two serial communication port to be linked with user PC for sending the measured data and for receiving data. Above all, in this study tells the sequence operating method by the driving scenario of breeding milk cow for livestock auto-management using the PLC and network system.