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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of muscle and joint health
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Muscle and Joint Health
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Nov 1995
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
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Coping Patterns in Chronic Low Back Pain : Relationship with Locus of Control and Self-Efficacy
Kim, In-Ja ; Lee, Eun-Ok ;
Journal of muscle and joint health, volume 2, issue 1, 1995, Pages 1~16
Coping patterns were investigated in a sample of 126 patients with chronic low back pain by means of self-reported questionnaire. Based on the previous researches, coping pat terns were divided into the active cognitive coping, the active behavioral coping, the passive cognitive coping, and the passive behavioral coping. While all the above coping patterns were used, the passive behavioral coping was found to be used most frequently. Six subgroups were identified by cluster analytic procedure using their scores of the coping scale : active cognitive coper, general active coper, passive behavioral coper, general passive coper, multidimensional coper, and multi dimensional non-coper. Six subgroups were compared regarding locus of control, self-efficacy, pain and demographic variables. Distinct differences appeared among subgroups in internal locus of control, self-efficacy, and pain. General active coper and active cognitive coper had higher internal locus of control, higher self-efficacy, and lower pain. General passive coper and multidimensional non-coper had lower internal locus of control, lower self-efficacy, and higher pain. Passive behavioral coper had higher internal locus of control, lower self-efficacy, and higher pain. It supports the concept of learned helplessness due to prior experiences. Multi dimensional coper had higher internal, higher powerful others, and higher self-efficacy. So it corresponds to 'believer in control' group Identified by Wallston et at(1982). Unexpectedly this group also complained more pain. It could be interpreted in two ways. The more coping methods they use, the more they complain pain ; which is the result of Folkman et al (1986). Or they might be typical 'yea sayers'. These unique groups-passive behavioral coper and multidimensional coper-identified by this study supports the suggestion of Wallston et al(1982), about locus of control : individual's pattern of responses across the three scales may be more predictive than his or her scores on each of the scale seperately. The fact that passive coping was used more than active coping also suggests that self controlled active co ping is encouraged to chronic patients as well as acute patients. And it is necessary to articulate the coping scale and self-efficacy scale. It is also necessary to study the relationship of coping and adjustment by experimental design.
Chronic pain control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Eun, Young ;
Journal of muscle and joint health, volume 2, issue 1, 1995, Pages 17~40
Rheumatoid arthritis is the one of the chronic diseases, one of its major symptoms is a chronic pain. Despite developing medical treatment and surgical techniques, it is suggested that to control the pain is the goal of the treatment. But pain is an inner experience and even those closest to the patient cannot truly observe its progress or share in its suffering. The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine's report on Pain and Disability concluded that there is no objective measure of pain-(exactly) no pain thermometer-nor can there ever be one, because the experience of pain is inseparable from personal perception and social influence such as culture. To explore chronic pain experience is to understand the process and property of the patient's perception of pain through the response to pain, the coping with pain, and the adaptation to pain. Therefore a qualitative study was conducted in order to gain an understanding of pain experience of patients with RA in korea. I used naturalistic inquiry as a research methodology, which had 5 axioms, the first is that realities are multiple, constructed, and holistic, the second is that knower and known are interactive, inseparable, the third is only time and context bound working hypotheses(idiographic statements) are possible, the forth is all entities are in a state of mutual simultaneous shaping, so that it is impossible to distinguish causes from effects and the last is that inquiry is value-bound. Purposive sampling was conducted as a sampling. 20 subjects who experienced pain over 10 years, lived in middle-sized city and big city in Korea, and 17 women and 3 men. The subject's age was from 32 to 62 (average 48.8), all were married, living with their spouse and children, except two-one divorced and the other widow before they became ill. I collected data using In depth structured interview. I had interviews two or three times with each subject, and the interviews were conducted at each subject's home. Each interview lasted about two hours an average. A recording was taken with the consent of the subject. I used inductive data analysis-such as unitizing and categorizing. unitizing is a process of coding, whereby raw data are systematically transformed and aggregated into units. Categorizing is a process wherby previously unitized data are organized into categories that provide descriptive or inferential information about the context or setting from which the units were derived. This process is used constant comparative method. The pain controlling process is composed of behavior of pain control. The behaviors of pain control are rearranging of ADL, hiddening role conflict, balancing treatment, and changing social relation. Rearranging of ADL includes diet management, sleep management, and the adjustment of daily life activities. The subjects try to rearrange their daily activities by modified style of motions, rearranging time span & range of activities, using auxillary facilities, and getting help in order to keep on the pace of daily life. Hiddening role conflict means to reduce conflicts between sick role and their role as a family member. In this process, the subjects use two modes, one is to control the pain complaints, and the other is to internalize the value which is to stay home is good for caring her children and being a good mother. To control pain complaints is done by 'enduring', 'understanding' the other family members, or making them undersood in order to reduce pain. Balancing treatment is composed of two aspects. One is to keep the pain within the endurable level, the other is to keep in touch with medical personnel in order to get the information of treatment and emotional support. Changing social relation is made by information seeking and sharing, formation of mutual support relation, and finally simplification of social relationships. The subjects simplify their social relationships by refraining from relations with someone who makes them physically and psychologically strained. In particular the subjects are apt to avoid contact with in-laws, and the change of relation to in-laws results in lessening the family boundary. In the course of this process, they confront the crisis of family confict result in family dissolution. This crisis is related to the threat of self-existence. Findings from this study contribute to understanding the chronic pain experience. To advance this study, we should compare this result with other cases in different cultural contexts. I think to interpret these results, korean cultural background should be considered. Especially the different family concept, more broader family members and kinship network, and the traditional medical knowledge influences patients' behavior.
The Effects of Assertiveness Traning and Value Clarification Training on Nurse's Conflict and Conflict Management Mode
Park, Sang-Yeon ;
Journal of muscle and joint health, volume 2, issue 1, 1995, Pages 41~72
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of assertiveness training and value clarification training on nurse's conflict and conflict management mode. Fifty seven registered nurses participated in the study ; they were employed by three general hospital located in Daegu, Korea. The study employs two treatment groups. The assertiveness training group consisted of subjects who participated in 90-120 minutes sessions of assertiveness training nine times over five weeks. The other treatment group, was adiministed nine, 90-120 minutes sessions of value clarification during the same period. For the control group, nursing subjects were appointed the training after five weeks. Pre-test evaluation were administered to all subjects in three groups prior to one week of the treatment. Role conflict Inventory-general(RCI-G) and Communication Conflict Inventory-general (CCI-G) measure nurse's conflict management mode. Post-test evaluation were administered to all subjects in three groups two weeks after the last session by Role Conflict Inventory-Specific(RCI-S), Communication Conflict Inventory-Specific (CCI-S), Management Model-Specific(CMMI-S). The analysis of variance(ANOVA) and covariance(ANCOVA) on gain scores were running the SPSS program. In order to test statistical differences among mean scores of the scales obtained after treatment, multiple comparisons were carried out by Turkey method. Conclusions obtained from the results are as follows. 1. The assertiveness training and the value clarification training were effective in decreasing the nurse's role conflict. The value clarification was more effective than the assertiveness training in decreasing the nurse's role conflict. 2. Both assertiveness training and value clarification training were effective in decreasing nurse's communication conflict. There was, however, no differences between assertiveness training and value clarification training in decreasing the nurse's communication conflict. 3. The assertiveness training and the value clarification training were quite effective in compromizing and collaborating conflict management mode, to reducing the withdrawl and accomodate, force and accomodate conflict management mode to conflict. There was no difference in the effectiveness of assertiveness training and value clarification. In assessing the effects of the treatments, this study employed different measurements. It is unclear whether the measurement affected the test results. It is worth conducting a further test using the same measurements. The results of future studies can be compared with those of this study. The homogeneity of the control group and treatment group is questionable. Futher studies may employ homogeneous sample group to evaluate whether the sample characteristics bias the test results. Assertiveness training or value clarification training for nurses can be utilized in nursing intervention.
A Study on Comparisons of the Effect of Local Heat and Cold Therapy on the Symptoms of the Arthritic Knee Joint
Lim, Nan-Young ;
Journal of muscle and joint health, volume 2, issue 1, 1995, Pages 73~86
Heat and cold often produce a similar clinical effect but different physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of local heat and cold therapy on joint pain, discomfort and, ROM of the arthritic knee joint. Thirty female subjects took Ice bag and hot bag with random assignment of initial therapy Subjects rated the degree of Joint pain and discomfort before and after each therapy, and then ROM was measured. The results of the study were as follows : 1. The hot bag group showed significantly lower joint pain & discomfort score than the ice bag group. ROM was increased in the hot bag group compared with subjects in the ice bag group. But there is not significant differences. 2. The ice bag group showed significantly lower joint pain score after than before therapy. But there are no significant differences in discomfort score & ROM between after & before therapy. 3. The hot bag group showed significantly lower joint pain, discomfort score after than before therapy. ROM was significantly increased after than before therapy in hot bag group. Therefore hot bag was significantly more effective than the ice bag in relieving the arthritic joint symptoms. A further study is necessary to determine the effect of local heat and cold therapy including the related variables such as preference for heat or cold.
A Research on the needs of aqua exercise of arthritis patients
Choi, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Jong-Im ;
Journal of muscle and joint health, volume 2, issue 1, 1995, Pages 87~95
Many researches of aqua exercise, one of effective management for arthritis patients to reduce pain and distortion of joint have been done. Actually in America water exercise programs have been actively practiced for arthritis patients. However the study and practice of water exercise can not be found easily in Korea. Considering that the effectiveness of aqua exercise has been evidently confirmed, the exercise should be fully utilized. Under this circumstance, we provide basic data for aqua exercise program through the research on the needs of water exercise and characteristics of arthritis patients. Summerising the result of this study, the primary needs of aqua exercise is to get additional effect of medical treatment for the patients, especially unsatisfied patients to the medical treatment. The level of needs shows very high as of 57.3% of total sample. The strength of needs has relation to economic status and sociality. Hospitals and health centers should develop aqua exercise program not as a simple physical exercise but as a medical management for arthritis patients. Institutional base must be prepared for the patients, who have weak economic, physical and social ability, to easily access to the benificial exercise.